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1.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 49(1): 43-48, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429485

RESUMO

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CYP2C19 gene mutations on clopidogrel antiplatelet activity in the patients with coronary heart disease treated by percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods: Patients with coronary heart disease, who hospitalized in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University from March 2011 to June 2019, and healthy individuals with matching genetic background, gender, and age as controls were included in this study. Basic clinical data were analyzed and blood samples of all research subjects were obtained for extraction of DNA, and Sanger first-generation sequencing method was used to detect CYP2C19 gene mutation from full exon and exon and intron junction. CYP2C19 gene variations in patients with coronary heart disease were compared with the 1000 Genomes Browse database and the sequencing results of healthy controls to determine whether the gene variation was a genetic mutation or a genetic polymorphism. After that, PolyPhen-2 prediction software was used to analyze the harmfulness of gene mutations to predict the effect of mutations on protein function. The same dose of CYP2C19 wild-type plasmid and the CYP2C19 gene mutant plasmids were transfected into human normal liver cells HL-7702. After transfection of 24 h, the expression of CYP2C19 protease in each group was detected. The liver S9 protein was incubated with clopidogrel, acted on platelets to detect the platelet aggregation rate and the activity of human vasodilator-activated phosphoprotein (VASP). Results: A total of 1 493 patients with coronary heart disease (59.36%) were enrolled, the average age was (64.5±10.4) years old, of which 1 129 were male (75.62%). Meanwhile, 1 022 healthy physical examination volunteers (40.64%) were enrolled, and the average age was (64.1±11.0) years old, of which 778 were male (76.13%). A total of 5 gene mutations of CYP2C19 gene were identified in 12 patients (0.80%), namely, 4 known mutations T130K (1 case), M136K (6 cases), N277K (3 cases), V472I (1 case) and one new mutation G27V (1 case), no corresponding gene mutation was found in healthy controls. It was found that T130K and M136K were probably damaging, G27V was possibly damaging, and N277K and V472I were benign mutations. In vitro, we demonstrated that the platelet aggregation rate of the M136K gene mutation group was 24.83% lower than that of the wild type (59.58% vs. 34.75%; P<0.05), and the phosphorylated VASP level was 23.0% higher than that of the wild type (1.0 vs. 1.23; P<0.05). However, the platelet aggregation rate and phosphorylated VASP level were similar between of G27V, T130K, N277K, V472I gene mutation groups and wild type group (P>0.05). Conclusions: In this study, 5 gene mutations are defined in patients with coronary heart disease, namely G27V, T130K, M136K, N277K, V472I. In vitro functional studies show that CYP2C19 gene mutation M136K, as a gain-of-function gene mutation, can enhance the activation of CYP2C19 enzyme on clopidogrel, thereby inhibiting the platelet aggregation rate.

2.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; : 1-16, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327811

RESUMO

Introduction: Management of patients with acute agitation or aggressive behavior can pose a significant challenge to health-care providers in emergency departments. Areas covered: This article provides a comprehensive review of the pharmacologic properties, efficacy, and safety profiles of select intramuscular (IM) sedative agents (i.e., antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, and ketamine) for rapid tranquilization. Expert opinion: Using antipsychotics and benzodiazepines - whether a single agent or combined - will have similar efficacy in producing sedation. But there are differences in the time to sedation depending on which agent is used. Based upon the available studies, droperidol (5-10 mg IM) and midazolam (5-10 mg IM) have the fastest onset of sedation when either is used as a single agent. When combination therapy is used, using midazolam with an antipsychotic agent, instead of lorazepam, may result in faster sedative effect. QT prolongation and torsades de pointes are uncommon adverse drug effects of antipsychotic administration. Ketamine is often reserved as a second-line agent when antipsychotics and benzodiazepines fail to produce the desired tranquilization. However, ketamine (5 mg/kg IM) is more frequently associated with airway compromise requiring endotracheal intubation. A low-dose of ketamine (2 mg/kg IM) may reduce the risk of airway compromise while providing adequate sedation.

3.
Pain Manag ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300384

RESUMO

Opioid overdoses and deaths continue to be a problem in the USA with a significant portion related to prescribed opioid analgesic agents. The role of pharmacogentic factors in opioid addiction is an active area of research. While all opioid analgesic agents have some addictive potential, it is clear that there are some with greater addictive potential. Oxycodone is the most widely abused opioid analgesic and it appears to predispose to chronic use with high likability by users. Fentanyl and hydromorphone are both very lipophilic allowing rapid penetration into the CNS, but are not rated as highly as other agents. Providers should consider the risk of addiction with the opioids they prescribe and give those with a lower addictive potential.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985875

RESUMO

Polydopamine coating is known to be performed in a material-independent manner and has become a popular tool when designing a surface-functionalization strategy of a given material. Studies to improve polydopamine coatings have been reported, aiming to reduce the coating time (by transition metals, oxidants, applied voltages, or microwave irradiation), control surface roughness using catechol derivatives, and vary the ad-layer molecules formed on an underlying polydopamine layer. However, none of the techniques have changed the most important intrinsic property of polydopamine, the surface-independent coating. Currently, no method has been reported to modify this property to create a material-selective 'smart' polydopamine coating. Herein, we report a method with polydopamine to differentiate the chemistry of surfaces. We found that the polydopamine coating was largely inhibited on silicon-containing surfaces such as Si wafers and quartz crystals in a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) cosolvent, while the coating properties on other materials remained mostly unchanged. Among the various interface bonding mechanisms of coordination, namely, cation-π, π-π stacking, and hydrogen-bonding interactions, the DMSO/PBS cosolvent effectively inhibits hydrogen-bond formation between catechol and SiO2, resulting in surface-selective 'smart' polydopamine coatings. The new polydopamine coating is useful for functionalizing patterned surfaces such as Au patterns on SiO2 substrates. Considering that Si wafer is the most widely used substrate, the surface-selective polydopamine coating technique described herein opens up a new direction in surface functionalization and interface chemistry.

6.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(4): 642-645, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy with a slender ureteroscope in the treatment of severe oligoasthenozoospermia secondary incomplete ejaculatory duct obstruction (EDO). METHODS: From March 2018 to September 2018, the clinical data of 8 patients with severe oligoasthenozoospermia secondary incomplete EDO treated by the technique of transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy in the Peking University Third Hospital Reproductive Center were analyzed. Preoperative routine included semen analysis, hormone determination, transrectal ultrasonography, pelvic magne-tic resonance examination and other examinations. All the patients were diagnosed with severe oligoasthenozoospermia secondary to incomplete EDO. All the patients were operated by the same surgeon with multiple cases of experience in transurethral surgery, and 1 year follow-up was conducted to evaluate the surgical effect. RESULTS: The average age of the 8 patients was 29 years, and the average operation time was 32 min. Preoperative transrectal ultrasound indicated 6 cases of ejaculatory duct cyst or Mullerian cyst, 1 case of prostate calcification and bilateral seminal vesicle dilatation. The average maximum transverse diameter of the right seminal vesicle in pelvic MRI was 33.60 mm (24.63-42.28 mm), the average maximum transverse diameter of the left seminal vesicle was 32.85 mm (25.91-44.89 mm), the ave-rage maximum antero-posterior diameter was 27.99 mm (21.36-33.12 mm), the average maximum width of the seminal vesicle duct was 10.53 mm (5.93-19.39 mm). There were 5 cases of ejaculatory duct cyst, 2 cases of seminal vesicle hemorrhage, and 1 case of Mullerian cyst. The semen volume [(2.64±0.80) mL], the sperm concentration [(49.76±8.50)×106/mL], and the motility (grade a+b) [(25.76±6.48)%] in postoperation were significantly higher than those in preoperation [(1.46±0.50) mL, (28.78±5.17)×106/mL, and (2.88±0.93)%, P < 0.05]. Two patients conceived naturally during the follow-up of 6 months after surgery. There were no severe complications, such as retrograde ejaculation, urinary incontinence or rectal injury. CONCLUSION: The technique of transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy is safe and effective for treating severe oligoasthenozoospermia secondary to incomplete EDO. However, due to the small sample size of this study, short follow-up time, and the uncertainty in seminal vesicle surgery, it still needs to be further confirmed by long-term follow-up studies with large samples.


Assuntos
Ductos Ejaculatórios , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen , Glândulas Seminais , Ultrassonografia
7.
Sci Adv ; 6(31): eaaz1842, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789169

RESUMO

Lead halide perovskites are strong candidates for high-performance low-cost photovoltaics, light emission, and detection applications. A hot-phonon bottleneck effect significantly extends the cooling time of hot charge carriers, which thermalize through carrier-optic phonon scattering, followed by optic phonon decay to acoustic phonons and finally thermal conduction. To understand these processes, we adjust the lattice dynamics independently of electronics by changing isotopes. We show that doubling the mass of hydrogen in methylammonium lead iodide by replacing protons with deuterons causes a large 20 to 50% softening of the longitudinal acoustic phonons near zone boundaries, reduces thermal conductivity by ~50%, and slows carrier relaxation kinetics. Phonon softening is attributed to anticrossing with the slowed libration modes of the deuterated molecules and the reduced thermal conductivity to lowered phonon velocities. Our results reveal how tuning the organic molecule dynamics enables control of phonons important to thermal conductivity and the hot-phonon bottleneck.

8.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(2): 295-302, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of antibacterial agents on the biofilm-forming ability of Staphylococcus aureus require further study. AIM: To investigate the effects of sub-MICs of chlorhexidine and mupirocin on biofilm formation in clinical meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. METHODS: MRSA isolates were collected from patients with bloodstream infections at a tertiary care hospital. The basal level of biofilm formation and biofilm induction by sub-MICs of chlorhexidine and mupirocin were evaluated by measuring biofilm mass stained with Crystal Violet. FINDINGS: Of the 112 MRSA isolates tested, 63 (56.3%) and 44 (39.3%) belonged to sequence type (ST)5 and ST72 lineages, respectively, which are the predominant healthcare- and community-associated clones in South Korea. ST5 isolates were more likely to have chlorhexidine MIC ≥4 (73.0% vs 29.5%), resistance to mupirocin (23.8% vs 0%), agr dysfunction (73.0% vs 9.1%), and qacA/B gene (58.7% vs 2.3%) compared to ST72 isolates. The basal level of biofilm formation ability was frequently stronger in ST72 isolates compared to ST5 isolates (77.3% vs 12.7%). Sub-MICs of chlorhexidine and mupirocin promoted biofilm formation in 56.3% and 53.6%, respectively, of all isolates. Biofilm induction was more prevalent in ST5 isolates (85.7% for chlorhexidine, 69.8% for mupirocin) than in ST72 isolates (15.9% for chlorhexidine, 27.3% for mupirocin). CONCLUSION: Sub-MICs of chlorhexidine and mupirocin promoted biofilm formation in half of the clinical MRSA isolates. Our results suggest that ST5 MRSA biofilm can be induced together with some other bacterial virulent factors following exposure to chlorhexidine, which might confer a survival advantage to this clone in the healthcare environment.

9.
Subst Use Misuse ; 55(13): 2237-2242, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic has prompted the expansion of take-home naloxone (THN) distribution programs. The proportion of emergency department (ED) patients with opioid misuse who have access to a naloxone kit (NK) and barriers to using it are unclear. Objective: Characterizing the access and barrier to NK use among at-risk ED patients. Methods: We enrolled a convenience sample of ED patients with active opioid misuse from May 21-July 31, 2018. We administered a survey to collect patients' demographic data, substance use history, and access to and use of NK. The primary outcome was NK access (prior receipt of a kit or prescription); secondary outcomes were knowledge and use of NK, and barriers to obtaining and using it. Results: Of 165 respondents, 71.5% knew of THN programs and 57.6% (n = 95) had access to THN by either having received a NK (n = 90) or a prescription (n = 5); 34 respondents received both. Among 39 (23.6%) who received a naloxone prescription, 25 (64.1%) filled it. 60.0% (n = 99) reported knowing how to administer naloxone; lack of training was the primary reason (n = 63/66, 96.9%) for their unfamiliarity. Patients who presented after an opioid overdose (25.5%; n = 42) were less likely to have knowledge of THN programs (57.1% vs. 76.4%), and to have received a NK (35.7% vs. 61.0%). Conclusion: Awareness of THN programs was high among our cohort. But approximately 60% the respondents received a NK or knew how to use it. Despite efforts to expand THN access, gaps in knowledge, access, and use exist.

10.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(6): e15930, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, recent studies found a rapid increase in overweight and obesity in adolescents. There is a need for effective health promotion interventions to support healthy diets and encourage a physically active lifestyle. This study will help fill an evidence gap on effective interventions to prevent excess weight gain in adolescents and generate new insights about peer-led education to promote healthy lifestyles. OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a combined peer-led and peer support intervention among junior high school students in Ho Chi Minh City. Additionally, the efficacy of the intervention on adolescents' dietary practices and time spent on physical activity will also be measured in this pilot study. METHODS: The Peer Education and Peer Support (PEPS) project is a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial with 2 intervention and 2 control schools. The intervention consists of 4 weekly education sessions of why and how to choose healthy food and drinks and how to be more physically active. Additionally, the intervention includes a school-based and online support system to help maintain student engagement during the intervention. We will use in-depth interviews with students, peer leaders, teachers, and parents; focus group discussions with peer educators; and direct observation of the school environment and peer leaders' interactions with the students. Acceptability and feasibility of the intervention will be assessed. We will also quantitatively assess limited efficacy by measuring changes in student' physical activity levels and dietary behaviors. RESULTS: We delivered the peer education intervention at the start of each school year over 3 months for all new grade 6 adolescents in the selected schools, followed by peer support and home engagement activities over 6 months until the end of the school year. There was a baseline assessment and 2 post-intervention assessments: the first immediately after the intervention to assess the short-term impact and the second at the end of the school year to assess the sustained impact on changes in adiposity, diet, and physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study will be used to develop a larger-scale cluster randomized controlled trial to examine the impact of a multicomponent, school- and home-based health promotion intervention. The trial will use innovative peer education methods to reduce overweight and obesity and improve dietary choices and physical activity levels in Vietnamese adolescents. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12619000421134; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=376690&isReview=true. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/15930.

12.
Colorectal Dis ; 22(10): 1415-1421, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356391

RESUMO

AIM: Intussusception in adults is rare and requires surgery in most cases. While abdominal laparoscopic surgery (LS) is becoming more popular, there are few reports on the outcomes of adult intussusception treated with LS. This study compared the feasibility of LS vs open surgery (OS) for adult intussusception. METHOD: We reviewed retrospectively the medical records of adult patients with intussusception from three tertiary hospitals between 2000 and 2016. The patients were divided into LS and OS groups, and their surgical outcomes were compared. RESULTS: Surgery was indicated in 71 patients with intussusception (41 LS and 30 OS). The median age of the patients was 49.0 and 51.5 years in the LS and OS groups, respectively (P = 0.930). Overall, nine (12.7%) patients had a negative laparotomy or laparoscopy with spontaneous reduction of the intussusception. Conversion to OS from LS was necessary in one patient (2.4%). The operative time and intra-operative and postoperative complication rates were not significantly different. However, there were more serious complications such as bowel perforation and major vessel injury in the LS group. The patients in the LS group had a shorter time to first food intake and hospital stay vs patients in the OS group (4.0 vs 6.0 days, P < 0.001, and 7.0 vs 10.5 days, P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: LS may be feasible for adult intussusception; there may be more severe intra-operative complications than in OS.

13.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 74(10): 1483-1487, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249817

RESUMO

Skinfold thickness is an indicator of body fat, allowing a more detailed description of obesity. In Vietnam, there are no published percentile values for triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements from population-based studies of adolescents. This study aims to establish percentile tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds (TSF + SSSF) sum. We used data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Ho Chi Minh City. BMI, triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements of 2660 students were obtained. The L (Box-Cox transformation), M (median), and S (coefficient of variation) parameters were used to generate exact percentiles. The proportion of overweight was higher in boys (18.4% vs. 8.2%, p < 0.0001). Triceps, subscapular skinfolds, and TSF + SSSF were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001). Our results provide sex- and age-specific reference values for skinfold thickness that can be applied as a new complimentary assessment tool for Vietnamese adolescents.

14.
Int J Cosmet Sci ; 42(3): 270-276, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we isolated the milk sphingolipid-enriched fraction (MSEF) of sweet buttermilk powder and conducted a clinical trial for evaluating its efficacy in skin barrier recovery. METHODS: Milk sphingolipid-enriched fraction was isolated via solvent extraction of buttermilk powder, and further concentrated by removing the phospholipids and neutral lipids. A cream containing 1% MSEF was used during clinical trials to assess for water holding and skin barrier recovery capacities. RESULTS: The main components of the MSEF were sphingomyelin, glucosylceramide and lactosylceramide, confirmed by TLC, HPLC, MS and NMR. The MSEF cream-treated group had a significantly higher (P < 0.05) water holding capacity, compared with the base cream (vehicle) group. Compared with that in the base cream group, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) recovery increased in the presence of the sphingolipid-containing MSEF cream (MSEF group), with a significant difference (P < 0.05) recorded on day 14. CONCLUSION: The MSEF cream contributed to improving the water holding capacity and skin barrier recovery of damaged skin. Therefore, sphingolipid-containing MSEF can be useful for strengthening or repairing skin barrier function.

16.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 58(2): 117-123, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092050

RESUMO

Background: Prepacked naloxone kits (PNKs) are frequently used to reverse opioid intoxication. It is unknown if the presence of illicitly manufactured fentanyl and its analogs (IMFs) in heroin supply is affecting the PNK doses given by laypersons. We investigated the trend of PNK dose administered to reverse opioid toxicity in suspected/undifferentiated opioid intoxication.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed PNK administrations reported to the Maryland Poison Center between 1 January 2015 and 15 October 2017. Primary outcome was the mean PNK dose administered to reverse opioid-induced central nervous system and ventilatory depression. Secondary outcomes included the reversal rate of opioid toxicity, patient disposition, and survival rate.Results: Our analysis involved 1139 PNK administrations. The mean age of subjects was 34.3 years; 68.8% (n = 781) were male. Ventilatory depression was present in 98.2% (n = 958) of cases, and 97% (n = 1097) were unresponsive. Law enforcement administered the majority of PNK (91.0%; n = 1035); the primary route was intranasal (97.9%; n = 1051). Toxicity was reversed in 79.2% (n = 886) of overdose victims after a mean PNK dose of 3.12 mg. EMS personnel gave 291 subjects additional naloxone (mean: 2.2 mg), reversing opioid toxicity in 94.2% (n = 254). Between 2015 and 2017, the mean PNK dose increased from 2.12 to 3.63 mg (p < .0001) while the reversal rate decreased from 82.1% to 76.4% (p = .04). One hundred and eighty-two patients (15.9%) refused transport; of those transported to a hospital, 73.4% (n = 569) were treated and released and 12.4% (n = 96) required hospitalization. Ninety-six percent (n = 1092) of the subjects survived. Forty subjects were pronounced dead at the scene. Fentanyl or its analog was detected in 36 of 55 opioid-related deaths (65.5%).Conclusions: PNK administration reversed toxicity in the majority of patients with undifferentiated opioid intoxication. Between 2015 and 2017, increasing doses of PNK were administered but the reversal rate decreased. These trends are likely multifactorial, including increasing availability of IMFs.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Fentanila/envenenamento , Drogas Ilícitas/envenenamento , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maryland/epidemiologia , Naloxona/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
Eur J Neurol ; 27(2): 343-351, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The rate at which the chance of a good outcome of endovascular stroke therapy (EVT) decays with time when eligible patients are selected by baseline diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI-MRI) and whether ischaemic core size affects this rate remain to be investigated. METHODS: This study analyses a prospective multicentre registry of stroke patients treated with EVT based on pretreatment DWI-MRI that was categorized into three groups: small [Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score (DWI-ASPECTS)] (8-10), moderate (5-7) and large (<5) cores. The main outcome was a good outcome at 90 days (modified Rankin Scale 0-2). The interaction between onset-to-groin puncture time (OTP) and DWI-ASPECTS categories regarding functional outcomes was investigated. RESULTS: Ultimately, 985 patients (age 69 ± 11 years; male 55%) were analysed. Potential interaction effects between the DWI-ASPECTS categories and OTP on a good outcome at 90 days were observed (Pinteraction  = 0.06). Every 60-min delay in OTP was associated with a 16% reduced likelihood of a good outcome at 90 days amongst patients with large cores, although no associations were observed amongst patients with small to moderate cores. Interestingly, the adjusted rates of a good outcome at 90 days steeply declined between 65 and 213 min of OTP and then remained smooth throughout 24 h of OTP (Pnonlinearity  = 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the probability of a good outcome after EVT nonlinearly decreased, with a steeper decline at earlier OTP than at later OTP. Discrepant effects of OTP on functional outcomes by baseline DWI-ASPECTS categories were observed. Thus, different strategies for EVT based on time and ischaemic core size are warranted.

18.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 58(7): 705-710, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617764

RESUMO

Background: Venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is increasingly utilized to treat severe or refractory drug-induced cardiovascular shock. There is limited evidence regarding VA-ECMO's clinical utility in poisoning. Therefore, we investigated the clinical benefit of VA-ECMO use in drug-induced cardiovascular shock using the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO)'s ECMO case registry.Methods: The ELSO registry was systematically searched retrospectively, using ICD-9/10 codes for poisoning-related cases from January 1, 2003 to July 30, 2018. All adult cases (age ≥ 18 years) that received VA-ECMO for cardiac support were included. Cardiogenic shock was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) <90 mmHg, mean arterial pressure (MAP) <65 mmHg, or requiring infusion of ≥2 vasopressor agents. Study outcomes included survival to discharge (i.e., from the ECMO center), changes in metabolic (acid/base), hemodynamic and ventilatory status, and complications related to ECMO support. Demographic and clinical characteristics of pre-ECMO and 24-h after VA-ECMO cannulation were compared between survivors vs. non-survivors.Results: A total of 113 cases were identified from the ELSO registry; 9 cases were excluded because cardiogenic shock was not related to poisoning, leaving 104 cases for analysis. The median age was 34 years and 53.5% (n = 54) were male. Cardiovascular agents were involved in 47.1% (n = 49) of the cases followed by opioids (n = 9, 6.7%); 34 cases experienced pre-ECMO cardiac arrest. About 92.4% of the cases (n = 85) received vasopressor infusion for hemodynamic support, most frequently norepinephrine (83.7%). Median duration of VA-ECMO was 68 h (interquartile range [IQR]: 48, 113 h); 52.9% (n = 55) of the cases survived to discharge. VA-ECMO significantly improved hemodynamics (MAP, SBP, and DBP), acidemia/acidosis (pH, HCO3 level) and ventilatory parameters (pO2, SpO2, and SvO2). Non-survivors showed persistent acidemia/acidosis at 24-h after VA-ECMO cannulation compared to survivors. Renal replacement therapy (50.9%) and arrhythmia (26.3%) were the most frequently reported complications.Conclusions: VA-ECMO improved hemodynamic and metabolic parameters in patients with drug-induced cardiogenic shock (DCS).

19.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 47(12): 963-968, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877591

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nifekalan (NIF) on cardioversion in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients post radiofrequency ablation, and investigate the relevant factors related to the cardioversion efficacy of NIF. Methods: We screened patients with sustained AF rhythm after radiofrequency ablation between November 2016 and July 2018. Participants were treated with intravenous NIF 0.4 mg/kg within 5-10 minutes after ablation. We observed the adverse reaction, and monitored the rhythm, heart rate, QT interval and QTc interval before the medication and at 5, 10, 20, 120 min after the medication. According to the drug outcome of NIF, patients were divided into conversion group and non-conversion group, related factors affecting conversion efficacy were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. Results: (1)A total of 116 patients were enrolled in the study (63 males and 53 females, mean age was (64±18) years). Among them, 72 patients were converted to sinus rhythm, and the overall successful rate was 62.1%. There were 84 patients with persistent AF, of which 50 cases (59.2%) were restored to sinus rhythm. There were 32 patients with paroxysmal AF, 22 cases (68.8%) of them were restored to sinus rhythm. The conversion time was 1.5 to 12 (6.8±3.4)min. (2) In 116 patients, the QT interval and QTc interval were significantly longer after medication than before the drug administration (P<0.01), and peaked at about 10th min, and restored to the level before drug administration at about 120th min. (3) There were 8 cases of bradycardia (6.9%), 3 cases of frequent and short ventricular tachycardia (2.6%). (4) The duration of atrial fibrillation was shorter and left atrial diameter was smaller in the cardioversion group than in the non-cardioversion group (both P<0.05). There were no significant differences in gender, disease history, atrial fibrillation type and structural heart disease between the two groups (P>0.05). (5) Multifactorial logistic regression analysis showed that the duration of atrial fibrillation (OR=0.980, 95%CI 0.966-0.994, P=0.004) and the left atrial diameter (OR=0.888, 95%CI 0.814-0.967, P=0.007) were the factors that influence the cardioversion efficacy of NIF on atrial fibrillation post ablation. Conclusions: The total effective rate of NIF was 62.1% in patients witrh sustained AF post radiofrequency ablation, was 68.8% in patients with paroxysmal AF. Besides, NIF has the advantage of short conversion time and few adverse reactions. Left atrium diameter and AF duration were relevant factors that influence the efficacy of NIF of cardioversion in patients with sustained AF after radiofrequency ablation.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Ablação por Cateter , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Cardioversão Elétrica , Feminino , Átrios do Coração , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Child Orthop ; 13(5): 438-444, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695810

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore whether increasing the hip abduction angle would increase the incidence of avascular necrosis (AVN) in patients with late- detected developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) treated by closed reduction (CR) and spica cast immobilization. Methods: A total of 55 patients (59 hips) with late-detected DDH underwent MRI after CR. Hip abduction angle and hip joint distance were measured on postoperative MRI transverse sections. The acetabular index and centre-edge angle were measured on plain radiographs at the last follow-up. The presence of AVN according to Kalamchi and McEwen's classification was assessed. We retrospectively analyzed the associations among abduction angles, hip joint distances, radiographic parameters, AVN and final outcomes, exploring the relationship between hip joint abduction angle and AVN rate. Results: The mean age at the time of CR was 14.4 months SD 5.5 (6 to 28), and the mean follow-up was 26.2 months SD 8.1 (12.4 to 41.7). The mean hip abduction angle was 70.2° SD 7.2° (53° to 85°) on the dislocated side and 63.7° SD 8.8° (40° to 82°) on the normal side; the mean hip joint distance was 5.1 mm SD 1.9 (1.3 to 9.1) on the dislocated side and 2.2 mm SD 0.6 on the normal side (1.3 to 3.3). Eight of 59 hips (13.6%) developed AVN. Neither the amount of abduction nor hip joint distance increased the AVN rate (p = 0.97 and p = 0.65, respectively) or the dislocation rate (p = 0.38 and p = 0.14, respectively). Conclusion: Abduction angle up to 70.2° following CR did not increase the AVN rate in children aged six to 28 months with late-detected DDH treated by CR. Level of evidence: III.

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