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1.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 144, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postal surveys are widely used in scientific studies, including dietary surveys, but few studies about methods to increase participation in national dietary surveys are published. In the present study we compared response rates in a pilot study to a national dietary survey among infants using two different incentives (gift certificate or lottery), personalization in the form of handwritten name and address vs. a printed label and mode of sending out invitations (e-mail or postal invitation). METHODS: In this parallel-design pseudo-randomized pilot trial, a nationally representative sample of 698 mothers of infants aged 6 and 12 months was drawn from the Norwegian National Registry and invited to complete a food frequency questionnaire about their infant's diet. One half of the mothers of 6 month olds were randomized by alternation to the lottery group (n = 198) and offered to participate in a lottery of two prizes (500 EUR and 1000 EUR). The other half (n = 200) was offered a gift certificate (50 EUR) upon completion of the questionnaire. Each incentive group was randomized by alternation to receiving an invitation with handwritten name and address or a printed label. For the mothers of infants aged 12 months (n = 300), 150 mothers received an e-mail invitation and 150 mothers received a postal invitation. Logistic regression was used for testing differences between the groups. RESULTS: The response rate was significantly higher (p = 0.028) in the gift certificate group (72%) than in the lottery group (62%). No difference was seen between those receiving an invitation with a handwritten name and address (68%) compared to a printed label (66%, p = 0.72). A somewhat higher response rate was seen when using the postal (50%) compared to the e-mail invitation (43%, p = 0.25). CONCLUSIONS: In this pseudo-randomized parallel-design trial of women participating in a national dietary survey among infants, the response rate was higher when offered a gift certificate than when participating in a lottery. Handwritten name and address did not affect participation compared to a printed label. Only a moderate difference was seen between the postal and e-mail invitation. Others conducting similar methodological studies are encouraged to publish their results to expand the knowledge basis in this area.

2.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315306

RESUMO

Reduction of salt intake is a public health priority and necessitates the surveillance of salt intake in the population. The validity of salt intake assessed by dietary surveys is generally low. We, therefore, aimed to estimate salt intake by 24-h urine collection and to assess the usefulness of spot urine collection for surveillance purposes. In the population-based Tromsø Study 2015-2016, 493 men and women aged 40-69 years collected 24-h urine, of whom 475 also collected spot urine. Sodium and potassium excretions were calculated by multiplying respective urinary concentrations by the total volume of urine. Based on the sodium concentration in spot urine, we also estimated 24-h sodium excretion by three different equations. Mean sodium excretion was 4.09 ± 1.60 and 2.98 ± 1.09 g/24-h in men and women, respectively, corresponding to a calculated salt intake of 10.4 and 7.6 g. The sodium to potassium molar (Na/K) ratio was approximately 1.8 in both genders. Of the three equation utilizing spot urine, estimated mean 24-h sodium excretion was closest for the INTERSALT formulae (4.29 and 2.96 g/24-h in men and women, respectively). In this population-based study, the estimated salt intake was higher than the recommended intake. However, urine potassium excretion was rather high resulting in a favorable Na/K ratio. Mean sodium excretion calculated from spot urine by the INTERSALT equation predicted the mean sodium excretion in 24-h urine reasonably well.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(5): e193591, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074816

RESUMO

Importance: Vitamin supplementation far exceeding recommended doses is popular in segments of the population. However, adverse effects can occur. In a previous secondary analysis of combined data from 2 double-blind randomized clinical trials (RCTs), an unexpected increased risk of hip fracture was found among those treated with high doses of vitamin B6 in combination with vitamin B12. Objectives: To study if high intakes of vitamins B6 and B12 from food and supplements were associated with a risk of hip fracture in the Nurses' Health Study and to investigate whether combined high intakes of both vitamins conferred a particularly increased fracture risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this prospective cohort study, 75 864 postmenopausal women in the United States were followed up from June 1984 through May 2014. The dates of analysis were July 2016 to June 2018. Information on hip fracture and a wide range of potential confounders was collected at baseline and with biennial follow-up questionnaires. Extensive dietary information was collected approximately every 4 years with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Relative risks (RRs) were calculated by Cox proportional hazards regression, with cumulative average intakes of vitamins B6 and B12 as main exposures, adjusting for potential confounders. Main Outcome and Measure: Hip fracture. Results: During follow-up, 2304 of 75 864 women had a hip fracture. Among the women with hip fractures, the median (range) age at hip fracture was 75.8 (46.7-93.0) years and the mean (SD) body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) was 24.3 (4.6). Median (interquartile range) cumulative average intakes of total vitamins B6 and B12 were 3.6 (4.8) mg/d and 12.1 (11.7) µg/d, respectively. Both vitamin B6 (RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.04-1.59 for an intake of ≥35 vs <2 mg/d; P = .06 for linear trend) and vitamin B12 (RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.98-1.58 for an intake of ≥30 vs <5 µg/d; P = .02 for linear trend) were associated with increased fracture risk. Risk was highest in women with a combined high intake of both vitamins (B6 ≥35 mg/d and B12 ≥20 µg/d), exhibiting an almost 50% increased risk of hip fracture (RR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.15-1.89) compared with women with a low intake of both vitamins (B6 <2 mg/d and B12 <10 µg/d). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, a combined high intake of vitamins B6 and B12 was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. The intakes were far higher than the recommended dietary allowances. These findings add to previous studies suggesting that vitamin supplements should be used cautiously because adverse effects can occur.

5.
Scand J Public Health ; : 1403494819838906, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973061

RESUMO

AIMS: Most studies of injury incidence underestimate the total burden of injury, as they do not include injuries treated in primary care. The aim of this study was to measure the total incidence of medically treated injuries in Norway. We further investigated the epidemiology of injuries treated in primary and secondary care. METHODS: We collected individual-level data on injury diagnoses from the Norwegian Patient Registry and the national registry dataset for reimbursement of primary care providers for the period 2009-2014, and estimated the annual incidence of patients registered with an injury diagnosis in either or both of these registries. We also converted ICD-10 codes in secondary care into ICPC-2 codes to compare the types of injuries treated in primary and secondary care. RESULTS: The annual incidence of medically treated injuries in Norway was 125 patients per 1000 inhabitants. Fifty-five per cent of injured patients received treatment exclusively in primary care. We observed stable time trends over the six-year period. Incidence rates were higher in primary care for the youngest children and in middle adulthood, but were higher in secondary care for older people. Overall, injury incidence was higher for men, but women became more injury prone with age. We only observed this gender reversal in secondary care. With the exception of fractures, all injury types were predominantly treated in primary care. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of injured patients in Norway are treated exclusively in primary care. The demographic profile of these patients differs from those treated in secondary care.

7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 107(5): 789-798, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29722838

RESUMO

Background: Western diets may provide excess vitamin A, which is potentially toxic and could adversely affect respiratory health and counteract benefits from vitamin D. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine child asthma at age 7 y in relation to maternal intake of vitamins A and D during pregnancy, infant supplementation with these vitamins, and their potential interaction. Design: We studied 61,676 school-age children (born during 2002-2007) from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort with data on maternal total (food and supplement) nutrient intake in pregnancy (food-frequency questionnaire validated against biomarkers) and infant supplement use at age 6 mo (n = 54,142 children). Linkage with the Norwegian Prescription Database enabled near-complete follow-up (end of second quarter in 2015) for dispensed medications to classify asthma. We used log-binomial regression to calculate adjusted RRs (aRRs) for asthma with 95% CIs. Results: Asthma increased according to maternal intake of total vitamin A [retinol activity equivalents (RAEs)] in the highest (≥2031 RAEs/d) compared with the lowest (≤779 RAEs/d) quintile (aRR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.40) and decreased for total vitamin D in the highest (≥13.6 µg/d) compared with the lowest (≤3.5 µg/d) quintile (aRR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.97) during pregnancy. No association was observed for maternal intake in the highest quintiles of both nutrients (aRR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.18) and infant supplementation with vitamin D or cod liver oil. Conclusions: Excess vitamin A (≥2.5 times the recommended intake) during pregnancy was associated with increased risk, whereas vitamin D intake close to recommendations was associated with a reduced risk of asthma in school-age children. No association for high intakes of both nutrients suggests antagonistic effects of vitamins A and D. This trial was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03197233.

8.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 66(3): 553-558, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29427505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Excess mortality after hip fracture is higher in men than in women. The objective was to study whether comorbidity differs in men and women with hip fracture and to what degree differences in comorbidity according to gender may explain the higher excess mortality in men. DESIGN: Population-based matched cohort covering the population aged 50 and older in Norway. SETTING: Specialist healthcare (individuals with hip fracture) and general population (controls). PARTICIPANTS: All individuals with hip fracture aged 50 and older from 2005 to 2008 (n = 32,175) and individuals without hip fracture matched 3:1 to those with hip fracture on gender, age, and county of residence (n = 96,410). MEASUREMENTS: Comorbid diagnoses were recorded during the hospital stay. Relative and absolute excess 1-year mortality in individuals with hip fracture according to gender and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) were investigated using Cox regression and linear regression, respectively. RESULTS: Despite lower age (mean 78.7 vs 81.7), men had higher comorbidity than women. Compared with controls, women (hazard ratio (HR) = 6.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.2-6.9) and men (HR = 7.8, 95% CI = 7.3-8.3) with a CCI of 2 or greater were more likely to die. Women with a CCI of 2 or greater had an estimated 1-year risk of dying of 44%, and controls had an 11% risk; men with a CCI of 2 or greater had an estimated risk of dying of 53%, and controls had a 12% risk. Men were twice as likely as women to die within 1 year (HR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.9-2.1). When adjusting for comorbidity, the difference was only slightly smaller (HR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.7-1.8). CONCLUSION: Men had greater comorbidity than women, but this did not explain the difference according to gender in excess mortality after hip fracture. Men who fracture a hip are an especially vulnerable subpopulation, even when there is no apparent comorbidity, and warrant special attention in follow-up and care.

11.
Am J Epidemiol ; 184(7): 510-519, 2016 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27630142

RESUMO

It is unclear whether very high body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) lowers risk of hip fracture. Our objectives in this study were 1) to examine the association between BMI and subsequent hip fracture according to sex and age and 2) to explore whether the importance of known risk factors varied across BMI. We followed 61,787 participants (29,511 female and 32,276 male) in the Cohort of Norway (ages 50-79 years at baseline in 1994-2003) with regard to hip fracture. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight. During a median follow-up period of 8.4 years, 1,603 women and 951 men suffered a hip fracture. Hazard ratios for hip fracture and associated 95% confidence intervals were estimated. After adjustment for potential confounders, women with BMI <22 had a hazard ratio of 1.38 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 1.60) for hip fracture, as compared with women with BMI 22-24.9; and women with BMI ≥30 had a hazard ratio of 0.57 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.66). Corresponding results in men were hazard ratio = 1.66 (95% CI: 1.35, 2.05) and hazard ratio = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.62, 0.96), respectively. Below age 70 years, there was no further decrease in fracture risk at BMIs of 25 or more, while in women aged 70-79 years, the risk continued to decrease with increasing BMI. The associations between risk factors and hip fracture were similar in strength across BMI strata.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fraturas do Quadril/etiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
12.
BMC Res Notes ; 9: 75, 2016 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26860849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic red blood cell transfusions (ABT) are common in older hip fracture patients. Recent research supports a restrictive transfusion policy. The aim was to study variation in hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, and clinical outcomes in these patients. RESULTS: Cross-sectional study with one-year follow-up in an orthogeriatric unit. Data were obtained from a quality register with demographic and medical information collected by an interdisciplinary team. 106 (22 %) of the 491 patients admitted from September 2011 throughout September 2012 (76 % women, mean age 85 years) received ABT. When given ABT, 80 % had Hb <80 g/l and mean Hb was 78 g/l. Mean Hb, regardless ABT, showed variation from 125 g/l (±16) on admission to 106 g/l (±17), 101 g/l (±16) and 102 g/l (±14) on 1st, 3rd and 5th postoperative day respectively. Patients with per-/subtrochanteric fractures more often received ABT than those with femur neck fractures (p < 0.001), 70 % of the patients receiving ABT had a per-/subtrochanteric fracture. Patients who received ABT were older, had more chronic diseases and lower mean Hb throughout the hospital stay. Length of stay was longer (median 7 vs. 6 days, p = 0.01), and medical complications more common. In-hospital and 30-day mortalities were similar in patients given ABT and in those who were not, but 1-year mortality was higher among patients who were given ABT (p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Hb had a tendency to fall during the three first days after surgery and seemed to be stabilized on day 5. Patients who received ABT had poorer health, but not significantly higher short-term mortality. This study demonstrates a restrictive transfusion policy.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Fraturas do Quadril/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/mortalidade , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Fraturas do Quadril/mortalidade , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Prevalência , Transplante Homólogo
13.
Psychiatry Res ; 230(2): 616-21, 2015 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26500071

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency is common among patients with psychotic disorders and could be due to unknown disease mechanisms or contingent factors. However most studies are performed in chronic patients and have often failed to address the influence of ethnicity on vitamin D levels in clinical samples. We investigated serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (S-25 OH D) in first episode patients compared to patients with multi episodes and healthy controls; with a specific focus on differences between visible ethnic minorities and participants from the majority population. A total of 284 participants were included in this cross-sectional study. First episode patients with a DSM-IV psychotic disorder were matched on age, gender and ethnicity to participants from a multi episode patient sample (1:1) and healthy controls (1:2). We did not find any differences between either patient groups or the healthy controls, but participants from visible ethnic minorities had significantly lower S-25 OH D than participants from the majority population. This implies that S-25 OH D should be routinely measured in persons from visible ethnic minorities since low levels are associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/etnologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etnologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Psicóticos/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 102(5): 1289-96, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26377161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Norway has the highest hip fracture rates worldwide and a relatively high vitamin A intake. Increased fracture risk at high intakes and serum concentrations of retinol (s-retinol) have been observed in epidemiologic studies. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the association between s-retinol and hip fracture and whether high s-retinol may counteract a preventive effect of vitamin D. DESIGN: We conducted the largest prospective analysis of serum retinol and hip fracture to date in 21,774 men and women aged 65-79 y (mean age: 72 y) who attended 4 community-based health studies during 1994-2001. Incident hip fractures occurring up to 10.7 y after baseline were retrieved from electronic hospital discharge registers. Retinol determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection in stored serum was available in 1154 incident hip fracture cases with valid body mass index (BMI) data and in a subcohort defined as a sex-stratified random sample (n = 1418). Cox proportional hazards regression weighted according to the stratified case-cohort design was performed. RESULTS: There was a modest increased risk of hip fracture in the lowest compared with the middle quintile of s-retinol (HR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.82) adjusted for sex and study center. The association was attenuated after adjustment for BMI and serum concentrations of α-tocopherol (HR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.51). We found no increased risk in the upper compared with the middle quintile. No significant interaction between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and s-retinol on hip fracture was observed (P = 0.68). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of an adverse effect of high serum retinol on hip fracture or any interaction between retinol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. If anything, there tended to be an increased risk at low retinol concentrations, which was attenuated after control for confounders. We propose that cod liver oil, a commonly used food supplement in Norway, should not be discouraged as a natural source of vitamin D for fracture prevention.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Idoso , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Vitamina A/sangue , 25-Hidroxivitamina D 2/sangue , Idoso , Calcifediol/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Óleo de Fígado de Bacalhau/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fraturas do Quadril/sangue , Fraturas do Quadril/etiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/terapia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fraturas por Osteoporose/sangue , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/terapia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem
15.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 75(7): 549-61, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26305421

RESUMO

Knowledge about the distributions of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in representative population samples is critical for the quantification of vitamin D deficiency as well as for setting dietary reference values and food-based strategies for its prevention. Such data for the European Union are of variable quality making it difficult to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency across member states. As a consequence of the widespread, method-related differences in measurements of serum 25(OH)D concentrations, the Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) developed protocols for standardizing existing serum 25(OH)D data from national surveys around the world. The objective of the present work was to apply the VDSP protocols to existing serum 25(OH)D data from a Danish, a Norwegian, and a Finnish population-based health survey and from a Danish randomized controlled trial. A specifically-selected subset (n 100-150) of bio-banked serum samples from each of the studies were reanalyzed for 25(OH)D by LC-MS/MS and a calibration equation developed between old and new 25(OH)D data, and this equation was applied to the entire data-sets from each study. Compared to estimates based on the original serum 25(OH)D data, the percentage vitamin D deficiency (< 30 nmol/L) decreased by 21.5% in the Danish health survey but by only 1.4% in the Norwegian health survey; but was relatively unchanged (0% and 0.2%) in the Finish survey or Danish RCT, respectively, following VDSP standardization. In conclusion, standardization of serum 25(OH)D concentrations is absolutely necessary in order to compare serum 25(OH)D concentrations across different study populations, which is needed to quantify and prevent vitamin D deficiency.


Assuntos
Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida , Protocolos Clínicos , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos/epidemiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/normas , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
16.
Bone ; 81: 292-299, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26191779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Norwegian population has among the highest hip fracture rates in the world. The incidence varies geographically, also within Norway. Calcium in drinking water has been found to be beneficially associated with bone health in some studies, but not in all. In most previous studies, other minerals in water have not been taken into account. Trace minerals, for which drinking water can be an important source and even fulfill the daily nutritional requirement, could act as effect-modifiers in the association between calcium and hip fracture risk. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between calcium in drinking water and hip fracture, and whether other water minerals modified this association. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey of trace metals in 429 waterworks, supplying 64% of the population in Norway, was linked geographically to the home addresses of patients with incident hip fractures (1994-2000). Drinking water mineral concentrations were divided into "low" (below and equal waterworks average) and "high" (above waterworks average). Poisson regression models were fitted, and all incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were adjusted for age, geographic region, urbanization degree, type of water source, and pH of the water. Effect modifications were examined by stratification, and interactions between calcium and magnesium, copper, zinc, iron and manganese were tested both on the multiplicative and the additive scale. Analyses were stratified on gender. RESULTS: Among those supplied from the 429 waterworks (2,110,916 person-years in men and 2,397,217 person-years in women), 5433 men and 13,493 women aged 50-85 years suffered a hip fracture during 1994-2000. Compared to low calcium in drinking water, a high level was associated with a 15% lower hip fracture risk in men (IRR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.78, 0.91) but no significant difference was found in women (IRR=0.98, 95%CI: 0.93-1.02). There was interaction between calcium and copper on hip fracture risk in men (p=0.051); the association between calcium and hip fracture risk was stronger when the copper concentration in water was high (IRR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.78) as opposed to when it was low (IRR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.81, 0.94). This pattern persisted also after including potential confounding factors and other minerals in the model. No similar variation in risk was found in women. CONCLUSION: In this large, prospective population study covering two thirds of the Norwegian population and comprising 19,000 hip fractures, we found an inverse association between calcium in drinking water and hip fracture risk in men. The association was stronger when the copper concentration in the water was high.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Água Potável/análise , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Oligoelementos/análise
17.
J Bone Miner Res ; 30(12): 2221-8, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26085117

RESUMO

Hip fractures are associated with high excess mortality. Education is an important determinant of health, but little is known about educational inequalities in post-hip fracture mortality. Our objective was to investigate educational inequalities in post-hip fracture mortality and to examine whether comorbidity or family composition could explain any association. We conducted a register-based population study of Norwegians aged 50 years and older from 2002 to 2010. We measured total mortality according to educational attainment in 56,269 hip fracture patients (NORHip) and in the general Norwegian population. Both absolute and relative educational inequalities in mortality in people with and without hip fracture were compared. There was an educational gradient in post-hip fracture mortality in both sexes. Compared with those with primary education only, the age-adjusted relative risk (RR) of mortality in hip fracture patients with tertiary education was 0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-0.87) in men and 0.79 (95% CI 0.75-0.84) in women. Additional adjustments for Charlson comorbidity index, marital status, and number of children did not materially change the estimates. Regardless of educational attainment, the 1-year age-adjusted mortality was three- to fivefold higher in hip fracture patients compared with peers in the general population without fracture. The absolute differences in 1-year mortality according to educational attainment were considerably larger in hip fracture patients than in the population without hip fracture. Absolute educational inequalities in mortality were higher after hip fracture compared with the general population without hip fracture and were not mediated by comorbidity or family composition. Investigation of other possible mediating factors might help to identify new targets for interventions, based on lower educational attainment, to reduce post-hip fracture mortality.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/mortalidade , Idoso , Comorbidade , Escolaridade , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social
19.
Arch Osteoporos ; 9: 191, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25134979

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Based on a total of 136,140 hip fractures, we found a distinct seasonal variation in hip fracture incidence present in subgroups defined by age, gender, and comorbidity. The seasonal variation was most pronounced in the youngest and the healthiest patients. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the possible seasonal variation in hip fracture incidence in Norway by comorbidity, age, and gender. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the NOREPOS Hip Fracture Database containing all hip fractures in Norway during the time period 1994-2008. Hip fractures were identified by computerized hospital discharge diagnoses. Charlson comorbidity index was calculated based on additional diagnoses and categorized (0, 1, and ≥2). Summer was defined as June, July, and August and winter as December, January, and February. Incidence rate ratios for hip fracture according to season were calculated by negative binomial models. RESULTS: In patients aged 50-103 years, 136,140 eligible fractures were identified (72.5 % women). The relative risk of hip fracture in winter versus summer was 1.40 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.36-1.45) in men and 1.26 (95 % CI 1.23-1.28) in women. June had the lowest number of fractures in both genders. We found seasonal variation in all subgroups by age and gender, although least pronounced in patients >79 years. There was a significant interaction between season and comorbidity (p = 0.022). When comparing winter to summer, we found relative risks of 1.40 (95 % CI 1.31-1.50) in patients with Charlson index = 0, 1.29 (95 % CI 1.19-1.40) in patients with Charlson index = 1, and 1.18 (95 % CI 1.08-1.28) in patients with Charlson index ≥2. CONCLUSIONS: There was a distinct seasonal variation in hip fracture incidence, present in all subgroups of gender, age, or comorbidity. This variation should be accounted for when planning health-care services.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Estações do Ano , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais
20.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 171(2): 161-70, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24801588

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The role of osteocalcin (OC) in cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unresolved. We aimed to study the association between plasma OC concentrations and the risk of non-fatal and fatal CVDs. We also aimed to investigate whether such an association, if present, would be mediated by established metabolic risk factors. DESIGN: A population-based longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: In 1995/1996, OC was determined in blood samples drawn from 1319 subjects aged 65-88 years participating in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam in 1995/1996. The self-reported CVD events were collected every 3 years until 2005/2006, and CVD deaths until 1st January 2007. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed, considering potential confounders (smoking, physical activity, and BMI) and mediators (blood pressure, plasma triglycerides, total and HDL cholesterol, fructosamine, and aortic calcification). RESULTS: During the median 4.1 years follow-up, 709 subjects (53.8%) suffered a CVD event. There was no overall association between OC and CVD: hazard ratio (HR) was 0.97 (95% CI 0.90-1.04) per nmol/l higher plasma OC, adjusted for age and sex. There was a statistical interaction between plasma OC, age, and sex on CVD (P=0.014). In those subjects aged ≥75 years, age-adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 0.86 (0.75-0.99) in men and 1.16 (1.03-1.31) in women per nmol/l higher plasma OC. Adjustment for covariates only slightly attenuated the association in older-old men, but did not affect the association in older-old women. CONCLUSION: A higher plasma OC concentration was associated with a reduced risk of CVD in older-old men and with an increased risk of CVD in older-old women. We found no evidence that this was mediated by arterial calcification or metabolic risk factors.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lipídeos/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Osteocalcina/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
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