Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 263
Filtrar
1.
Pain ; 2022 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472065

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Pain and related consequences could contribute to comorbid illness and premature mortality in homeless and precariously housed persons. We analyzed longitudinal data from an ongoing naturalistic prospective study of a community-based sample (n = 370) to characterize risk factors and consequences of bodily pain. The aims were to describe bodily pain and associations with symptoms and psychosocial function, investigate factors that may increase or ameliorate pain, and examine the consequences of pain for symptoms, functioning, and all-cause mortality. Bodily pain severity and impact were rated with the 36-item Short Form Health Survey Bodily Pain Scale monthly over 5 years. Mixed-effects linear regression models estimated the effects of time-invariant and time-varying risk factors for pain, verified by reverse causality and multiple imputation analysis. Regression models estimated the associations between overall person-mean pain severity and subsequent functioning and suicidal ideation, and Cox proportional hazard models assessed association with all-cause mortality. Bodily pain of at least moderate severity persisted (>3 months) in 64% of participants, exceeding rates expected in the general population. Greater pain severity was associated with depressive symptom severity and month-to-month opioid use, overlaid on enduring risk associated with age, arthritis, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The frequency of prescribed and nonprescribed opioid use had nonlinear relationships with pain: intermittent use was associated with severe pain, without reverse association or change with the overdose epidemic. Greater longitudinal mean pain severity was associated with premature mortality, poorer functioning, and suicidal ideation. Considering the relationships between pain, intermittent opioid use, and depressive symptoms could improve health care for precariously housed patients.

2.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267808, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35486616

RESUMO

AIM: Long acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics are an alternative to oral antipsychotic (OAP) treatment and may be beneficial for patients in the early stages of schizophrenia. This study aims to provide a comprehensive review on the efficacy of first-generation and second-generation LAI antipsychotics in recent-onset, first-episode, and early psychosis patients. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science Core databases were used to search for studies that used LAIs in early psychosis patients. Studies published up to 06 Jun 2019 were included with no language restrictions applied. Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related disorder, where patients were in their first episode or had a duration of illness ≤5 years. RESULTS: 33 studies were included: 8 RCTs, 4 post-hoc analyses, 2 case reports, and 19 naturalistic studies. The majority of studies evaluated risperidone LAIs (N = 14) and paliperidone palmitate (N = 10), while the remainder investigated fluphenazine decanoate (N = 3), flupentixol decanoate (N = 2), and aripiprazole (N = 1). Two studies did not specify the LAI formulation used, and one cohort study compared the efficacy of multiple different LAI formulations. CONCLUSIONS: While the majority of data is based on naturalistic studies investigating risperidone LAIs or paliperidone palmitate, LAIs may be an effective treatment for early psychosis patients in terms of adherence, relapse reduction, and symptom improvements. There is still a need to conduct more high quality RCTs that investigate the efficacy of different LAI formulations in early psychosis patients.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Transtornos Psicóticos , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Humanos , Palmitato de Paliperidona , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Risperidona
3.
EClinicalMedicine ; 44: 101277, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35252825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Homeless and precarious housed persons are particularly prone to traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), but existent incidence rates are hampered by poor case acquisition. We rigorously documented TBIs in precariously housed persons transitioning in and out of homelessness. METHODS: Between December 2016 and May 2018, 326 precariously housed participants enrolled in a longitudinal study in Vancouver, Canada were assessed monthly for TBI occurrences after education on sequelae. Over one participant-year, 2433 TBI screenings were acquired for 326 person-years and variables associated with odds of incident TBI were evaluated. FINDINGS: One hundred participants acquired 175 TBIs, yielding an observed incidence proportion of 30·7% and event proportion of 53·7%. Of the injured, 61% reported one TBI and 39% reported multiple injuries. Acute intoxication was present for more than half of the TBI events assessed. Additionally, 9·7% of TBI events occurred in the context of a drug overdose. Common injury mechanisms were falls (45·1%), assaults (25·1%), and hitting one's head on an object (13·1%). In this community-based but non-randomly recruited sample, exploratory analyses identified factors associated with odds of an incident TBI over one year of follow-up, including: schizophrenia disorders (odds ratio (OR) = 0·43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·19, 0·94), role functioning (OR = 0·69, 95% CI 0·52, 0·91), opioid dependence (OR = 2·17, 95% CI 1·27, 3·72) and those reporting past TBIs (OR = 1·99, 95% CI 1·13, 3·52). INTERPRETATION: Given the ubiquity of TBIs revealed in this precariously housed sample, we identify an underappreciated and urgent healthcare priority. Several factors modified the odds of incident TBI, which can facilitate investigations into targeted prevention efforts. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, William and Ada Isabelle Steel Research Fund, Simon Fraser University Vice-President Research Undergraduate Student Research Award and Simon Fraser University Psychology Department Research Grant.

4.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 765905, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35242029

RESUMO

The second-generation antipsychotic drugs are widely used in the field of psychiatry, for an expanding number of different conditions. While their clinical efficacy remains indispensable, many of the drugs can cause severe metabolic side-effects, resulting in an increased risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders. The physiological basis of these side-effects remains an ongoing area of investigation. In the present study, we examined the potential role of peripheral catecholamines in antipsychotic-induced glucose intolerance. Adult female rats were acutely treated with either the first-generation antipsychotic drug haloperidol (0.1, 0.5 or 1 mg/kg) or the second-generation drugs risperidone (0.25, 1.0 or 2.5 mg/kg), olanzapine (1.5, 7.5 or 15 mg/kg) or clozapine (2, 10 or 20 mg/kg) or vehicle. Fasting glucose levels were measured and then animals were subjected to the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Levels of peripheral norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine were concurrently measured in the same animals 75, 105 and 135 min after drug treatment. All antipsychotics caused glucose intolerance, with strongest effects by clozapine > olanzapine > risperidone > haloperidol. Plasma catecholamines were also increased by drug treatment, with greatest effects for norepinephrine and epinephrine caused by clozapine > risperidone > olanzapine > haloperidol. Importantly, there were strong and statistically significant associations between norepinephrine/epinephrine levels and glucose intolerance for all drugs. These findings confirm that increases in peripheral catecholamines co-occur in animals that exhibit antipsychotic-induced glucose intolerance, and these effects are strongly associated with each other, providing further evidence for elevated catecholamines as a substrate for antipsychotic metabolic side-effects.

5.
Psychol Med ; : 1-13, 2022 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35144700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contrasting the well-described effects of early intervention (EI) services for youth-onset psychosis, the potential benefits of the intervention for adult-onset psychosis are uncertain. This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of EI on functioning and symptomatic improvement in adult-onset psychosis, and the optimal duration of the intervention. METHODS: 360 psychosis patients aged 26-55 years were randomized to receive either standard care (SC, n = 120), or case management for two (2-year EI, n = 120) or 4 years (4-year EI, n = 120) in a 4-year rater-masked, parallel-group, superiority, randomized controlled trial of treatment effectiveness (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00919620). Primary (i.e. social and occupational functioning) and secondary outcomes (i.e. positive and negative symptoms, and quality of life) were assessed at baseline, 6-month, and yearly for 4 years. RESULTS: Compared with SC, patients with 4-year EI had better Role Functioning Scale (RFS) immediate [interaction estimate = 0.008, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.001-0.014, p = 0.02] and extended social network (interaction estimate = 0.011, 95% CI = 0.004-0.018, p = 0.003) scores. Specifically, these improvements were observed in the first 2 years. Compared with the 2-year EI group, the 4-year EI group had better RFS total (p = 0.01), immediate (p = 0.01), and extended social network (p = 0.05) scores at the fourth year. Meanwhile, the 4-year (p = 0.02) and 2-year EI (p = 0.004) group had less severe symptoms than the SC group at the first year. CONCLUSIONS: Specialized EI treatment for psychosis patients aged 26-55 should be provided for at least the initial 2 years of illness. Further treatment up to 4 years confers little benefits in this age range over the course of the study.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35211769

RESUMO

RATIONALE: How striatal dopamine synthesis capacity (DSC) contributes to the pathogenesis of negative symptoms in first-episode schizophrenia (SZ) and delusional disorder (DD) has seldom been explored. As negative symptoms during active psychotic episodes can be complicated by secondary influences, such as positive symptoms, longitudinal investigations may help to clarify the relationship between striatal DSC and negative symptoms and differentiate between primary and secondary negative symptoms. OBJECTIVE: A longitudinal study was conducted to examine whether baseline striatal DSC would be related to negative symptoms at 3 months in first-episode SZ and DD patients. METHODS: Twenty-three first-episode age- and gender-matched patients (11 DD and 12 SZ) were consecutively recruited through an early intervention service for psychosis in Hong Kong. Among them, 19 (82.6%) patients (9 DD and 10 SZ) were followed up at 3 months. All patients received an 18F-DOPA PET/MR scan at baseline. RESULTS: Baseline striatal DSC (Kocc;30-60) was inversely associated with negative symptoms at 3 months in first-episode SZ patients (rs = - 0.80, p = 0.010). This association remained in SZ patients even when controlling for baseline negative, positive, and depressive symptoms, as well as cumulative antipsychotic dosage (ß = - 0.69, p = 0.012). Such associations were not observed in first-episode DD patients. Meanwhile, the severity of negative symptoms at 3 months was associated with more positive symptoms in DD patients (rs = 0.74, p = 0.010) and not in SZ patients. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the role of striatal DSC in negative symptoms upon resolution of active psychotic episodes among first-episode SZ patients. Baseline striatal dopamine activity may inform future symptom expression with important treatment implications.

7.
J Neurosci ; 42(2): 288-298, 2022 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810231

RESUMO

Physical activity relates to reduced dementia risk, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms are unknown. We translated animal and in vitro studies demonstrating a causal link between physical activity and microglial homeostasis into humans. Decedents from Rush Memory and Aging Project completed actigraphy monitoring (average daily activity) and cognitive evaluation in life, and neuropathological examination at autopsy. Brain tissue was analyzed for microglial activation via immunohistochemistry (anti-human HLA-DP-DQ-DR) and morphology (% Stage I, II, or III), and synaptic protein levels (SNAP-25, synaptophysin, complexin-I, VAMP, syntaxin, synaptotagmin-1). Proportion of morphologically activated microglia (PAM) was estimated in ventromedial caudate, posterior putamen, inferior temporal (IT), and middle frontal gyrus. The 167 decedents averaged 90 years at death, two-thirds were nondemented, and 60% evidenced pathologic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Adjusting for age, sex, education, and motor performances, greater physical activity associated with lower PAM in the ventromedial caudate and IT. Relationships between physical activity and PAM in the ventromedial caudate or IT were particularly prominent in adults evidencing microinfarcts or AD pathology, respectively. Mediational analyses indicated that PAM IT mediated ∼30% of the relationships between (1) physical activity and synaptic protein in IT, and (2) physical activity and global cognition, in separate models. However, the size of the mediation depended on AD pathology ranging from >40% in adults with high AD burden, but <10% in adults with low AD burden. Lower microglial activation may be a pathway linking physical activity to age-related brain health in humans. Physical activity may promote AD-related synaptic and cognitive resilience through reduction of pro-inflammatory microglial states.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Physical activity relates to better cognitive aging and reduced risk of neurodegenerative disease, yet the cellular and molecular pathways linking behavior-to-brain in humans are unknown. Animal studies indicate that increasing physical activity leads to decreased microglial activation and corresponding increases in synaptogenesis and neurogenesis. We objectively monitored physical activity (accelerometer-based actigraphy) and cognitive performances in life, and quantified microglial activation and synaptic markers in brain tissue at death in older adults. These are the first data supporting microglial activation as a physiological pathway by which physical activity relates to brain heath in humans. Although more interventional work is needed, we suggest that physical activity may be a modifiable behavior leveraged to reduce pro-inflammatory microglial states in humans.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Sinapses/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas Qa-SNARE/metabolismo , Sinapsinas/metabolismo , Sinaptofisina/metabolismo , Sinaptotagminas/metabolismo
8.
Can J Psychiatry ; 67(3): 207-215, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719613

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is increasingly recognized as a common and impactful health determinant in homeless and precariously housed populations. We sought to describe the history of TBI in a precariously housed sample and evaluate how TBI was associated with the initial loss and lifetime duration of homelessness and precarious housing. METHOD: We characterized the prevalence, mechanisms, and sex difference of lifetime TBI in a precariously housed sample. We also examined the impact of TBI severity and timing on becoming and staying homeless or precariously housed; 285 precariously housed participants completed the Brain Injury Screening Questionnaire in addition to other health assessments. RESULTS: A history of TBI was reported in 82.1% of the sample, with 64.6% reporting > 1 TBI, and 21.4% reporting a moderate or severe TBI. Assault was the most common mechanism of injury overall, and females reported significantly more traumatic brain injuries due to physical abuse than males (adjusted OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.14 to 1.39, P < 0.0001). The first moderate or severe TBI was significantly closer to the first experience of homelessness (b = 2.79, P = 0.003) and precarious housing (b = 2.69, P < 0.0001) than was the first mild TBI. In participants who received their first TBI prior to becoming homeless or precariously housed, traumatic brain injuries more proximal to the initial loss of stable housing were associated with a longer lifetime duration of homelessness (RR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.06, P < 0.0001) and precarious housing (RR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.04, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate the high prevalence of TBI in this vulnerable population, and that aspects of TBI severity and timing are associated with the loss and lifetime duration of stable housing.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Populações Vulneráveis
10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 487, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552059

RESUMO

A recent increase in the literature regarding the evidence base for clozapine has made it increasingly difficult for clinicians to judge "best evidence" for clozapine use. As such, we aimed at elucidating the state-of-the-art for clozapine with regard to efficacy, effectiveness, tolerability, and management of clozapine and clozapine-related adverse events in neuropsychiatric disorders. We conducted a systematic PRISMA-conforming quantitative meta-review of available meta-analytic evidence regarding clozapine use. Primary outcome effect sizes were extracted and transformed into relative risk ratios (RR) and standardized mean differences (SMD). The methodological quality of meta-analyses was assessed using the AMSTAR-2 checklist. Of the 112 meta-analyses included in our review, 61 (54.5%) had an overall high methodological quality according to AMSTAR-2. Clozapine appears to have superior effects on positive, negative, and overall symptoms and relapse rates in schizophrenia (treatment-resistant and non-treatment-resistant subpopulations) compared to first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and to pooled FGAs/second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS). Despite an unfavorable metabolic and hematological adverse-event profile compared to other antipsychotics, hospitalization, mortality and all-cause discontinuation (ACD) rates of clozapine surprisingly show a pattern of superiority. Our meta-review outlines the superior overall efficacy of clozapine compared to FGAs and most other SGAs in schizophrenia and suggests beneficial efficacy outcomes in bipolar disorder and Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP). More clinical studies and subsequent meta-analyses are needed beyond the application of clozapine in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and future studies should be directed into multidimensional clozapine side-effect management to foster evidence and to inform future guidelines.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Transtorno Bipolar , Clozapina , Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Clozapina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Subst Use Misuse ; 56(13): 1951-1961, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: opioid use, which includes both prescribed and non-prescribed drugs, is relatively common amongst marginalized populations. Past research has shown that among those who use non-prescribed or diverted opioids recreationally, many were first exposed to the drug as prescribed pain medication. Objective: to better understand the relationship between pain and opioid use in tenants of precarious housing. Methods: in the present study, 440 individuals from a cohort living in homeless or precariously housed conditions in a neighborhood with high rates of poverty and drug use were interviewed for their bodily pain and opioid use. We examined the relationship between bodily pain levels, assessed using the Maudsley Addiction Profile questionnaire, and prescribed, non-prescribed and combined self-reported opioid use in the prior 28 days assessed using the Timeline Followback and Doctor-Prescribed Medication Timeline Followback questionnaires. Results: Analysis of the results indicated that sex (female), age (younger) and early exposure to opioids (≤ age 18) predicted current opioid use, but there was no association between current bodily pain levels and opioid use. Conclusions: these unexpected findings indicate the complex nature of the relationship between pain and opioid use in this population.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Adolescente , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/epidemiologia , Prescrições
12.
Ann Emerg Med ; 78(6): 788-795, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353650

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the use of intramuscular ketamine would result in a clinically relevant shorter time to target sedation. METHODS: We conducted a randomized clinical trial comparing the rapidity of onset, level of sedation, and adverse effect profile of ketamine compared to a combination of midazolam and haloperidol for behavioral control of emergency department patients with severe psychomotor agitation. We included patients with severe psychomotor agitation measured by a Richmond Agitation Score (RASS) ≥+3. Patients in the ketamine group were treated with a 5 mg/kg intramuscular injection. Patients in the midazolam and haloperidol group were treated with a single intramuscular injection of 5 mg midazolam and 5 mg haloperidol. The primary outcome was the time, in minutes, from study medication administration to adequate sedation, defined as RASS ≤-1. Secondary outcomes included the need for rescue medications and serious adverse events. RESULTS: Between June 30, 2018, and March 13, 2020, we screened 308 patients and enrolled 80. The median time to sedation was 14.7 minutes for midazolam and haloperidol versus 5.8 minutes for ketamine (difference 8.8 minutes [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0 to 14.5]). Adjusted Cox proportional model analysis favored the ketamine arm (hazard ratio 2.43, 95% CI 1.43 to 4.12). Five (12.5%) patients in the ketamine arm and 2 (5.0%) patients in the midazolam and haloperidol arm experienced serious adverse events (difference 7.5% [95% CI -4.8% to 19.8%]). CONCLUSION: In ED patients with severe agitation, intramuscular ketamine provided significantly shorter time to adequate sedation than a combination of intramuscular midazolam and haloperidol.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Dissociativos/administração & dosagem , Haloperidol/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Agitação Psicomotora/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anestésicos Dissociativos/uso terapêutico , Canadá , Feminino , Haloperidol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Injeções Intramusculares , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Midazolam/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
CJEM ; 23(5): 668-672, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196944

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Suicide is the 9th leading cause of death in Canada, and a common reason for patients to present to Canadian emergency departments (ED). Little knowledge exists around Canadian emergency physicians (EPs) attitudes toward and understanding of individuals with suicidal ideation. METHODS: We developed a web-based survey on suicide knowledge, which was pilot tested by two EPs and one psychiatrist for clarity and content. The survey was distributed via email to attending physician members of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians. Data were described using counts, means, medians and interquartile ranges. The Understanding of Suicidal Patients (USP) Scale is an 11-point questionnaire to assess healthcare providers' attitudes toward individuals with suicidal ideation. Other questions pertaining to suicidal ideation, self-perceptions on ability to treat suicidal patients, and personal experiences with suicide were asked in Likert format. RESULTS: One hundred eighty-eight Canadian EPs responded to the survey (15% response rate), with a median age of 49 (IQR 39-55), academic practice reported by 55% of respondents, and 65% of respondents identified as male. The mean USP score was 21.8 (95% CI 21.1-22.5), which indicates a generally positive attitude and willingness to provide care for suicidal patients. Only 17% of respondents had participated in specific training for treatment of suicidal patients in the last five years, while the majority of respondents estimate treating 5-15 patients with suicidal ideation a month. Sixty four percent of respondents indicated they had the skills to screen patients for suicidal ideation, but less than one-third felt they could create a personalized safety plan for patients. CONCLUSIONS: Respondents have a generally positive attitude toward treating individuals with suicidal ideation. Respondents scored highly on the USP scale that measured willingness to provide care for and empathize with suicidal patients. Respondents felt they had the skills to adequately screen patients for suicidal ideation. Key gaps in knowledge were identified suggesting improved residency and ongoing medical education opportunities are needed to better improve care for this vulnerable population.


RéSUMé: INTRODUCTION: Le suicide est la 9e principale cause de décès au Canada et une raison courante pour laquelle les patients se présentent aux services d'urgence (SU) canadiens. Il existe peu de connaissances sur les attitudes et la compréhension des médecins d'urgence canadiens à l'égard des personnes ayant des idées suicidaires. MéTHODES: Nous avons développé une enquête en ligne sur la connaissance du suicide, qui a été testée par deux médecins d'urgence et un psychiatre pour en vérifier la clarté et le contenu. Le sondage a été distribué par courriel aux médecins traitants membres de l'Association canadienne des médecins d'urgence. Les données ont été décrites à l'aide de chiffres, de moyennes, de médianes et d'intervalles interquartiles. L'échelle de compréhension des patients suicidaires (USP) est un questionnaire en 11 points visant à évaluer l'attitude des prestataires de soins de santé envers les personnes ayant des idées suicidaires. D'autres questions portant sur les idées suicidaires, les perceptions de soi sur la capacité de traiter les patients suicidaires et les expériences personnelles de suicide ont été posées en format Likert. RéSULTATS: Cent quatre-vingt-huit médecins d'urgence canadiens ont répondu à l'enquête (taux de réponse de 15 %), avec un âge médian de 49 ans (IQR 39-55), une pratique universitaire déclarée par 55 % des répondants, et 65 % des répondants se sont identifiés comme des hommes. Le score USP moyen était de 21,8 (IC à 95 % 21,1-22,5), ce qui indique une attitude généralement positive et une volonté de fournir des soins aux patients suicidaires. Seuls 17 % des répondants ont participé à une formation spécifique pour le traitement des patients suicidaires au cours des cinq dernières années, tandis que la majorité des répondants estiment traiter 5 à 15 patients ayant des idées suicidaires par mois. Soixante-quatre pour cent des répondants ont indiqué qu'ils possédaient les compétences nécessaires pour dépister les idées suicidaires chez les patients, mais moins d'un tiers estimaient qu'ils pouvaient créer un plan de sécurité personnalisé pour les patients. CONCLUSIONS: Les répondants ont une attitude généralement positive à l'égard du traitement des personnes ayant des idées suicidaires. Les répondants ont obtenu un score élevé sur l'échelle USP qui mesurait la volonté de fournir des soins et de l'empathie envers les patients suicidaires. Les répondants estimaient avoir les compétences nécessaires pour dépister adéquatement les idées suicidaires chez les patients. Des lacunes importantes dans les connaissances ont été identifiées, ce qui suggère que de meilleures possibilités de formation en résidence et de formation médicale continue sont nécessaires pour améliorer les soins offerts à cette population vulnérable.


Assuntos
Médicos , Suicídio , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Canadá , Humanos , Masculino , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/prevenção & controle
14.
Front Psychol ; 12: 571423, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276459

RESUMO

The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is a widely used measure of decision making, but its value in signifying behaviors associated with adverse, "real-world" consequences has not been consistently demonstrated in persons who are precariously housed or homeless. Studies evaluating the ecological validity of the IGT have primarily relied on traditional IGT scores. However, computational modeling derives underlying component processes of the IGT, which capture specific facets of decision making that may be more closely related to engagement in behaviors associated with negative consequences. This study employed the Prospect Valence Learning (PVL) model to decompose IGT performance into component processes in 294 precariously housed community residents with substance use disorders. Results revealed a predominant focus on gains and a lack of sensitivity to losses in these vulnerable community residents. Hypothesized associations were not detected between component processes and self-reported health-risk behaviors. These findings provide insight into the processes underlying decision making in a vulnerable substance-using population and highlight the challenge of linking specific decision making processes to "real-world" behaviors.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263540

RESUMO

AIM: Long-acting injectable antipsychotic drugs (LAIs) are often used as an alternative to oral antipsychotics (OAPs) in individuals with psychosis who demonstrate poor medication adherence. Previous meta-analyses have found mixed results on the efficacy of LAIs, compared to OAPs, in patients with psychotic disorders. The objective of this meta-analysis was to compare the effectiveness of using LAIs versus OAPs in the early stages of psychosis. METHODS: Major electronic databases were used to search for any studies examining the comparative effectiveness (i.e., relapse, adherence, hospitalization, and all-cause discontinuation) of any LAIs versus OAPs in early stages of psychosis. Studies published up to 6 June, 2019 were included and no language restriction was applied. Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related disorder, where patients were in their first episode or had a duration of illness ≤5 years. Data were analysed using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Fifteen studies (n = 10 584) were included, of which were 7 RCTs, 7 observational studies, and 1 post-hoc analysis. We found that LAIs provided advantages over OAPs in terms of relapse rates. No significant differences were found between LAI and OAP groups in terms of all-cause discontinuation, hospitalization, and adherence rates. However, considering only RCTs revealed advantages of LAIs over OAPs in terms of hospitalization rates. CONCLUSIONS: LAIs may provide benefits over OAPs with respect to reducing relapse and hospitalization rates in early psychosis patients. There is a need for larger and better-designed studies comparing OAPs and LAIs specifically in early psychosis patients.

16.
Pharmacy (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287361

RESUMO

Second-generation antipsychotic medications are used to treat schizophrenia and a range of other psychotic disorders, although adverse effects, including cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities and extrapyramidal symptoms, are often inevitable. Studies have shown that exercise, as an adjunct therapy, can be effective in reducing the core symptoms of schizophrenia as well as ameliorating intrinsic and antipsychotic-induced cardiometabolic abnormalities. However, it is noteworthy that exercise may need to be implemented with caution in some individuals receiving certain antipsychotic treatment regimens. We report here two cases of exercise-associated worsening of extrapyramidal symptoms in two individuals with schizoaffective disorder treated with a long-acting injectable antipsychotic medication over the course of a 12-week exercise program. This worsening of extrapyramidal symptoms can be attributed to an increase in blood flow to the site of injection during exercise, accelerating the rate of absorption and bioavailability of the antipsychotic medication and subsequently increasing dopamine D2 receptor blockade. When monitoring drug therapy for patients receiving long-acting injectable antipsychotic medications, pharmacists and other healthcare professionals need to consider exercise as a contributing factor for the emergence of extrapyramidal symptoms.

17.
NPJ Schizophr ; 7(1): 29, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035313

RESUMO

Early intervention is essential for favorable long-term outcomes in schizophrenia. However, there is limited guidance in the scientific literature on how best to choose between dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) partial agonists and D2R antagonists in early stages of schizophrenia. The aim of this meta-analysis was to directly compare D2R partial agonists with D2R antagonists for efficacy and tolerability, using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that involved participants diagnosed with first-episode psychosis, schizophrenia, or related psychotic disorders with a duration of illness ≤5 years. Fourteen RCTs, involving 2494 patients, were included in the meta-analysis. Aripiprazole was the only identified D2R partial agonist, and was not significantly different from pooled D2R antagonists for overall symptom reduction or all-cause discontinuation. However, aripiprazole was more favorable than pooled D2R antagonists for depressive symptoms, prolactin levels, and triglyceride levels. Specifically, aripiprazole was more favorable than paliperidone for triglyceride levels and more favorable than risperidone and olanzapine, but less favorable than ziprasidone, for weight gain. In addition, aripiprazole was less favorable for akathisia compared with second-generation D2R antagonists, in particular olanzapine and quetiapine, and less favorable for discontinuation due to inefficacy than risperidone. Lastly, aripiprazole was more favorable than haloperidol for various efficacy and tolerability outcomes. In conclusion, aripiprazole's efficacy did not differ substantially from D2R antagonists in the early course of schizophrenia, whereas differential tolerability profiles were noted. More double-blind RCTs are required comparing the efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole as well as other D2R partial agonists with D2R antagonists in early stages of schizophrenia.

18.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 129: 105257, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023734

RESUMO

Clozapine is a second generation antipsychotic drug that has proven to be helpful in the management of patients with psychotic disorders that are resistant to other medications. Unfortunately, the majority of patients treated with clozapine develop metabolic dysregulation, including weight gain and insulin resistance. There are few treatments available to effectively counter these side-effects. The goal of the present study was to use an established animal model to better understand the nature of these metabolic side-effects and determine whether existing drugs could be used to alleviate metabolic changes. Adult female rats were treated with a range of doses of clozapine (2, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and subjected to the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, to measure whole-body insulin resistance. Clozapine dose-dependently decreased the glucose infusion rate, reflecting pronounced insulin resistance. To reverse the insulin resistance, rats were co-treated with the ganglionic blocker mecamylamine (0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) which dose-dependently reversed the effects of 10 mg/kg clozapine. A 1.0 mg/kg dose of mecamylamine independently reversed the large increase in peripheral epinephrine caused by treatment with clozapine. To study the influence of specific adrenoceptors, rats were treated with multiple doses of α1 (prazosin), α2 (idazoxan), ß1 (atenolol) and ß2 (butoxamine) adrenoceptor antagonists after the onset of clozapine-induced insulin resistance. Both beta blockers were effective in attenuating the effects of clozapine, while idazoxan had a smaller effect; no change was seen with prazosin. The current results indicate that peripheral catecholamines may play a role in clozapine's metabolic effects and be a target for future treatments.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos , Clozapina , Bloqueadores Ganglionares , Resistência à Insulina , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Clozapina/efeitos adversos , Clozapina/farmacologia , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Bloqueadores Ganglionares/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Mecamilamina/farmacologia , Ratos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...