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1.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1211, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293563

RESUMO

The present study aims to determine whether 17DD-YF-specific humoral and cellular immunological memory is maintained 8-years after primary vaccination with subdoses (10,447IU;3,013IU;587IU;158IU;31IU). For this purpose, this follow-up study was carried out in a subset of volunteers (n = 98) originally enrolled in the dose-response study in 2009 and 46 non-vaccinated controls. Our results demonstrated that vaccinees, who had seroconverted following primary vaccination and had not been revaccinated, present similar neutralizing antibodies levels and YF-specific cellular memory, particularly CMCD4 and EMCD8 as compared to the reference full dose (27,476IU). Although, PRNT seropositivity rates were similar across subgroups (94, 82, 83, 94, 80, and 91%, correspondingly), only doses above 587IU elicited similar iterative proportion of seropositivity rates, calculated as a progressive decrease on seropositivity rates along time (89, 80, 80, and 91%, respectively) as compared to 158IU and 31IU (68 and 46%, respectively). Noteworthy were the strong positive correlations ("EMCD4,EMCD8" and "TNFCD8,IFNCD8") observed in most subdoses, except for 31IU. Major similarities underscored the preserved antibody titers and the outstanding levels of EMCD8, relevant correlates of protection for YF-specific immunity. These findings provide evidences to support the regular use of dose sparing strategy for YF vaccine in adults.

2.
J Exp Med ; 216(9): 2057-2070, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270247

RESUMO

Vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) and yellow fever (YF) with live attenuated viruses can rarely cause life-threatening disease. Severe illness by MMR vaccines can be caused by inborn errors of type I and/or III interferon (IFN) immunity (mutations in IFNAR2, STAT1, or STAT2). Adverse reactions to the YF vaccine have remained unexplained. We report two otherwise healthy patients, a 9-yr-old boy in Iran with severe measles vaccine disease at 1 yr and a 14-yr-old girl in Brazil with viscerotropic disease caused by the YF vaccine at 12 yr. The Iranian patient is homozygous and the Brazilian patient compound heterozygous for loss-of-function IFNAR1 variations. Patient-derived fibroblasts are susceptible to viruses, including the YF and measles virus vaccine strains, in the absence or presence of exogenous type I IFN. The patients' fibroblast phenotypes are rescued with WT IFNAR1 Autosomal recessive, complete IFNAR1 deficiency can result in life-threatening complications of vaccination with live attenuated measles and YF viruses in previously healthy individuals.

3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(8): 1511-1521, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298654

RESUMO

We evaluated the duration of neutralizing antibodies and the status of 17DD vaccine-specific T- and B-cell memory following primary and revaccination regimens for yellow fever (YF) in Brazil. We observed progressive decline of plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) seropositivity and of the levels of effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, as well as interferon-γ+CD8+ T cells, 10 years after primary vaccination. Revaccination restored PRNT seropositivity as well as the levels of effector memory CD4+, CD8+, and interferon-γ+CD8+ T cells. Moreover, secondary or multiple vaccinations guarantee long-term persistence of PRNT positivity and cell-mediated memory 10 years after booster vaccination. These findings support the relevance of booster doses to heighten the 17DD-YF-specific immune response to guarantee the long-term persistence of memory components. Secondary or multiple vaccinations improved the correlates of protection triggered by 17DD-YF primary vaccination, indicating that booster regimens are needed to achieve efficient immunity in areas with high risk for virus transmission.

4.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(4): e1007721, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009499

RESUMO

The need for improved dengue vaccines remains since the only licensed vaccine, Dengvaxia, shows variable efficacy depending on the infecting dengue virus (DENV) type, and increases the risk of hospitalization for severe dengue in children not exposed to DENV before vaccination. Here, we developed a tetravalent dengue purified and inactivated vaccine (DPIV) candidate and characterized, in rhesus macaques, its immunogenicity and efficacy to control DENV infection by analyzing, after challenge, both viral replication and changes in biological markers associated with dengue in humans. Although DPIV elicited cross-type and long-lasting DENV-neutralizing antibody responses, it failed to control DENV infection. Increased levels of viremia/RNAemia (correlating with serum capacity at enhancing DENV infection in vitro), AST, IL-10, IL-18 and IFN-γ, and decreased levels of IL-12 were detected in some vaccinated compared to non-vaccinated monkeys, indicating the vaccination may have triggered antibody-dependent enhancement of DENV infection. The dengue macaque model has been considered imperfect due to the lack of DENV-associated clinical signs. However, here we show that post-vaccination enhanced DENV infection can be detected in this model when integrating several parameters, including characterization of DENV-enhancing antibodies, viremia/RNAemia, and biomarkers relevant to dengue in humans. This improved dengue macaque model may be crucial for early assessment of efficacy and safety of future dengue vaccines.

5.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(10): e180278, 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30427974

RESUMO

We discuss the complex eco-social factors involved in the puzzle of the unexpected rapid viral spread in the ongoing Brazilian yellow fever (YF) outbreak, which has increased the reurbanisation risk of a disease without urban cases in Brazil since 1942. Indeed, this rapid spatial viral dissemination to the Southeast and South regions, now circulating in the Atlantic Forest fragments close to peri-urban areas of the main Brazilian megalopolises (São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro) has led to an exponential increase in the number of yellow fever cases. In less than 18 months, 1,833 confirmed cases and 578 deaths were recorded most of them reported in the Southeast region (99,9%). Large epizooties in monkeys and other non-human primates (NHPs) were communicated in the country with 732 YF virus (YFV) laboratory confirmed events only in the 2017/2018 monitoring period. We also discuss the peculiarities and similarities of the current outbreak when compared with previous great epidemics, examining several hypotheses to explain the recent unexpected acceleration of epizootic waves in the sylvatic cycle of the YFV together with the role of human, NHPs and mosquito mobility with respect to viral spread. We conclude that the most feasible hypothesis to explain this rapidity would be related to human behavior combined with ecological changes that promoted a significant increase in mosquito and NHP densities and their contacts with humans. We emphasize the urgent need for an adequate response to this outbreak such as extending immunisation coverage to the whole Brazilian population and developing novel strategies for immunisation of NHPs confined in selected reserve areas and zoos. Finally, we stress the urgent need to improve the quality of response in order to prevent future outbreaks and a catastrophic reurbanisation of the disease in Brazil and other South American countries. Continuous monitoring of YFV receptivity and vulnerability conditions with effective control of the urban vector Aedes aegypti and significant investments in YF vaccine production capacity and research and development for reduction of adverse effects are of the highest priority.

6.
J Virol Methods ; 260: 82-87, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30009851

RESUMO

Yellow Fever (YF) is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease prevalent mainly in Africa and Americas, with 20-60% fatality rate in severe forms. Currently, antiviral drugs for the infection are not available, reinforcing the importance of vaccination in resident populations and travelers. Manufactured in 7 different countries, the YF vaccine was first created in 1937 and two substrains are used for production, 17DD and 17D-204. The vaccine produced in Bio-Manguinhos/Brazil uses 17DD substrain and more than 160 million doses have been exported to over 74 countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that new seed- and working-lots should have the viral genome sequenced in order to check vaccine genetic stability. The aim of this study was to develop and standardize a Sanger-based sequencing protocol for the genetic monitoring of the Brazilian 17DD vaccine. We designed 54 oligos to access the complete YF vaccine genome by RT-PCR and sequencing approach. After protocol standardization, we tested 45 vaccine lots and the corresponding secondary and working seed lots. All 45 lots presented 100% nucleotide identity to each other and to the seed lots. We also detected 2 heterogeneous positions at nucleotides 4523 (C/T) and 6673 (C/T) that may indicate a quasispecies diversity of YF 17DD strain. When compared to the Brazilian GenBank sequence YFU17066, the Brazilian 17DD vaccine presented 6 silent mutations. By applying the sequencing methodology to two YF 17D-204 strains, we showed that our method can also be used to sequence different YF vaccine virus. In summary, we have developed a robust method for the genetic monitoring of YF vaccines, which has been successfully applied in Bio-Manguinhos since 2009 and could also be used by other manufacturers for YF17D-based vaccines. There were no genetic variation in the Brazilian tested lots, highlighting the safety, production consistency and, more importantly, the genetic stability of Bio-Manguinhos' YF vaccine in the last 3 decades.


Assuntos
Controle de Qualidade , Vacinas Virais/normas , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/normas , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Febre Amarela/genética , Brasil , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Mutação , Vacinas Virais/genética , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Febre Amarela/imunologia , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/genética , Vírus da Febre Amarela/imunologia
7.
Expert Opin Ther Pat ; 28(7): 551-560, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29962249

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This article provides a global overview of patent deposits for broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), which have emerged as a key strategy for HIV cure and future HIV vaccines. Scientific and technological barriers to the discovery of an effective HIV vaccine in the last 40 years have raised concerns on the potential for relevant advances in this area. Nevertheless, recent breakthrough studies have identified novel immune pathways for new innovative HIV vaccine and HIV cure strategies. Areas covered: In our patent study, we have identified in a global scale, in the last decade, a sharp increase in the number of bNAbs' patent deposits related to HIV prevention and treatment strategies, reaching 90 bNAbs in 2017, protected by 184 different patent deposits. Refining our patent search to the different stages of bNAbs' development has also allowed us to identify 12 of them already at clinical stage of research (VRC01, 10E8, 3BNC117, 10-1074, 2G12, 2F5, KD-247, 4E10, PG9, PGDM1400, PGT121, and VRC07). We describe these recent breakthroughs and discuss the prospects and limitations of these novel strategies. Expert opinion: Our results indicate the intellectual property outcomes of a scientific revolution in this field, expressing innovative modifications in antibodies to increase their potency and half-life, which have resulted in extremely potent antibodies that could provide novel preventive and therapeutic HIV strategies.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Animais , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual , Patentes como Assunto
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(6): e0006462, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29879134

RESUMO

In this investigation, machine-enhanced techniques were applied to bring about scientific insights to identify a minimum set of phenotypic/functional memory-related biomarkers for post-vaccination follow-up upon yellow fever (YF) vaccination. For this purpose, memory status of circulating T-cells (Naïve/early-effector/Central-Memory/Effector-Memory) and B-cells (Naïve/non-Classical-Memory/Classical-Memory) along with the cytokine profile (IFN/TNF/IL-5/IL-10) were monitored before-NV(day0) and at distinct time-points after 17DD-YF primary vaccination-PV(day30-45); PV(year1-9) and PV(year10-11). A set of biomarkers (eEfCD4; EMCD4; CMCD19; EMCD8; IFNCD4; IL-5CD8; TNFCD4; IFNCD8; TNFCD8; IL-5CD19; IL-5CD4) were observed in PV(day30-45), but not in NV(day0), with most of them still observed in PV(year1-9). Deficiencies of phenotypic/functional biomarkers were observed in NV(day0), while total lack of memory-related attributes was observed in PV(year10-11), regardless of the age at primary vaccination. Venn-diagram analysis pre-selected 10 attributes (eEfCD4, EMCD4, CMCD19, EMCD8, IFNCD4, IL-5CD8, TNFCD4, IFNCD8, TNFCD8 and IL-5CD4), of which the overall mean presented moderate accuracy to discriminate PV(day30-45)&PV(year1-9) from NV(day0)&PV(year10-11). Multi-parameter approaches and decision-tree algorithms defined the EMCD8 and IL-5CD4 attributes as the top-two predictors with moderated performance. Together with the PRNT titers, the top-two biomarkers led to a resultant memory status observed in 80% and 51% of volunteers in PV(day30-45) and PV(year1-9), contrasting with 0% and 29% found in NV(day0) and PV(year10-11), respectively. The deficiency of memory-related attributes observed at PV(year10-11) underscores the conspicuous time-dependent decrease of resultant memory following17DD-YF primary vaccination that could be useful to monitor potential correlates of protection in areas under risk of YF transmission.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Vacinação , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/imunologia , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Febre Amarela/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Febre Amarela/imunologia , Febre Amarela/virologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Vaccine ; 36(28): 4112-4117, 2018 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29784469

RESUMO

In 2009, Bio-Manguinhos conducted a dose-response study with the yellow fever vaccine, administering the vaccine in the usual mean dose of 27,476 IU (full dose, reference) and in tapered doses (10,447 IU, 3013 IU, 587 IU, 158 IU, and 31 IU) by the usual subcutaneous route and usual volume (0.5 mL). Tapered doses were obtained by dilution in the manufacturer's laboratory, and the test batches presented industrial quality. Doses down to 587 IU showed similar immunogenicity to the full dose (27,476, reference), while the 158 IU and 31 IU doses displayed lower immunogenicity. Seropositivity was maintained at 10 months, except in the group that received the 31 IU dose. The current study aims to determine whether yellow fever seropositivity was maintained eight years after YF vaccination in non-revaccinated individuals. According to the current study's results, seropositivity was maintained in 85% of 318 participants and was similar across groups. The findings support the use of the yellow fever vaccine in fractional doses during outbreaks, but each fractional dose should have at least 587 IU. This study also supports the minimum dose required by WHO, 1000 IU. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT 03338231.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Febre Amarela/imunologia , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Militares , Fatores de Tempo , Voluntários , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/administração & dosagem
10.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0196311, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694440

RESUMO

The macaque is widely accepted as a suitable model for preclinical characterization of dengue vaccine candidates. However, the only vaccine for which both preclinical and clinical efficacy results were reported so far showed efficacy levels that were substantially different between macaques and humans. We hypothesized that this model's predictive capacity may be improved using recent and minimally passaged dengue virus isolates, and by assessing vaccine efficacy by characterizing not only the post-dengue virus challenge viremia/RNAemia but also the associated-cytokine profile. Ten recent and minimally passaged Brazilian clinical isolates from the four dengue virus serotypes were tested for their infectivity in rhesus macaques. For the strains showing robust replication capacity, the associated-changes in soluble mediator levels, and the elicited dengue virus-neutralizing antibody responses, were also characterized. Three isolates from dengue virus serotypes 1, 2 and 4 induced viremia of high magnitude and longer duration relative to previously reported viremia kinetics in this model, and robust dengue virus-neutralizing antibody responses. Consistent with observations in humans, increased MCP-1, IFN-γ and VEGF-A levels, and transiently decreased IL-8 levels were detected after infection with the selected isolates. These results may contribute to establishing a dengue macaque model showing a higher predictability for vaccine efficacy in humans.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/patologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Brasil , Cercopithecus aethiops , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Dengue/veterinária , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Regulação para Baixo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-8 , Macaca mulatta , Sorogrupo , Regulação para Cima , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Células Vero
12.
Curr Alzheimer Res ; 15(2): 104-110, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29165082

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study presents a novel approach for early detection of cognitive impairment in the elderly. The approach incorporates the use of speech sound analysis, multivariate statistics, and data-mining techniques. We have developed a speech prosody-based cognitive impairment rating (SPCIR) that can distinguish between cognitively normal controls and elderly people with mild Alzheimer's disease (mAD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using prosodic signals extracted from elderly speech while administering a questionnaire. Two hundred and seventy-three Japanese subjects (73 males and 200 females between the ages of 65 and 96) participated in this study. The authors collected speech sounds from segments of dialogue during a revised Hasegawa's dementia scale (HDS-R) examination and talking about topics related to hometown, childhood, and school. The segments correspond to speech sounds from answers to questions regarding birthdate (T1), the name of the subject's elementary school (T2), time orientation (Q2), and repetition of three-digit numbers backward (Q6). As many prosodic features as possible were extracted from each of the speech sounds, including fundamental frequency, formant, and intensity features and mel-frequency cepstral coefficients. They were refined using principal component analysis and/or feature selection. The authors calculated an SPCIR using multiple linear regression analysis. CONCLUSION: In addition, this study proposes a binary discrimination model of SPCIR using multivariate logistic regression and model selection with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and reports on the sensitivity and specificity of SPCIR for diagnosis (control vs. MCI/mAD). The study also reports discriminative performances well, thereby suggesting that the proposed approach might be an effective tool for screening the elderly for mAD and MCI.

14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(10): e180278, 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-955108

RESUMO

We discuss the complex eco-social factors involved in the puzzle of the unexpected rapid viral spread in the ongoing Brazilian yellow fever (YF) outbreak, which has increased the reurbanisation risk of a disease without urban cases in Brazil since 1942. Indeed, this rapid spatial viral dissemination to the Southeast and South regions, now circulating in the Atlantic Forest fragments close to peri-urban areas of the main Brazilian megalopolises (São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro) has led to an exponential increase in the number of yellow fever cases. In less than 18 months, 1,833 confirmed cases and 578 deaths were recorded most of them reported in the Southeast region (99,9%). Large epizooties in monkeys and other non-human primates (NHPs) were communicated in the country with 732 YF virus (YFV) laboratory confirmed events only in the 2017/2018 monitoring period. We also discuss the peculiarities and similarities of the current outbreak when compared with previous great epidemics, examining several hypotheses to explain the recent unexpected acceleration of epizootic waves in the sylvatic cycle of the YFV together with the role of human, NHPs and mosquito mobility with respect to viral spread. We conclude that the most feasible hypothesis to explain this rapidity would be related to human behavior combined with ecological changes that promoted a significant increase in mosquito and NHP densities and their contacts with humans. We emphasize the urgent need for an adequate response to this outbreak such as extending immunisation coverage to the whole Brazilian population and developing novel strategies for immunisation of NHPs confined in selected reserve areas and zoos. Finally, we stress the urgent need to improve the quality of response in order to prevent future outbreaks and a catastrophic reurbanisation of the disease in Brazil and other South American countries. Continuous monitoring of YFV receptivity and vulnerability conditions with effective control of the urban vector Aedes aegypti and significant investments in YF vaccine production capacity and research and development for reduction of adverse effects are of the highest priority.


Assuntos
Humanos , Febre Amarela/diagnóstico , Febre Amarela/terapia , Febre Amarela/transmissão , Imunização/métodos , Aedes
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(5): 319-327, May 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-841798

RESUMO

This article discusses the peculiar conditions that favoured the unexpected introduction of Zika virus into the poorest northeastern region of Brazil in 2015, its speed of transmission to other Brazilian states, other Latin American countries and other regions, and the severity of related neurological disorders in newborns and adults. Contrasting with evidence that Zika had so far caused only mild cases in humans in the last six decades, the epidemiological scenario of this outbreak in Brazil indicates dramatic health effects: in 2015, an increase of 20-fold in notified cases of microcephaly and/or central nervous system (CNS) alterations suggestive of Zika congenital infection, followed by an exponential increase in 2016, with 2366 cumulative cases confirmed in the country by the end of December 2016. A significant increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults has also been reported. Factors involved in viral dissemination, neural pathogenesis and routes of transmission in Brazil are examined, such as the role of social and environmental factors and the controversies involved in the hypothesis of antibody-dependent enhancement, to explain the incidence of congenital Zika syndrome in Brazil. Responses to the Zika outbreak and the development of new products are also discussed.

16.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(5): 319-327, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28443985

RESUMO

This article discusses the peculiar conditions that favoured the unexpected introduction of Zika virus into the poorest northeastern region of Brazil in 2015, its speed of transmission to other Brazilian states, other Latin American countries and other regions, and the severity of related neurological disorders in newborns and adults. Contrasting with evidence that Zika had so far caused only mild cases in humans in the last six decades, the epidemiological scenario of this outbreak in Brazil indicates dramatic health effects: in 2015, an increase of 20-fold in notified cases of microcephaly and/or central nervous system (CNS) alterations suggestive of Zika congenital infection, followed by an exponential increase in 2016, with 2366 cumulative cases confirmed in the country by the end of December 2016. A significant increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults has also been reported. Factors involved in viral dissemination, neural pathogenesis and routes of transmission in Brazil are examined, such as the role of social and environmental factors and the controversies involved in the hypothesis of antibody-dependent enhancement, to explain the incidence of congenital Zika syndrome in Brazil. Responses to the Zika outbreak and the development of new products are also discussed.


Assuntos
Notificação de Doenças , Surtos de Doenças , Microcefalia/virologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia
17.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 52(1): 345-57, 2016 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26967222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Donepezil is an established treatment for mild, moderate, and severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). An international study demonstrated superior efficacy of sustained release (SR) 23 mg/day donepezil over immediate release (IR) 10 mg/day donepezil for cognitive function, but not global function in moderate-to-severe AD. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the superiority of SR 23 mg/day donepezil over IR 10 mg/day donepezil in Japanese patients with severe AD (SAD). METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study, Japanese outpatients with SAD were randomly assigned to continue IR 10 mg/day or switch to SR 23 mg/day for 24 weeks. Endpoints included the Severe Impairment Battery (SIB), Clinician's Interview-Based Impression of Change Plus Caregiver Input (CIBIC-plus), and safety. RESULTS: Overall, 166 and 185 patients were randomized to receive IR 10 mg/day and SR 23 mg/day, respectively. SR 23 mg/day was not statistically superior to IR 10 mg/day by SIB (least squares mean difference [LSMD]: 0.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.7, 1.8; p = 0.981) or CIBIC-plus (LSMD: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.0, 0.4; p = 0.080). Common adverse events in the SR 23 mg group were decreased appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, and contusion. Safety findings were consistent with known safety profiles of donepezil. CONCLUSION: SR 23 mg/day donepezil was not superior to IR 10 mg/day donepezil regarding the efficacy endpoints for Japanese SAD. Considering that a 10 mg/day dose is approved for SAD in Japan, the present findings suggest that IR 10 mg/day donepezil is the optimal dosage for Japanese patients with SAD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Colinesterase/administração & dosagem , Indanos/administração & dosagem , Nootrópicos/administração & dosagem , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Inibidores da Colinesterase/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/sangue , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Donepezila , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Indanos/efeitos adversos , Indanos/sangue , Japão , Masculino , Entrevista Psiquiátrica Padronizada , Nootrópicos/efeitos adversos , Nootrópicos/sangue , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Piperidinas/sangue , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 12(2): 491-502, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26360663

RESUMO

A single vaccination of Yellow Fever vaccines is believed to confer life-long protection. In this study, results of vaccinees who received a single dose of 17DD-YF immunization followed over 10 y challenge this premise. YF-neutralizing antibodies, subsets of memory T and B cells as well as cytokine-producing lymphocytes were evaluated in groups of adults before (NVday0) and after (PVday30-45, PVyear1-4, PVyear5-9, PVyear10-11, PVyear12-13) 17DD-YF primary vaccination. YF-neutralizing antibodies decrease significantly from PVyear1-4 to PVyear12-13 as compared to PVday30-45, and the seropositivity rates (PRNT≥2.9Log10mIU/mL) become critical (lower than 90%) beyond PVyear5-9. YF-specific memory phenotypes (effector T-cells and classical B-cells) significantly increase at PVday30-45 as compared to naïve baseline. Moreover, these phenotypes tend to decrease at PVyear10-11 as compared to PVday30-45. Decreasing levels of TNF-α(+) and IFN-γ(+) produced by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells along with increasing levels of IL-10(+)CD4(+)T-cells were characteristic of anti-YF response over time. Systems biology profiling represented by hierarchic networks revealed that while the naïve baseline is characterized by independent micro-nets, primary vaccinees displayed an imbricate network with essential role of central and effector CD8(+) memory T-cell responses. Any putative limitations of this cross-sectional study will certainly be answered by the ongoing longitudinal population-based investigation. Overall, our data support the current Brazilian national immunization policy guidelines that recommend one booster dose 10 y after primary 17DD-YF vaccination.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/imunologia , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Febre Amarela/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Brasil , Humanos , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Interferon gama/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Vacinação , Febre Amarela/virologia
19.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra ; 5(3): 361-74, 2015 Sep-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26557135

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate whether 1-step titration of the rivastigmine patch (initiated at 5 cm(2) and titrated to 10 cm(2) after 4 weeks) is well tolerated in Japanese patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) as compared to 3-step titration (initiated at 2.5 cm(2) and titrated by 2.5 cm(2) every 4 weeks to 10 cm(2)). METHODS: A 24-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind study was conducted in Japan between July 2012 and May 2014. Patients with mild to moderate AD aged 50-85 years were randomized 1:1 to 1-step or 3-step titration of the rivastigmine once-daily patch. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with adverse events leading to discontinuation. RESULTS: Of 216 patients randomized, 215 (1-step, n = 107; 3-step, n = 108) were included in the safety analysis. The primary endpoint outcome was 15.0% in the 1-step group and 18.5% in the 3-step group. The observed treatment difference was -3.6% (95% confidence interval: -17.0, 9.6), falling within the prespecified acceptance range. CONCLUSION: The tolerability of two different titration schemes was similar in Japanese patients with AD.

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