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Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205624


Studies have reported that cholesterol, a molecule found mainly in animals, is also present in some plants and algae. This study aimed to determine whether cholesterol exists in three dehydrated algae species, namely, Pyropia tenera, Saccharina japonica, and Undaria pinnatifida, and in one plant species, namely, Perilla frutescens (four perilla seed oil samples were analyzed). These species were chosen for investigation because they are common ingredients in East Asian cuisine. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis found that cholesterol was present in P. tenera (14.6 mg/100 g) and in all four perilla seed oil samples (0.3-0.5 mg/100 g). High-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) also demonstrated that cholesterol was present in P. tenera (14.2 mg/100 g) and allowed the separation of cholesterol from its isomer lathosterol. However, cholesterol could not be detected by HPLC-ELSD in the perilla seed oil samples, most likely because it is only present in trace amounts. Moreover, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) confirmed the presence of cholesterol in both P. tenera and perilla seed oil. MRM results further suggested that lathosterol (a precursor of cholesterol) was present in P. tenera.

Perilla frutescens/metabolismo , Petróleo/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
Foods ; 10(5)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068968


When cassava is used for the production of distilled spirits through fermentation and distillation, toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is released from linamarin and carcinogenic ethyl carbamate is produced. Herein, cyanide and ethyl carbamate contents were monitored during the fermentation and lab-scale continuous distillation processes. Thereafter, mass balance and the influence of copper chips were evaluated. Results showed that 81.5% of cyanide was removed after fermentation. Use of copper chips completely prevented the migration of cyanide into the distilled spirits, while 88.3% of cyanide migrated from the fermented liquid in the absence of copper chips. Formation of ethyl carbamate was significantly promoted during distillation. Most of the produced ethyl carbamate (73.2%) was transferred into the distilled spirits in the absence of copper chips, only 9.6% of the ethyl carbamate was transferred when copper chips were used. Thus, copper chips effectively prevented the migration of cyanide and ethyl carbamate into the distilled spirts during continuous distillation.

Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805759


Fat globule size and phospholipid (PL) content in human milk (HM) were investigated. HM was classified into three groups depending on fat content (A < B < C). PL content (mg/100 g HM) was significantly higher in the C group (p < 0.05), indicating its positive relationship with HM fat content. When the PL content was normalized (mg/g fat), that of group A was significantly higher (p < 0.05) and fat droplet size in group C was slightly larger, suggesting that HM fat content is affected by fat droplet numbers to a larger extent than by fat droplet size. A correlation between PC and SM content in HM was observed regardless of fat content, while correlation between PE and either PC or SM increased in the order of C > B > A, hence the composition and content of PL species in HM varied according to its fat content.

Gotículas Lipídicas/química , Gotículas Lipídicas/ultraestrutura , Leite Humano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Lactação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Leite/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Fosfolipídeos/análise , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 19(7): 713-7, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19652520


The dependence of the catalytic properties of horseradish peroxidase on the structural changes of ionic liquids was investigated with two water-miscible ionic liquids, N-butyl-3- methypyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([BMPy][BF4]) and 1-butyl- 3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate ([BMIM][MeSO4]), each of which shares an anion (BF4 -) or a cation (BMIM+) with 1-butyl- 3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]), respectively. The oxidation of guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) with H2O2 was used as a model reaction. In order to minimize the effect of solution viscosity on the kinetic constants of the enzymatic catalysis, the enzymatic reactions for the kinetic study were performed in water-ionic liquid mixtures containing 25% (v/v) ionic liquid at maximum. Similarly to the previously reported results for [BMIM][BF4], as the concentration of [BMPy][BF4] increased, the Km value increased with a decrease in the kcat value: the Km value increased markedly from 2.8 mM in 100% water to 12.6 mM in 25% (v/v) ionic liquid, indicating that ionic liquid significantly weakens the binding affinity of guaiacol to the enzyme. On the contrary, [BMIM][MeSO4] decreased the Km value to 1.4 mM in 25% (v/v) ionic liquid. [BMIM][MeSO4] also decreased kcat more than 3- folds [from 13.8 s-1 in 100% water to 4.1 s-1 in 25% (v/v) ionic liquid]. These results indicate that the ionic liquids interact with the enzyme at the molecular level as well as at a macroscopic thermodynamic scale. Specifically, the anionic component of the ionic liquids influenced the catalysis of horseradish peroxidase in different ways.

Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre/química , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Catálise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Guaiacol/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Imidazóis/química , Cinética , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução , Compostos de Piridínio/química , Viscosidade
Biotechnol Lett ; 30(3): 529-33, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17973090


The effects of a water-miscible ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF(4)]), on both thermodynamics and kinetic mechanism of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalyzed oxidation of guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) by H(2)O(2) were investigated. The ionic liquid stabilized the ground state of guaiacol by causing an 8-fold increase of K(m) from 3 to 23 mM upon the addition of 25% (v/v) [BMIM][BF(4)]. In addition, the effect of [BMIM][BF(4)] in decreasing the k(cat) value of HRP catalysis was described by a non-competitive inhibition mechanism. The value of the inhibition constant of [BMIM][BF(4)] was 2.9 M indicating that the ionic liquid plays the role of a weak non-competitive inhibitor for HRP catalysis.

Guaiacol/metabolismo , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre/metabolismo , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Catálise , Cinética , Oxirredução , Termodinâmica