Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 29
Filtrar
1.
Cureus ; 13(10): e18909, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820224

RESUMO

Background Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is a life-threatening disease that requires emergent intervention. Although noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) is crucial for treating ADHF, the earliest time point for administering NPPV remains unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that early NPPV administration for patients with acute heart failure in the emergency department (ED) would lead to a better outcome. Methodology This is a single-center retrospective cohort study at an ED of a community hospital in Japan. The data were collected from consecutive patients who were administered NPPV for ADHF in the ED from April 2016 to September 2018. The primary exposure was the timing of NPPV administration (within 30 minutes versus over 30 minutes after arrival). The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Results A total of 115 patients were included in this study. Overall, the median age was 78 (interquartile range [IQR] = 70-84 years), and 63 (54.9%) patients were male. The median time from the arrival at the ED to NPPV administration for the patients was 14 minutes (IQR = 8-30 minutes). Overall, 72% (83/115) of the patients were categorized as early administration group (<30 minutes). The total 30-day mortality was 7.0% (8/115), and the total tracheal intubation rate was 11% (13/115). Early NPPV administration for patients with ADHF was associated with lower 30-day mortality (3.6% vs. 16%; p = 0.04) and shorter length of oxygenation (four days vs. seven days; p < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression test showed that 30-day mortality was significantly lower in the early treatment group (adjusted odds ratio = 0.19; 95% confidential interval = 0.04-0.90). Conclusions Although further investigation is needed, early NPPV administration for patients with ADHF in the ED was associated with lower 30-day mortality.

2.
Respir Care ; 66(11): 1713-1719, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A cough peak flow (CPF) of < 60 L/min was associated with increased risk of extubation failure after a successful spontaneous breathing trial (SBT). Passive cephalic excursion of the diaphragm (PCED), measured by ultrasonography during cough expiration, was reported to predict CPF in healthy adults. We hypothesized that PCED, diaphragm peak velocity, or both during cough, as measured by ultrasonography, might predict CPF and extubation outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients. This study attempted to identify associations of diaphragm movement during cough, as assessed by ultrasonography with simultaneously measured CPF, and to determine predictive values of ultrasonographic indices for extubation outcomes after a successful SBT. METHODS: In the study, 252 mechanically ventilated subjects with a successful SBT were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Right hemidiaphragm passive cephalic excursion and peak velocity were measured by ultrasonography during voluntary cough expiration with maximum effort. CPF was measured simultaneously by ultrasonography. RESULTS: A multiple regression model adjusted for age and sex showed a significant association between PCED and CPF (P < .001, adjusted ß coefficient 11.4, 95% CI 8.88-14.0, adjusted R2 = 0.287) and between diaphragm peak velocity and CPF (P < .001, adjusted ß coefficient 1.71, 95% CI 1.91-2.24, adjusted R2 = 0.235). The areas under the curves of PCED, diaphragm peak velocity, and CPF for extubation failure were 0.791 (95% Cl 0.668-0.914), 0.587 (95% Cl 0.426-0.748), and 0.765 (95% Cl 0.609-0.922), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PCED on ultrasonography was significantly associated with CPF and extubation failure after a successful SBT. Future studies should investigate if this method is applicable for determination of tracheostomy decannulation in stable patients in general wards.


Assuntos
Extubação , Tosse , Adulto , Tosse/etiologia , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia
3.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e690, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34430036

RESUMO

Aim: The rapid response system (RRS) is an in-hospital medical safety system. To date, not much is known about patient disposition after RRS activation, especially discharge home. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, and outcomes of patients with adverse events who required RRS activation. Methods: Retrospective data from the In-Hospital Emergency Registry in Japan collected from April 2016 to November 2020 were eligible for our analysis. We divided patients into Home Discharge, Transfer, and Death groups. The primary outcome was the prevalence of direct discharge home, and independently associated factors were determined using multivariable logistic regression. Results: We enrolled 2,043 patients who met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of discharge home was 45.7%; 934 patients were included in the Home Discharge group. Age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-0.97), malignancy (AOR 0.69; 95% CI, 0.48-0.99), oxygen administration before RRS (AOR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.36-0.66), cerebral performance category score on admission (AOR 0.38; 95% CI, 0.26-0.56), do not attempt resuscitation order before RRS (AOR 0.17; 95% CI, 0.10-0.29), RRS call for respiratory failure (AOR 0.50; 95% CI, 0.34-0.72), RRS call for stroke (AOR 0.12; 95% CI, 0.03-0.37), and intubation (AOR 0.20; 95% CI, 0.12-0.34) were independently negative, and RRS call for anaphylaxis (AOR 15.3; 95% CI, 2.72-86.3) was positively associated with discharge home. Conclusion: Less than half of the in-hospital patients under RRS activation could discharge home. Patients' conditions before RRS activation, disorders requiring RRS activation, and intubation were factors that affected direct discharge home.

5.
Int J Gen Med ; 13: 721-728, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061541

RESUMO

Purpose: An early do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order is classified as such when it occurs within 24 hours of admission. Early DNR has been previously associated with in-hospital mortality among acute heart failure (AHF) patients and one-year mortality among patients discharged from ICU. Here, we investigate whether early DNR is associated with long-term mortality in AHF Japanese patients, by performing a retrospective cohort study. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively investigated all patients with AHF, admitted to our hospital between April 2013 and March 2015, and survived to discharge. We obtained data on demographics, comorbidities, laboratory and echocardiography results, social background, DNR status, and outcomes (one-year death). The association of early DNR with one-year death was analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Among 370 survive to discharge patients, 48 (12%) were lost to follow up. We analyzed 322 patients. The median age was 74 years, and 80 (25%) had an early DNR order. Patients with a DNR order were older and displayed more activities of daily living (ADL)-dependence. Early DNR was associated with higher one-year mortality. Conclusion: Early DNR was associated with one-year mortality among AHF patients. Further studies are necessary to investigate unmeasured factors associated with a worse prognosis related to early DNR among AHF patients.

6.
Acute Med Surg ; 7(1): e574, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042561

RESUMO

Procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) is performed for a variety of indications in emergency departments (EDs). Although the practice of PSA in the ED is somewhat unique from other clinical areas, there is currently no guideline for this practice in Japan. Policy statements and guidelines for PSA have been published in Europe and North America. These guidelines suggest first evaluating patients carefully before performing PSA, and then deciding on target sedative level and choice of medications. Patient evaluation requires a combination of continuous visual observation by trained medical staff to assess the depth of sedation and respiration with noninvasive measurements of blood pressure, continuous electrocardiography monitoring, and pulse oximetry. Sedative selection should be based on its characteristics, peak time, effectiveness, and risks. It is important to administer sedatives and analgesics in small, incremental doses while keeping a close eye on the patient's reaction to avoid adverse events (AEs) until the planned sedation level is reached. Further, additional attention is needed for special populations such as pediatric and elderly patients. PSA is a key element for patient-centered care in emergency medicine. In this manuscript, we review the available evidence for PSA in the EDs, including guidelines for evaluation, monitoring, pharmacology, AEs, and special populations such as pediatric and elderly patients.

8.
Acute Med Surg ; 7(1): e468, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988780

RESUMO

Aim: An index that accurately measures intravascular volume is paramount for the optimal resuscitation of sepsis. Selecting an adequate indicator to substitute for central venous pressure (CVP) has remained an issue. The objective of our study was to compare the usefulness of standard early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) with CVP (EGDT-CVP) and modified EGDT with global end-diastolic volume index (GEDI; EGDT-GEDI) for sepsis. Methods: This was a multicenter prospective randomized controlled study. All patients with sepsis who were expected to require mechanical ventilator support for a minimum of 48 h were included. The patients were classified into an EGDT-CVP group and an EGDT-GEDI group. All participants underwent the extubation protocol. The primary outcome was the ventilator-free days over a 28-day period. Results: The ventilator-free days was not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.59). However, the EGDT-GEDI group showed a trend of shorter ventilator support duration (5.1 days [2.0-8.7 days] versus 3.9 days [2.4-5.7 days], P = 0.27) and length of stay in the intensive care unit (7.2 days [3.8-10.7 days] versus 5.1 days [3.7-8.8 days], P = 0.05) and a smaller 3-day infusion balance than the EGDT-CVP group (4,405 mL [1,092-8,163 mL] versus 3,046 mL [830-6,806 mL], P = 0.34), but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Although there was no significant efficacy, EGDT guided by GEDI showed a trend of shorter length of stay in the intensive care unit and lower 3-day infusion balance than the EGDT-CVP group in sepsis. The GEDI monitoring did not appear to improve the ventilator-free days over a 28-day period.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(52): e18475, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876731

RESUMO

Rapid response system (RRS) efficacy and national early warning score (NEWS) performances have largely been reported in inpatient settings, with few such reports undertaken in outpatient settings.This study aimed to investigate NEWS validity in predicting poor clinical outcomes among outpatients who had activated the RRS using single-parameter criteria.A single-center retrospective cohort studyFrom April 1, 2014 to November 30, 2017 in an urban 350-bed referral hospital in JapanWe collected patient characteristics such as activation triggers, interventions, arrival times, dispositions, final diagnoses, and patient outcomes. Poor clinical outcomes were defined as unplanned intensive care unit transfers or deaths within 24 hours. Correlations between the NEWS and clinical outcomes at the time of deterioration and disposition were analyzed.Among 31 outpatients, the NEWS value decreased significantly after a medical emergency team intervention (median, 8 vs 4, P < .001). The difference in the NEWS at the time of deterioration and at disposition was significantly less in patients with poor clinical outcomes (median 3 vs 1.5, P = .03). The area under the curve (AUC) for the NEWS high-risk patient group at the time of deterioration for predicting hospital admission was 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.0), while the AUC for the NEWS high-risk patient group at disposition for predicting poor clinical outcomes was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.62-1.0).The difference between the NEWS at the time of deterioration and at disposition might usefully predict admissions and poor clinical outcomes in RRS outpatient settings.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Escore de Alerta Precoce , Equipe de Respostas Rápidas de Hospitais , Triagem/métodos , Idoso , Deterioração Clínica , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Int J Emerg Med ; 12(1): 23, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE), the D-dimer threshold is based on studies conducted in Western countries, where the incidence rate is 5 times higher than that in Asian countries, including Japan. If we could elevate the D-dimer threshold based on the low pre-test probability in the Japanese population, we could omit the computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) which might lead to radiation exposure and contrast-induced nephropathy. Therefore, we aimed to determine a new D-dimer threshold specific to Japanese individuals. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study at an emergency department in Japan, using medical charts collected from January 2013 to July 2017. We included patients whose D-dimer were measured for suspicion of PE with low or intermediate probability of PE and CTPA were performed. The primary outcome was failure rate of the new D-dimer threshold, defined as the rate of PE detected by CTPA among patients with D-dimer under the new threshold ranging from 1000 to 1500 µg/L by 100. The new D-dimer threshold was appropriate if the upper limit of 95% confidence interval of the failure rate of PE was approximately 3%. RESULTS: In 395 patients included, the number of patients with PE was 24 (the prevalence was 6.1%). If the D-dimer threshold was 1100 µg/L, the failure rate was 0% (0/119), the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the failure rate was 3.1%, and 30% (119/395) of the CTPA might be omitted. CONCLUSION: The new D-dimer threshold could safely exclude PE. This result can be generalized to other Asian populations with a lower incidence of PE. Further prospective studies will be needed.

11.
Emerg Med J ; 36(7): 410-415, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Many registry studies on patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) have reported that conventional bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation is independently associated with favourable outcomes. This study aimed to compare the data of patients with OCHA with confirmed cardiac output on emergency medical services (EMS) arrival and consider the confounding factors in prehospital airway management studies. METHODS: This was a cohort study using the registry data for survivors after out-of hospital cardiac arrest in the Kanto region at 2012 in Japan (SOS-KANTO 2012). Survivors who received advanced airway management (AAM) group and a BVM group were compared for confirmed cardiac output on EMS arrival and neurolgical outcome at 1 month. Favourable neurological outcome was defined as a score of one or two on the Cerebral Performance Categories Scale. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust the neurological outcome by age, gender, cardiac aetiology, witnessed arrest, shockable rhythm, cardiopulmonary resuscitation performed by a bystander, BVM at prehospital ventilation and presence of confirmed cardiac output on EMS arrival. RESULTS: A total of 16 452 patients were enrolled in the SOS-KANTO 2012 study, and of those data 12 867 were analysed; 5893 patients comprised the AAM group and 6974 comprised the BVM group. Of the study participants, 386 (2.9%) had confirmed cardiac output on EMS arrival; 340 (2.6%) of the entire study group had a favourable neurological outcome. The proportion of patients with confirmed cardiac output on EMS arrival was significantly higher in the BVM group (272: 3.9%) than in the AAM group (114: 1.9%) (95% CI: 1.65 to 2.25). The proportion of patients with favourable neurological outcomes was 30% (117/386) in those with cardiac output on EMS arrival compared with 1.8% (223/12481) in those without. The OR for a good neurological outcome with BVM decreased from 3.24 (2.49 to 4.20) to 2.60 (1.97 to 3.44) when confirmed cardiac output on EMS arrival was added to the multivariable model analysis. CONCLUSION: Confirmed cardiac output on EMS arrival should be considered as confounding by indication in observational studies of prehospital airway management.


Assuntos
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/estatística & dados numéricos , Débito Cardíaco , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/normas , Estudos de Coortes , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Respir Care ; 64(11): 1371-1376, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evaluation of cough strength is clinically important, especially for patients with neuromuscular disorders and before extubation of mechanically ventilated patients. The pressure gradient between the airway and thoracoabdominal cavities during the cough expiratory phase generates cough flow and passive cephalic movement of the diaphragm. We hypothesized that passive diaphragmatic cephalic excursion, peak velocity, or both during cough expiration might predict cough peak flow (CPF). This physiologic study investigated associations of CPF with simultaneously measured ultrasonographic indices in healthy adults during the cough expiratory phase. METHODS: 56 healthy adults participated in this study. Right hemidiaphragm excursion and peak velocity were measured with ultrasonography during voluntary cough expiration with maximum effort. CPF was simultaneously measured for all coughs along with the ultrasonographic measurements. A linear regression model was used to determine whether ultrasonographic indices predicted CPF. RESULTS: Simple regression analysis showed significant associations between excursion and CPF in men and women (P < .001, beta coefficient 37.8, 95% CI 10.9-64.7, adjusted R2 = 0.195 for men; P < .001, beta coefficient 46.1, 95% CI 22.3-69.9, adjusted R2 = 0.386 for women). A multiple regression model adjusted for age, height, and sex showed a significant association between CPF and excursion (P < .001, adjusted beta coefficient 38.32, 95% CI 21.20-55.44, adjusted R2 = 0.643). Simple regression analysis showed a significant association between diaphragmatic peak velocity and CPF only in women (P = .004, beta coefficient 5.07, 95% CI 1.81-8.33, adjusted R2 = 0.280 for women). CONCLUSIONS: Passive cephalic excursion of the diaphragm during the cough expiratory phase significantly predicted CPF with maximum cough effort in healthy adults. Future studies should investigate the relationship between CPF and excursion in persons with respiratory and neuromuscular disorders.


Assuntos
Tosse/fisiopatologia , Diafragma , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Extubação/métodos , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Diafragma/fisiologia , Expiração/fisiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Neuromusculares/fisiopatologia , Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia
13.
Acute Med Surg ; 6(2): 109-116, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976435

RESUMO

Aim: Worldwide, health-care providers carry out procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) in the emergency department. However, training opportunities are limited in many Asian countries, including Japan. We formed an educational group consisting of board-certified emergency physicians in the USA and Japanese physicians and developed a PSA training module. The aims of our study were to demonstrate the effectiveness of training and to describe PSA practice in Japan. Methods: We undertook a pretest of PSA knowledge questions and a retest immediately after the training intervention. We also carried out a survey and asked about participants' PSA practice. The training module consisted of four didactic hours and three simulation and skills laboratory hours. Results of all pre- and post-intervention knowledge questions were analyzed with McNemar's test, and overall scores were analyzed with a paired t-test. Results: One hundred and forty-four health-care providers including 123 physicians, 16 nurses, two pharmacists, and three medical students participated in the training. A total of 119 (83%) completed both the pre- and post-intervention knowledge questions. Before the training, participants scored an average 66% (63%-69%) on the written knowledge test. After the intervention, participants showed significant improvement on the knowledge test (improvement 17%; 14%-20%). Among participants who answered the practice survey, 121 (88%) have undertaken PSA. Only 14 (12%) participants always or often use a continuous capnography for PSA. Only 32 (26.4%) participants undertook pre-PSA systematic evaluation. Conclusion: Our educational intervention successfully increased participants' knowledge. Only the minority of health-care providers use capnography routinely for PSA, and pre-PSA evaluation is not commonly carried out.

14.
Acute Med Surg ; 6(2): 145-151, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976440

RESUMO

Aim: Little evidence on Japanese frequent presenters (FPs) is available. Therefore, this retrospective cohort study compared characteristics between FPs and non-frequent presenters (NFPs) in emergency departments (EDs) in Japan. Methods: Frequent presenters included those who presented to an ED ≥4 times during the study period from August 1, 2012 to July 21, 2013. The primary outcomes were triage level and disposition. Secondary outcomes were ED length of stay, method of arrival, and discharge diagnosis. Results: During the study period, 195 FPs had 1,154 visits to the ED, compared to 15,953 visits by 13,838 NFPs. The sex distribution between FPs and NFPs was comparable (107 men [54.9%] versus 7,070 men [51.1%], respectively; P = 0.29), but the mean age was significantly higher in the FP group (57.3 versus 46.5 years, respectively; P < 0.0001). Among the FPs, the rate of free governmental health insurance was higher than that of those who pay 30% of health costs (35 patients paid 0% [79.5%] versus 109 patients paid 30% [42.6%], respectively). Condition severity (FP, 84 severe cases [7.28%]; NFP, 1,320 severe cases [8.27%], respectively) and rate of admission (FP, 207 admissions [17.9%]; NFP, 2,987 admissions [18.7%], respectively) were comparable between the groups, although the rate of ambulance use was lower for the FP group. The most frequent diagnostic codes (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) in the FP group were "symptoms and signs". Conclusion: Triage levels and hospital admission rates were not significantly different between FPs and NFPs in this single-center study in Japan.

15.
Simul Healthc ; 14(4): 223-227, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969268

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although the implementation of simulation-based education (SBE) is essential for emergency medicine residency programs (EMRPs), little is known about the factors associated with its degree of SBE implementation in EMRPs. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate factors associated with SBE implementation in EMRPs. We hypothesized that the number of the simulation faculty was associated with the degree of SBE implementation. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional survey on SBE implementation in emergency medicine resident education, in accredited EMRPs in the Greater Tokyo area, Japan. Survey question themes included institutional characteristics and the status of simulation education in them. For analyzing factors associated with SBE implementation, we defined EMRPs with a robust SBE implementation as those having an annual simulation time exceeding 10 hours. RESULTS: The survey response rate was 73% (115/158). Of the EMRPs that responded, 32% reported that their annual simulation time was more than 10 hours. In the unadjusted analysis, possession of a simulator in the emergency department was significantly associated with nonrobust SBE implementation, but the number of the simulation faculty was significantly associated. On adjusting for possession of a simulator in the emergency department, presence of simulation curriculum, and presence of simulation-based formative or comprehensive assessment, we observed an association of robust SBE implementation with a number of the simulation faculty (unit odds ratio = 1.33; 95% confidence interval = 1.10-1.60). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first Japanese study to demonstrate that the number of the simulation faculty at a program is independently associated with a robust SBE implementation.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência/educação , Docentes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Treinamento por Simulação/estatística & dados numéricos , Competência Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Currículo , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Japão , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Anesth ; 33(2): 238-249, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617546

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) is widely performed outside of the operating theater, often in emergency departments (EDs). The practice and safety of PSA in the ED in an aging society such as in Japan have not been well described. We aimed to characterize the practice pattern of PSA including indications, pharmacology and incidence of adverse events (AEs) in Japan. METHODS: We formed the Japanese Procedural Sedation and Analgesia Registry, a multicenter prospective observation registry of ED patients undergoing PSA. We included all patients who received PSA in the ED. PSA was defined as any systemic pharmacological intervention intended to facilitate a painful or uncomfortable procedure. The main variables in this study were patients' demographics, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status, indication of PSA, medication choices, and AEs. The primary outcome measure was overall AEs from PSA. RESULTS: We enrolled 332 patients in four EDs during the 12-month period. The median age was 67 years (IQR, 46-78). In terms of ASA physical status, 79 (23.8%), 172 (51.8%), and 81 (24.4%) patients were class 1, 2, 3 or higher, respectively. The most common indication was cardioversion (44.0%). The most common sedative used was thiopental (38.9%), followed by midazolam (34.0%) and propofol (19.6%). Among all patients, 72 (21.7%, 95% confidence interval, 17-26) patients experienced one or more AEs. The most common AE was hypoxia (9.9%), followed by apnea (7.2%) and hypotension (3.5%). All of the AEs were transient and no patient had a serious AE. CONCLUSION: In a multicenter prospective registry in Japan, PSA in the ED appears safe particularly since the patients who underwent PSA were older and had a higher risk profile compared to patients in previous studies in different countries.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Sedação Consciente/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Analgesia/efeitos adversos , Anestesia/métodos , Cardioversão Elétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Midazolam/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Propofol/uso terapêutico , Tiopental/administração & dosagem
17.
Am J Emerg Med ; 37(2): 241-248, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29804789

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the association between the timing of first epinephrine administration (EA) and the neurological outcomes following out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) with both initial shockable and non-shockable rhythms. METHODS: This was a post-hoc analysis of a multicenter prospective cohort study (SOS-KANTO 2012), which registered OHCA patients in the Kanto region of Japan from January 2012 to March 2013. We included consecutive adult OHCA patients who received epinephrine. The primary result included 1-month favorable neurological outcomes defined as cerebral performance category (CPC) 1 or 2. Secondary results included 1-month survival and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after arrival at the hospital. Multivariable logistic regression analysis determined the association between delay per minute of the time from call to first EA in both pre- or in-hospital settings and outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 16,452 patients, 9344 were eligible for our analyses. In univariable analysis, the delay in EA was associated with decreased favorable neurological outcomes only when the initial rhythm was a non-shockable rhythm. In multivariable analyses, delay in EA was associated with decreased ROSC (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for one minute delay, 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-0.98) and 1-month survival (adjusted OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97) when the initial rhythm was a non-shockable rhythm, whereas during a shockable rhythm, delay in EA was not associated with decreased ROSC and 1-month survival. CONCLUSIONS: While assessing the effectiveness of epinephrine for OHCA, we should consider the time-limited effects of epinephrine. Additionally, consideration of early EA based on the pathophysiology is needed.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Vasoconstritores/administração & dosagem , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Japão , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Int J Gen Med ; 11: 405-412, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410386

RESUMO

Background: A do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order is reportedly associated with a decrease in performance measures, but it should not be applied to noncardiopulmonary resuscitation procedures. Good performance measures are associated with improvement in heart failure outcomes. Aim: To analyze the influence of DNR order on performance measures of heart failure at our hospital, where lectures on DNR order are held every 3 months. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: The medical report of patients with acute heart failure who were admitted between April 2013 and March 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. We collected demographic data, information on the presence or absence of DNR order within 24 hours of admission, and inhospital mortality. Performance measures of heart failure, including assessment of cardiac function and discharge prescription of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker and beta-blocker for left ventricular systolic dysfunction and anticoagulant for atrial fibrillation, were collected and compared between groups with and without DNR orders. Results: In 394 total patients and 183 patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, 114 (30%) and 44 (24%) patients, respectively, had a DNR order. Patients with a DNR order had higher inhospital mortality. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the four quality measures (left ventricular function assessment, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker, beta-blocker, and anticoagulant). Conclusion: DNR orders did not affect performance measures, but they were associated with higher inhospital mortality among acute heart failure patients.

19.
Ann Intensive Care ; 8(1): 61, 2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A patient's ability to clear secretions and protect the airway with an effective cough is an important part of the pre-extubation evaluation. An increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is important in generating the flow rate necessary for a cough. This study investigated whether an increase from baseline in IAP during a coughing episode induced by routine pre-extubation airway suctioning is associated with extubation outcome after a successful spontaneous breathing trial (SBT). METHODS: Three hundred thirty-five (335) mechanically ventilated patients who passed an SBT were enrolled. Baseline IAP and peak IAP during successive suctioning-induced coughs were measured with a fluid column connected to a Foley catheter. RESULTS: Extubation was unsuccessful in 24 patients (7.2%). Unsuccessful extubation was 3.40 times as likely for patients with a delta IAP (ΔIAP) of ≤ 30 cm H2O than for those with a ΔIAP > 30 cm H2O, after adjusting for APACHE II score (95% CI, 1.39-8.26; p = .007). CONCLUSION: ΔIAP during a coughing episode induced by routine pre-extubation airway suctioning is significantly associated with extubation outcome in patients with a successful SBT. Trial registration UMIN-CTR Clinical Trial, UMIN000017762. Registered 1 June 2015.

20.
Heart Vessels ; 33(10): 1139-1148, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29736558

RESUMO

Door to balloon (D2B) time was reported an important factor of the clinical outcome of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). D2B time is influenced by various factors; however, modifiable factors have not been adequately evaluated. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable factors associated with prolonged D2B time. We historically included 239 consecutive STEMI patients who visited emergency department and underwent primary PCI between April 2013 and September 2016. We evaluated baseline characteristics, mode and timing of hospital arrival, symptoms and signs, treatment times and angiographic characteristics. Patients with D2B time > 90 min were compared with those with D2B time ≤ 90 min. Modifiable factors associated with prolonged D2B time (> 90 min) were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression model. The median D2B time for the entire cohort was 69 min (interquartile range 54-89) and 24% had a D2B time of > 90 min. Modifiable factors associated with prolonged treatment time (D2B time > 90 min) were electrocardiogram (ECG) to puncture time > 50 min [odds ratios (OR) 96.0, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 25.1-652.5, P < 0.0001), door to ECG time > 10 min (OR 49.8, 95% CI 11.8-357.5, P < 0.0001), and puncture to balloon time > 30 min (OR 48.5, 95% CI 12.0-333.8, P < 0.0001). ECG to puncture time > 50 min was the most important modifiable factor associated with prolonged D2B time in STEMI patients.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização/tendências , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Tempo para o Tratamento , Triagem/métodos , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Fatores de Tempo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...