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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1910584, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483470

RESUMO

Importance: Diagnostic low-dose ionizing radiation has great medical benefits; however, its increasing use has raised concerns about possible cancer risks. Objective: To examine the risk of cancer after diagnostic low-dose radiation exposure. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study included youths aged 0 to 19 years at baseline from South Korean National Health Insurance System claim records from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2015. Exposure to diagnostic low-dose ionizing radiation was classified as any that occurred on or after the entry date, when the participant was aged 0 to 19 years, on or before the exit date, and at least 2 years before any cancer diagnosis. Cancer diagnoses were based on International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision codes. Data were analyzed from March 2018 to September 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary analysis assessed the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for exposed vs nonexposed individuals using the number of person-years as an offset. Results: The cohort included a total of 12 068 821 individuals (6 339 782 [52.5%] boys). There were 2 309 841 individuals (19.1%) aged 0 to 4 years, 2 951 679 individuals (24.5%) aged 5 to 9 years, 3 489 709 individuals (28.9%) aged 10 to 14 years, and 3 317 593 individuals (27.5%) aged 15 to 19 years. Of these, 1 275 829 individuals (10.6%) were exposed to diagnostic low-dose ionizing radiation between 2006 and 2015, and 10 792 992 individuals (89.4%) were not exposed. By December 31, 2015, 21 912 cancers were recorded. Among individuals who had been exposed, 1444 individuals (0.1%) received a cancer diagnosis. The overall cancer incidence was greater among exposed individuals than among nonexposed individuals after adjusting for age and sex (IRR, 1.64 [95% CI, 1.56-1.73]; P < .001). Among individuals who had undergone computed tomography scans in particular, the overall cancer incidence was greater among exposed individuals than among nonexposed individuals after adjusting for age and sex (IRR, 1.54 [95% CI, 1.45-1.63]; P < .001). The incidence of cancer increased significantly for many types of lymphoid, hematopoietic, and solid cancers after exposure to diagnostic low-dose ionizing radiation. Among lymphoid and hematopoietic cancers, incidence of cancer increased the most for other myeloid leukemias (IRR, 2.14 [95% CI, 1.86-2.46]) and myelodysplasia (IRR, 2.48 [95% CI, 1.77-3.47]). Among solid cancers, incidence of cancer increased the most for breast (IRR, 2.32 [95% CI, 1.35-3.99]) and thyroid (IRR, 2.19 [95% CI, 1.97-2.20]) cancers. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found an association of increased incidence of cancer with exposure to diagnostic low-dose ionizing radiation in a large cohort. Given this risk, diagnostic low-dose ionizing radiation should be limited to situations in which there is a definite clinical indication.

3.
Ann Epidemiol ; 36: 26-32, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405718

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the association between county-level trends in opioid prescribing rates, a proxy for opioid misuse, and rates of reported gonorrhea (GC) among males in the United States. METHODS: We used linear mixed-model regression analyses to evaluate the association between county-level trends in opioid prescribing rates and rates of reported GC among males during 2010-2015. RESULTS: There was a positive association between trends in county-level opioid prescribing rates and rates of GC among males (ß = 0.068, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.030, 0.105) during 2010-2015. However, the magnitude of this association decreased significantly over time in counties where opioid prescribing rates decreased (ß = -0.018, 95% CI = -0.030, -0.006) and remained stable (ß = -0.020, 95% CI = -0.038, -0.002) but was unchanged in counties where opioid prescribing rates increased (ß = -0.029, 95% CI = -0.058, 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: During 2010-2015, we found a positive association between increases in county-level opioid prescribing rates, a proxy for opioid misuse, and rates of reported GC among males especially in counties most affected by the opioid crisis. Integrating sexual health with opioid misuse interventions might be beneficial in addressing the GC burden in the United States.

4.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e1900226, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432628

RESUMO

SCOPE: Insulin resistance (IR) and inflammation are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The nod-like receptor pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a metabolic sensor activated by saturated fatty acids (SFA) initiating IL-1ß inflammation and IR. Interactions between SFA intake and NLRP3-related genetic variants may alter T2D risk factors. METHODS: Meta-analyses of six Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (n = 19 005) tested interactions between SFA and NLRP3-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and modulation of fasting insulin, fasting glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. RESULTS: SFA interacted with rs12143966, wherein each 1% increase in SFA intake increased insulin by 0.0063 IU mL-1 (SE ± 0.002, p = 0.001) per each major (G) allele copy. rs4925663, interacted with SFA (ß ± SE = -0.0058 ± 0.002, p = 0.004) to increase insulin by 0.0058 IU mL-1 , per additional copy of the major (C) allele. Both associations are close to the significance threshold (p < 0.0001). rs4925663 causes a missense mutation affecting NLRP3 expression. CONCLUSION: Two NLRP3-related SNPs showed potential interaction with SFA to modulate fasting insulin. Greater dietary SFA intake accentuates T2D risk, which, subject to functional validation, may be further elaborated depending on NLRP3-related genetic variants.

5.
Sex Transm Dis ; 46(7): 446-451, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted diseases, including chlamydia and gonorrhea, cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and infertility. We estimated the prevalence of infertility and infertility health care seeking. METHODS: We analyzed self-reported lifetime infertility and infertility health care-seeking in women aged 18 to 49 years in the 2013 and 2015 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Weighted prevalence of infertility and infertility health care seeking, prevalence ratios (PRs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: Among 2626 eligible women, 13.8% had self-reported infertility (95% CI, 12.3-15.3) with higher prevalence by age: 960, 18 to 29 years (PR, 6.4%; 95% CI, 4.8-8.0); 799, 30 to 39 years (PR, 14.8%; 95% CI, 12.2-17.3); and 867, 40 to 49 years (PR, 20.8%; 95% CI, 17.2-24.4). Non-Hispanic white women (PR, 15.4%; 95% CI, 13.0-17.8; n = 904) and non-Hispanic black women (PR, 12.9%; 95% CI, 10.3-15.5; n = 575) had the highest infertility prevalences. Women reporting PID treatment (n = 122) had higher infertility prevalence (PR, 24.2%; 95% CI, 16.2-32.2) than women without PID treatment (PR, 13.3%; 95% CI, 11.6-15.0; n = 2,485), especially among 18- to 29-year-old women (PR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.8-8.0). Of 327 women with infertility, 60.9% (95% CI, 56.1-65.8) sought health care. Women without health care insurance sought care less frequently than women with insurance. CONCLUSIONS: In a nationally representative sample, 13.8% of reproductive-age women reported a history of infertility, of whom 40% did not access health care. Self-reported PID was associated with infertility, especially in young women. Annual chlamydia and gonorrhea screening to avert PID may reduce the burden of infertility in the United States.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 15-28, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178129

RESUMO

Circulating levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted protein associated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk, are highly heritable. To gain insights into the biology that regulates adiponectin levels, we performed an exome array meta-analysis of 265,780 genetic variants in 67,739 individuals of European, Hispanic, African American, and East Asian ancestry. We identified 20 loci associated with adiponectin, including 11 that had been reported previously (p < 2 × 10-7). Comparison of exome array variants to regional linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) results detected candidate variants (r2 > .60) spanning as much as 900 kb. To identify potential genes and mechanisms through which the previously unreported association signals act to affect adiponectin levels, we assessed cross-trait associations, expression quantitative trait loci in subcutaneous adipose, and biological pathways of nearby genes. Eight of the nine loci were also associated (p < 1 × 10-4) with at least one obesity or lipid trait. Candidate genes include PRKAR2A, PTH1R, and HDAC9, which have been suggested to play roles in adipocyte differentiation or bone marrow adipose tissue. Taken together, these findings provide further insights into the processes that influence circulating adiponectin levels.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6736, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043656

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between AS and subsequent depression. This study was conducted using a nationwide dataset available in Korean National Health Insurance System (KNHIS). We identified 11,465 newly diagnosed AS patients and 57,325 patients without AS in the ratio of 1:5 matched by sex, age, and index date, between 2010 and 2014. We investigated any latent characteristics in the patients' demographic information and chronic comorbidities that could trigger a depression when diagnosed with AS. By comparing the cohort data, the hazard ratio of developing subsequent depression in AS patients was calculated and adjusted based on several risk factors. Despite the adjustment of demographic variables and chronic comorbidities, the risk of depression was 2.21 times higher in the AS cohort than in the control group. Multivariate analysis showed that AS patients with female gender, old age and low-income status showed higher risks of developing depression. Additionally, the presence of chronic comorbidities including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cancer, stroke, and chronic kidney disease increased the patients' risk of depression. The AS patients with stroke were reported to have the highest risk of depression. This population-based cohort study showed that AS significantly increased the subsequent risk of developing depression. Moreover, the development of a depression is influenced by certain demographic variables and different chronic comorbidities.

8.
ACS Nano ; 13(6): 6531-6539, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072094

RESUMO

Both self-healable conductors and stretchable conductors have been previously reported. However, it is still difficult to simultaneously achieve high stretchability, high conductivity, and self-healability. Here, we observed an intriguing phenomenon, termed "electrical self-boosting", which enables reconstructing of electrically percolative pathways in an ultrastretchable and self-healable nanocomposite conductor (over 1700% strain). The autonomously reconstructed percolative pathways were directly verified by using microcomputed tomography and in situ scanning electron microscopy. The encapsulated nanocomposite conductor shows exceptional conductivity (average value: 2578 S cm-1; highest value: 3086 S cm-1) at 3500% tensile strain by virtue of efficient strain energy dissipation of the self-healing polymer and self-alignment and rearrangement of silver flakes surrounded by spontaneously formed silver nanoparticles and their self-assembly in the strained self-healing polymer matrix. In addition, the conductor maintains high conductivity and stretchability even after recovered from a complete cut. Besides, a design of double-layered conductor enabled by the self-bonding assembly allowed a conducting interface to be located on the neutral mechanical plane, showing extremely durable operations in a cyclic stretching test. Finally, we successfully demonstrated that electromyogram signals can be monitored by our self-healable interconnects. Such information was transmitted to a prosthetic robot to control various hand motions for robust interactive human-robot interfaces.

9.
World Neurosurg ; 129: e191-e198, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In thoracolumbar (TL) burst fractures, vertebral body height loss (VBHL) indicates the degree of instability and constitutes one of the decision criteria for surgical treatment. However, the relative reliability and variability of different measurement techniques for VBHL are unknown. We compared the reliability of different methods used to assess VBHL. METHODS: A total of 144 patients with TL burst fractures were included, and lateral radiographs were taken twice at an interval of 2 weeks, which were examined by 3 observers. The measurement methods used included the anterior/posterior vertebral body height compression ratio (APCR), anterior height compression percentage (AHCP), and anterior/posterior vertebral body height compression ratio percentage. To compare the accuracy of measurements according to vertebral degeneration, subjects were divided into 2 groups based on the median age of 50 years. RESULTS: In intraobserver comparisons, the APCR method showed a higher inter- and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (>0.714) compared with the other methods. In interobserver comparisons, the ICC of the APCR (>0.793) was excellent. In intraobserver comparisons of the aged >50-years group, only the APCR method showed an excellent ICC (>0.753), whereas the AHCP method showed a fair to good ICC, and the anterior/posterior vertebral body height compression ratio percentage method had the lowest ICC. In interobserver comparisons of the aged >50-years group, the APCR and AHCP methods showed excellent ICCs. In the aged ≤50-years group, all 3 methods showed similar fair to good ICC values. CONCLUSIONS: Based on comparative reliability analyses, we recommend the APCR method as the first-line technique and the AHCP as an alternative technique for measuring VBHL in TL burst fractures.

10.
J Infect Dis ; 220(2): 294-305, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the lack of new antimicrobials or a vaccine, understanding the evolutionary dynamics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a significant public and global health priority. We investigated the emergence and spread of gonococcal strains with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins and azithromycin using detailed genomic analyses of gonococcal isolates collected in the United States, 2014-2016. METHODS: We sequenced genomes of 649 isolates collected through the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project. We examined the genetic relatedness of isolates and assessed associations between clades and various genotypic and phenotypic combinations. RESULTS: We identified a large and clonal lineage of strains (MLST ST9363) associated with elevated azithromycin minimum inhibitory concentration (AZIem), characterized by a mosaic mtr locus (C substitution in the mtrR promoter, mosaic mtrR and mtrD). Mutations in 23S rRNA were sporadically distributed among AZIem strains. Another clonal group (MLST ST1901) possessed 7 unique PBP2 patterns, and it shared common mutations in other genes associated with cephalosporin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Whole-genome sequencing methods can enhance monitoring of antimicrobial resistant gonococcal strains by identifying gonococcal populations containing mutations of concern. These methods could inform the development of point-of-care diagnostic tests designed to determine the specific antibiotic susceptibility profile of a gonococcal infection in a patient.

11.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210335, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703142

RESUMO

Among a variety of comorbidities of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), the association between dementia and AS by using an extensive dataset from the Korean National Health Insurance System was evaluated in this study. We extracted 15,547 newly diagnosed AS subjects among the entire Korean population and excluded wash-out patients (n = 162) and patients that were inappropriate for cohort match (n = 1192). Finally, 14,193 subjects were chosen as the AS group, and through 1:5 age- and sex-stratified matching, 70,965 subjects were chosen as the control group. We evaluated patient demographics, household incomes, and comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. The prevalence of overall dementia (1.37%) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD) (0.99%) in the AS group was significantly higher than in the control group (0.87% and 0.63%), respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio of the AS group for overall dementia (1.758) and AD (1.782) showed statistical significance also. On the other hand, the prevalence of vascular dementia did not differ significantly between the two groups. Subgroup analyses revealed the following risk factors for dementia in the AS group: male gender, greater than 65 years in age, fair income (household income greater than 20% of the median), urban residency, no diabetes, and no hypertension. From the nationwide, population-based, retrospective, longitudinal cohort study, AS patients showed a significantly higher prevalence of overall dementia and Alzheimer's dementia. Comprehensive patient assessment using our subgroup analysis could help to prevent dementia in patients suffering from AS.

12.
J Infect Dis ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500908

RESUMO

Background: Approximately 90% of genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11. In the US, HPV vaccination has been recommended for females ≤26 years; and since 2011, males ≤21 years and gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) ≤26 years. Methods: Data were obtained from 27 clinics participating in the STD Surveillance Network (SSuN). Trends in the annual prevalence of anogenital warts (AGW) from 2010-2016 were described by sex and sex of sex partners. Results: From 2010-2016, significant declines in the prevalence of AGW were observed in women aged <40 years; men who have sex with women only (MSW) <40 years; and among all age categories of MSM. An inflection in trend was noted for MSW aged 20-24 and 25-29 years and MSM aged 20-24 years in 2012. Conclusions: The observed declines in AGW suggest that HPV morbidity is declining among populations attending STD clinics, including MSW, MSM, and women. Declines in younger age groups are consistent with what would be expected following the implementation of HPV vaccination. However, declines were also observed in older age groups, and are not likely to be the result of vaccination.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(35): e11919, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170385

RESUMO

A number of studies have demonstrated an association of neuropathic pain and chronic low back pain (CLBP), but the outcome difference in each medical management is poorly understood. This study is aimed to investigate treatment patterns of neuropathic pain in CLBP patients and to explore patient-reported outcomes (PROs) including quality of life (QoL) and functional disability by treatment patterns.Data were extracted from the neuropathic low back pain (NLBP) outcomes research. It was a multicenter and cross-sectional study in which 1200 patients were enrolled at 27 general hospitals, from 2014 to 2015. Of total, 478 patients classified as neuropathic pain were used for this subgroup analysis. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to treatment patterns (with vs. without the targeted therapy [TT] of neuropathic pain). Demographic and clinical features were collected by chart reviews and PROs were measured by patient's survey. QoL was assessed by EuroQoL 5-dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaire. Functional disability was measured by the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QBPDS). Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to compare the PROs between TT group and non-targeted therapy (nTT) group.Among the NLBP patients (mean age 63years, female 62%), EQ-5D index, EuroQoL-Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS), and QBPDS Scores (mean ±â€Šstandard deviation) were 0.40 ±â€Š0.28, 54.98 ±â€Š19.98, and 46.03 ±â€Š21.24, respectively. Only 142 (29.7%) patients had pharmacological TT of neuropathic pain. Univariate analyses revealed no significant mean differences between TT group and nTT group in the EQ-5D index (0.41 ±â€Š0.27 and 0.39 ±â€Š0.28), EQ-VAS (56.43 ±â€Š18.17 and 54.37 ±â€Š20.69), and QBPDS (45.31 ±â€Š21.32 and 46.31 ±â€Š21.24). After adjustment with covariates, TT group had higher scores of EQ-5D index (ß = 0.07; P < 0.01) and EQ-VAS (ß = 4.59; P < 0.05) than the nTT group. The TT group's QBPDS score was lower than the nTT group, although its statistical significance still has not been reached (ß = -4.13; P = 0.07).We found that considerable proportion of the NLBP patients remains untreated or undertreated. Although TT group had significantly better QoL than nTT group, only 29.7% of NLBP patients had pharmacological TT. Therefore, clinicians should consider using TT for better QoL of neuropathic pain patients.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Lombar/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Qualidade de Vida , República da Coreia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7694, 2018 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769560

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and incidence of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in South Korea, 2010-2015. This study was conducted using the Health Insurance Review Agency (HIRA) database, which includes information on every patient diagnosed with AS. The incidence and prevalence of AS were evaluated by age, sex, and income status. The prevalence increased linearly by 7.7% annually, i.e., 31.62 in 2010 to 52.30 in 2015 (per 100,000 persons). During the study period, the incidence was 6.34 per 100,000 person-years. The prevalence peaked for both men and women in the age range 30-39 years. Incidence peaked for men in the age range 20-29 years, but peaked for women between ages 70 and 89. AS was 3.6 times more prevalent in men than in women, and the incidence in men was 2.1 times greater than in women. With respect to income status, the prevalence and incidence of AS were 3 times greater and 5 times greater, respectively, in medical aid recipients compared to individuals with other income levels. The trend of increasing AS prevalence and the observation that 14.3% of all patients newly diagnosed with AS are medical aid recipients have significant implications for healthcare planning.

16.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5092, 2018 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29572467

RESUMO

Most interesting phenomena of condensed matter physics originate from interactions among different degrees of freedom, making it a very intriguing yet challenging question how certain ground states emerge from only a limited number of atoms in assembly. This is especially the case for strongly correlated electron systems with overwhelming complexity. The Verwey transition of Fe3O4 is a classic example of this category, of which the origin is still elusive 80 years after the first report. Here we report, for the first time, that the Verwey transition of Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibits size-dependent thermal hysteresis in magnetization, 57Fe NMR, and XRD measurements. The hysteresis width passes a maximum of 11 K when the size is 120 nm while dropping to only 1 K for the bulk sample. This behavior is very similar to that of magnetic coercivity and the critical sizes of the hysteresis and the magnetic single domain are identical. We interpret it as a manifestation of charge ordering and spin ordering correlation in a single domain. This work paves a new way of undertaking researches in the vibrant field of strongly correlated electron physics combined with nanoscience.

17.
Nano Lett ; 18(3): 1745-1750, 2018 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29461844

RESUMO

57Fe nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of magnetite nanocrystals ranging in size from 7 nm to 7 µm is measured. The line width of the NMR spectra changes drastically around 120 K, showing microscopic evidence of the Verwey transition. In the region above the transition temperature, the line width of the spectrum increases and the spin-spin relaxation time decreases as the nanocrystal size decreases. The line-width broadening indicates the significant deformation of magnetic structure and reduction of charge order compared to bulk crystals, even when the structural distortion is unobservable. The reduction of the spin-spin relaxation time is attributed to the suppressed polaron hopping conductivity in ferromagnetic metals, which is a consequence of the enhanced electron-phonon coupling in the quantum-confinement regime. Our results show that the magnetic distortion occurs in the entire nanocrystal and does not comply with the simple model of the core-shell binary structure with a sharp boundary.

18.
Sex Transm Dis ; 45(5): 337-342, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29465678

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to provide identification criteria for men who have sex with men (MSM), estimate the prevalence of MSM behavior, and compare sociodemographics and sexually transmitted disease risk behaviors between non-MSM and MSM groups using data from a nationally representative, population-based survey. METHODS: Using data from men aged 18 to 59 years who took part in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999 to 2014, detailed criteria were developed to estimate MSM behavior-at least one lifetime same-sex partner (MSM-ever), at least one same-sex partner in the past 12 months (MSM-current), and at least one lifetime and zero same-sex partners in the past 12 months (MSM-past). RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of MSM-ever was 5.5%-of these, 52.4% were MSM-current and 47.1% were MSM-past. Furthermore, MSM-ever are a nonhomogenous subpopulation, for example, 70.4% of MSM-current identified as homosexual and 71.2% of MSM-past identified as heterosexual (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of MSM behavior identified here is similar to other published estimates. This is also the first article, to our knowledge, to use National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data to compare MSM by 2 recall periods (recent vs. lifetime) of last same-sex sexual behavior.

19.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(4): 1380-1392, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29325163

RESUMO

Context: Vitamin D inadequacy is common in the adult population of the United States. Although the genetic determinants underlying vitamin D inadequacy have been studied in people of European ancestry, less is known about populations with Hispanic or African ancestry. Objective: The Trans-Ethnic Evaluation of Vitamin D (TRANSCEN-D) genomewide association study (GWAS) consortium was assembled to replicate genetic associations with 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations from the Study of Underlying Genetic Determinants of Vitamin D and Highly Related Traits (SUNLIGHT) meta-analyses of European ancestry and to identify genetic variants related to vitamin D concentrations in African and Hispanic ancestries. Design: Ancestry-specific (Hispanic and African) and transethnic (Hispanic, African, and European) meta-analyses were performed with Meta-Analysis Helper software (METAL). Patients or Other Participants: In total, 8541 African American and 3485 Hispanic American (from North America) participants from 12 cohorts and 16,124 European participants from SUNLIGHT were included in the study. Main Outcome Measures: Blood concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured for all participants. Results: Ancestry-specific analyses in African and Hispanic Americans replicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GC (2 and 4 SNPs, respectively). An SNP (rs79666294) near the KIF4B gene was identified in the African American cohort. Transethnic evaluation replicated GC and DHCR7 region SNPs. Additionally, the transethnic analyses revealed SNPs rs719700 and rs1410656 near the ANO6/ARID2 and HTR2A genes, respectively. Conclusions: Ancestry-specific and transethnic GWASs of 25(OH)D confirmed findings in GC and DHCR7 for African and Hispanic American samples and revealed findings near KIF4B, ANO6/ARID2, and HTR2A. The biological mechanisms that link these regions with 25(OH)D metabolism warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etnologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/genética , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética , Adulto Jovem
20.
Anat Sci Int ; 93(2): 284-290, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28770547

RESUMO

The thickness of the dura mater in the human cervical spine can vary between individuals and by vertebral level; these differences can result in various clinical outcomes. The purpose was to measure and analyze cervical dura mater thickness. Microscopic measurements were made of tissue from human cadavers. The subjects were nine human cadavers with no previous history of spinal deformity or surgery. Fourteen segments of both anterior and posterior dura mater from the C1 to C7 cervical vertebrae were obtained. Dura mater thickness was measured using an infrared laser-based confocal microscope. Statistical analyses were performed to examine the relationships of cervical dura mater thickness with vertebral level, age, and sex. The overall average cervical dura mater thickness was 379.3 × 10-3 mm. Statistically significant differences in thickness were found between the anterior and posterior segments (P < 0.0001). Moreover, the thickness at each vertebral level was significantly different from the thicknesses at the other levels (P < 0.05). The posterior dura mater thickness was highest at C1 and lowest at C5/6. Posterior dura mater thickness was significantly different at the axial, sub-axial, and lower cervical levels, whereas anterior dura mater thickness was relatively constant among levels. A significant correlation was found between thickness and age (P < 0.05); however, the average dura mater thickness was not significantly different between males and females. This study shows anatomical differences in cervical dura mater thickness with respect to vertebral level and age. These results provide anatomical information that will inform basic research and clinical approaches.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/anatomia & histologia , Dura-Máter/ultraestrutura , Cadáver , Dura-Máter/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal
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