Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 9 de 9
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Data Brief ; 18: 1877-1888, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904691

RESUMO

[The data presented here represent estimates of the nitrogen content of crop production, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and agricultural nitrogen inputs associated with it across the contiguous United States. Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Input (NANI) estimates and related data are also provided. Data are presented at county, sub-regional and regional scales. Here, subregions refer to multi-county areas delineated with the goal of obtaining more uniform reporting areas than individual counties. Regions refer to the USDA Farm Resource Regions. The data are reported for 6 agricultural census years, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002, 2007 and 2012. Estimates of the variables were derived originally from USDA agricultural census data, US population census data, and other sources, using version 3.1 of the NANI calculator toolbox [1], [2], [3]].

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 635: 498-511, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29677675

RESUMO

National-level summaries of crop production and nutrient use efficiency, important for international comparisons, only partially elucidate agricultural dynamics within a country. Agricultural production and associated environmental impacts in large countries vary significantly because of regional differences in crops, climate, resource use and production practices. Here, we review patterns of regional crop production, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and major inputs of nitrogen to US crops over 1987-2012, based on the Farm Resource Regions developed by the Economic Research Service (USDA-ERS). Across the US, NUE generally decreased over time over the period studied, mainly due to increased use in mineral N fertilizer above crop N requirements. The Heartland region dominates production of major crops and thus tends to drive national patterns, showing linear response of crop production to nitrogen inputs broadly consistent with an earlier analysis of global patterns of country-scale data by Lassaletta et al. (2014). Most other regions show similar responses, but the Eastern Uplands region shows a negative response to nitrogen inputs, and the Southern Seaboard shows no significant relationship. The regional differences appear as two branches in the response of aggregate production to N inputs on a cropland area basis, but not on a total area basis, suggesting that the type of scaling used is critical under changing cropland area. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is positively associated with fertilizer as a percentage of N inputs in four regions, and all regions considered together. NUE is positively associated with crop N fixation in all regions except Northern Great Plains. It is negatively associated with manure (livestock excretion); in the US, manure is still treated largely as a waste to be managed rather than a nutrient resource. This significant regional variation in patterns of crop production and NUE vs N inputs, has implications for environmental quality and food security.

3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(35): 27201-27214, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965271

RESUMO

China is undergoing a rapid transition from a rural to an urban society. This societal change is a consequence of a national drive toward economic prosperity. However, accelerated urban development resulting from rapid population migration from rural to urban lands has led to high levels of untreated sewage entering aquatic ecosystems directly. Consequently, many of these regions have been identified as hot spots of riverine nitrogen (N) pollution because of the increasing level of urban point-source discharge. In order to address this concern, we assessed effects of urban development on ammonia-nitrogen (AN) loads using a panel data regression model. The model, expressed as an exponential function of anthropogenic N inputs multiplied by a power function of streamflow, was applied to 20 subwatersheds of the Huai River Basin for the years 2003-2010. The results indicated that this model can account for 81% of the variation in annual AN fluxes over space and time. Application of this model to three scenarios of urban development and sewage treatment (termed urbanization priority, sustainable development, and environmental priority) suggests that future N pollution will inevitably deteriorate if current urban environmental management and investment are not significantly improved. Stronger support for environmental management is very critical to alleviate N pollution and improve water quality. More effort should focus on improving sewage treatment and the N removal rate of the current sewage system in light of the increasing degree of urbanization.


Assuntos
Amônia/análise , Migração Humana , Nitrogênio/análise , Rios/química , Urbanização , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Modelos Teóricos , População Rural , População Urbana , Qualidade da Água
4.
Ambio ; 44(7): 635-46, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25698057

RESUMO

The environmental degradation of lakes in China has become increasingly serious over the last 30 years and eutrophication resulting from enhanced nutrient inputs is considered a top threat. In this study, a quasi-mass balance method, net anthropogenic N inputs (NANI), was introduced to assess the human influence on N input into three typical Chinese lake basins. The resultant NANI exceeded 10,000 kg N km(-2) year(-1) for all three basins, and mineral fertilizers were generally the largest sources. However, rapid urbanization and shrinking agricultural production capability may significantly increase N inputs from food and feed imports. Higher percentages of NANI were observed to be exported at urban river outlets, suggesting the acceleration of NANI transfer to rivers by urbanization. Over the last decade, the N inputs have declined in the basins dominated by the fertilizer use but have increased in the basins dominated by the food and feed import. In the foreseeable future, urban areas may arise as new hotspots for nitrogen in China while fertilizer use may decline in importance in areas of high population density.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Lagos/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição Química da Água/prevenção & controle
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 505: 376-84, 2015 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25461039

RESUMO

Due to a rapid increase in human population and development of neighborhood economy over the last few decades, nitrogen (N) and other nutrient inputs in Lake Dianchi drainage basin have increased dramatically, changing the lake's trophic classification from oligotrophic to eutrophic. Although human activities are considered as main causes for the degradation of water quality in the lake, a numerical analysis of the share of the effect of different anthropogenic factors is still largely unexplored. We use the net anthropogenic N input (NANI) method to estimate human-induced N inputs to the drainage basin from 1980 to 2010, which covers the period of dramatic socioeconomic and environmental changes. For the last three decades, NANI increased linearly by a factor of three, from 4700 kg km(-2)year(-1) in 1980 to 12,600 kg km(-2)year(-1) in 2010. The main reason for the rise of NANI was due to fertilizer N application as well as human food and animal feed imports. From the perspective of direct effects of food consumption on N inputs, contributions of drivers were estimated in terms of human population and human diet using the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) factor decomposition method. Although human population density is highly correlated to NANI with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.999, human diet rather than human population is found to be the single largest driver of NANI change, accounting for 47% of total alteration, which illustrates that the role of population density in the change of NANI may be overestimated through simple relational analysis. The strong linear relationships (p<0.01) between NANI and total N concentrations in the lakes over time may indicate that N level in the lake is able to respond significantly to N inputs to the drainage basin.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos/química , Nitrogênio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Eutrofização , Fertilizantes/análise , Atividades Humanas , Fósforo/análise
6.
Ambio ; 43(1): 11-25, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24414801

RESUMO

The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, which means that the nutrient reduction goals of 135 000 tons N and 15 000 tons P, as formulated in the BSAP from 2007, correspond to a reduction in nutrient loadings to watersheds by 675 000 tons N and 158 000 tons P. A cost-minimization model was used to allocate nutrient reductions to measures and countries where the costs for reducing loads are low. The minimum annual cost to meet BSAP basin targets is estimated to 4.7 billion Euro.


Assuntos
Eutrofização , Países Bálticos , Alocação de Custos , Modelos Econômicos , Oceanos e Mares
7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 47(10): 5199-207, 2013 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23631661

RESUMO

The net anthropogenic nitrogen input (NANI) approach is a simple quasi-mass-balance that estimates the human-induced nitrogen inputs to a watershed. Across a wide range of watersheds, NANI has been shown to be a good predictor of riverine nitrogen export. In this paper, we review various methodologies proposed for NANI estimation since its first introduction and evaluate alternative calculations suggested by previous literature. Our work is the first study in which a consistent NANI calculation method is applied across the U.S. watersheds and tested against available riverine N flux estimates. Among the tested methodologies, yield-based estimation of agricultural N fixation (instead of crop area-based) made the largest difference, especially in some Mississippi watersheds where the tile drainage was a significant factor reducing watershed N retention. Across the U.S. watersheds, NANI was particularly sensitive to farm N fertilizer application, cattle N consumption, N fixation by soybeans and alfalfa, and N yield by corn, soybeans, and pasture, although their relative importance varied among different regions.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/química , Humanos , Estados Unidos
8.
Proc Biol Sci ; 275(1652): 2659-65, 2008 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18755680

RESUMO

Combining Stone Age and modern data provides unique insights for management, extending beyond contemporary problems and shifting baselines. Using fish chronometric parts, we compared demographic characteristics of exploited cod populations from the Neolithic Period (4500 BP) to the modern highly exploited fishery in the central Baltic Sea. We found that Neolithic cod were larger (mean 56.4 cm, 95% confidence interval (CI)+/-0.9) than modern fish (weighted mean length in catch =49.5+/-0.2 cm in 1995, 48.2+/-0.2 cm in 2003), and older (mean ages=4.7+/-0.11, 3.1+/-0.02 and 3.6+/-0.02 years for Neolithic, 1995, and 2003 fisheries, respectively). Fishery-independent surveys in 1995 and 2003 show that mean sizes in the stock are 16-17 cm smaller than reflected in the fishery, and mean ages approximately 1-1.5 years younger. Modelled von Bertalanffy growth and back-calculated lengths indicated that Neolithic cod grew to smaller asymptotic lengths, but were larger at younger ages, implying rapid early growth. Very small Neolithic cod were absent and large individuals were rare as in modern times. This could be owing to selective harvests, the absence of small and large fish in the area or a combination. Comparing modern and prehistoric times, fishery selection is evident, but apparently not as great as in the North Atlantic proper.


Assuntos
Demografia , Pesqueiros/história , Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Gadus morhua/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Biológicos , Fatores Etários , Animais , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Pesqueiros/instrumentação , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , Membrana dos Otólitos/anatomia & histologia , Dinâmica Populacional
9.
Environ Pollut ; 141(1): 8-21, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16214276

RESUMO

The impact of the air pollution ozone on soil N dynamics and temporal and spatial patterns of streamflow nitrate flux at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest Watershed 6 during the 1964-1994 period was assessed using aggregated (one-cell) and spatially explicit (208-cell) versions of the SImple NItrogen Cycle (SINIC) model. Simulated ozone effects included reductions in stomatal conductance and plant N demand. Model uncertainty was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations. Ambient ozone was estimated to cause an additional 0.042 gN/m2 per year of nitrate export, 12% of the mean annual streamflow nitrate flux. The 95% credible interval of this estimate was 0.002-0.083 gN/m2 per year, or 0.72-27.3% of the annual flux. The large uncertainty in this estimate suggests that it may be difficult to identify ozone effects on nitrate export utilizing long term data from a single site.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Nitratos , Oxidantes Fotoquímicos , Ozônio , Poluentes do Solo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Simulação por Computador , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Agricultura Florestal , Água Doce , Modelos Estatísticos , New York , Tempo , Movimentos da Água
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA