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1.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate (ZETA, Z9,E12-14:OAc) is a major sex pheromone component for many stored-product moth species. This pheromone is used worldwide for mating disruption, detection, monitoring, and mass trapping in raw and processed food storage facilities. In this study, we demonstrate the biological production of ZETA pheromone by engineered yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RESULTS: We mined the pheromone gland (PG) transcriptome data of the almond moth, Ephestia (Cadra) cautella (Walker), to trace a novel E12 fatty acyl desaturase and expressed candidates heterologously in yeast and Sf9 systems. Further, we demonstrated a tailor-made ZETA pheromone bioproduction in yeast through metabolic engineering using this E12 desaturase, in combination with three genes from various sources coding for a Z9 desaturase, a fatty acyl reductase, and an acetyltransferase, respectively. Electrophysiological assays (gas chromatography coupled to an electroantennographic detector, GC-EAD) proved that the transgenic yeast-produced ZETA pheromone component elicits distinct antennal responses. CONCLUSION: The reconstructed biosynthetic pathway in yeast efficiently produces ZETA pheromone, leaves an undetectable level of biosynthetic intermediates, and paves the way for the economically competitive high-demand ZETA pheromone's bioproduction technology for high-value storage pest control. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 22(11): 893-905, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783220

RESUMO

Cathepsin D (CTSD), the major lysosomal aspartic protease that is widely expressed in different tissues, potentially regulates the biological behaviors of various cells. Follicular granulosa cells are responsive to the increase of ovulation number, hence indirectly influencing litter size. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of CTSD on the behaviors of goat granulosa cells has not been fully elucidated. This study used immunohistochemistry to analyze CTSD localization in goat ovarian tissues. Moreover, western blotting was applied to examine the differential expression of CTSD in the ovarian tissues of monotocous and polytocous goats. Subsequently, the effects of CTSD knockdown on cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and the expression of candidate genes of the prolific traits, including bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB (BMPR-IB), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSHR), and inhibin α (INHA), were determined in granulosa cells. Results showed that CTSD was expressed in corpus luteum, follicle, and granulosa cells. Notably, CTSD expression in the monotocous group was significantly higher than that in the polytocous group. In addition, CTSD knockdown could improve granulosa cell proliferation, inhibit cell apoptosis, and significantly elevate the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), but it lowered the expression of Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) and caspase-3. Furthermore, CTSD knockdown significantly reduced the ratios of cells in the G0/G1 and G2/M phases but substantially increased the ratio of cells in the S phase. The expression levels of cyclin D2 and cyclin E were elevated followed by the obvious decline of cyclin A1 expression. However, the expression levels of BMPR-IB, FSHR, and INHA clearly increased as a result of CTSD knockdown. Hence, our findings demonstrate that CTSD is an important factor affecting the litter size trait in goats by regulating the granulosa cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and the expression of candidate genes of the prolific trait.

3.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 60(6): 1066-1071, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794739

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the detection rate (DR) by prenatal cell-free DNA test for pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs)>2 Mb among pregnancies with fetal ultrasound abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study on 29 pregnant women with fetuses diagnosed as microdeletion/microduplication syndromes by prenatal chromosome microarray analysis (CMA). Cell-free DNA from the maternal plasma was sequenced on the NextSeq CN500 sequencer. The quality standard of unique map reads in a single sample was greater than 10 M and only gains and losses of more than 2 Mb were reported. RESULTS: A total of 24 CNVs were identified by cell-free DNA test among the 21 fetuses with pathogenic CNVs identified by prenatal CMA, including 20 consistent CNVs and 4 inconsistent CNVs. Overall, the DR of cell-free DNA test for pathogenic CNVs >2 Mb was 69%. Microdeletions or microduplications at 22q11.2 were the most common CNVs, with a DR of 4/5 (80%) and 3/4 (75%) respectively. CONCLUSION: Cell-free DNA test exhibited a moderate DR for pathogenic CNVs >2 Mb among fetuses with ultrasound abnormalities. Cell-free DNA test could provide an opportunity for early screening before the appearance of abnormalities on fetal ultrasound, while further clinical data and cost-effectiveness assessment are needed.

4.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 34(10): 895-900, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical efficacy of femoral head replacement and internal fixation in the treatment of unstable intertrochanteric fractures in the elderly. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 70 cases of unstable intertrochanteric fractures treated from January 2016 to January 2019 and meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 39 cases were fixed with closed reduction and new proximal femoral intramedullary nail(InterTAN), and 31 cases were treated with open trochanter reconstruction and artificial femoral head replacement. The operation time, intraoperative bleeding, hospital stay, weight bearing time, postoperative complication rate and hip function recovery (Harris score) were compared between two groups. RESULTS: All cases were followed up for 12 to 24 months. There were no significant differences in intraoperative bleeding and hospital stay between the two groups (P>0.05). The operation time in replacement group was longer than that in internal fixation group (P< 0.05). The postoperative weight-bearing time in replacement group was significantly earlier than that in internal fixation group (P<0.05). In the replacement group, there were 1 case of pulmonary infection, 1 case of deep venous thrombosis and 1 case of periprosthetic fracture;in the internal fixation group, there were 4 cases of pulmonary infection, 3 cases of internal fixation failure, 3 cases of cerebral infarction and 2 cases of urinary infection;there was significant difference between two groups (P< 0.05). The Harris score in replacement group was higher than that in internal fixation group one month after operation (P< 0.05), but there was no significant difference between two groups at 12 months after operation(P>0.05). CONCLUSION: InterTAN and femoral head replacement can treat unstable intertrochanteric fractures in the elderly, but femoral head replacement can move down early, improve the quality of life at the end of life, reduce postoperative complications and facilitate the treatment of coexisting diseases in internal medicine.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Fêmur , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas , Fraturas do Quadril , Idoso , Pinos Ortopédicos , Cabeça do Fêmur , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Phys Chem B ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734716

RESUMO

A computational scheme was used to screen physical solvents for CO2 pre-combustion capture by integrating the commercial NIST database, an in-house computational database, chem-informatics, and molecular modeling. A commercially available screened hydrophobic solvent, diethyl sebacate, was identified from the screening with favorable physical properties and promising absorption performance. The promising performance to use diethyl sebacate in CO2 pre-combustion capture has also been confirmed from experiments. Water loading in diethyl sebacate is very low, and therefore, water is kept with H2 in the gas stream. The favorable CO2 interaction with diethyl sebacate and the intermediate solvent free volume fraction leads to both high CO2 solubility and high CO2/H2 solubility selectivity in diethyl sebacate. An in-house NETL computational database was built to characterize CO2, H2, N2, and H2O interactions with 202 different chemical functional groups. It was found that 13% of the functional groups belong to the strong interaction category with the CO2 interaction energy between -15 and -21 kJ/mol; 62% of the functional groups interact intermediately with CO2 (-8 to -15 kJ/mol). The remaining 25% of functional groups interact weakly with CO2 (below -8 kJ/mol). In addition, calculations show that CO2 interactions with the functional groups are stronger than N2 and H2 interactions but are weaker than H2O interactions. The CO2 and H2O interactions with the same functional groups exhibit a very strong linear positive correlation coefficient of 0.92. The relationship between CO2 and H2 gas solubilities and solvent fractional free volume (FFV) has been systematically studied for seven solvents at 298.2 K. A skewed bell-shaped relation was obtained between CO2 solubility and solvent FFV. When an organic compound has a density approximately 10% lower than its density at 298.2 K and 1 bar, it exhibits the highest CO2 loading at that specific solvent density and FFV. Note that the solvent densities were varied using simulations, which are difficult to be obtained from the experiment. In contrast, H2 solubility results exhibit an almost perfect positive linear correlation with the solvent FFV. The theoretical maximum and minimum physical CO2 solubilities in any organic compound at 298.2 K were estimated to be 11 and 0.4 mol/MPa L, respectively. An examination of 182 experimental CO2 physical solubility data and 29 simulated CO2 physical solubilities shows that all the CO2 physical solubility data are within the maximum and minimum with only a few exceptions. Finally, simulations suggest that in order to develop physical solvents with both high CO2 solubility and high CO2/H2 solubility selectivity, the solvents should contain functional groups which are available to interact strongly with CO2 while minimizing FFV.

6.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6241242, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760046

RESUMO

Ferroptosis, as an iron-dependent programmed cell death pathway, can induce a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), which is purified from Astragalus membranaceus, can protect endothelial function and promote vascular regeneration. However, the role played by AS-IV in ferroptosis remains unknown. In this study, the lipid metabolomics in HUVECs treated with/without bleomycin and/or AS-IV were explored using LC/MS. The most differential metabolite between groups was further identified via GO and pathway enrichment analyses. The effects of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), AS-IV, and FIN56 on cell viability were explored using the CCK-8 assay, their effects on cell senescence were examined by ß-galactosidase staining, and their effects on ferroptosis were detected by a flow cytometric analysis of lipid ROS levels, transmission electron microscopy, and an assay for cellular iron levels. The related mechanisms were investigated by real-time PCR and Western blot assays. Our results showed that LPC, as the most differential metabolite, inhibited cell viability but promoted cell apoptosis and senescence as its concentration increased. Also, the decreased cell activity, increased iron ion and lipid ROS levels, and the enhanced cell senescence induced by LPC treatment were all significantly reversed by AS-IV but further enhanced by FIN56 treatment. The changes in mitochondrial morphology caused by the LPC treatment were significantly alleviated by the AS-IV treatment, while treatment with FIN56 reversed those phenomena. Moreover, AS-IV partially upregulated the levels of SLC7A11 and GPX4 expression which were reduced by LPC. However, those changes were prevented by FIN56 treatment. In conclusion, our data suggested that AS-IV could serve as a novel drug for treating ferroptosis-related diseases.

7.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753811

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate predictors of unfavorable outcome in stent-assisted coiling for symptomatic unruptured intracranial spontaneous vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (uis-VADAs) based on 608 reconstructed lesions in 30 medical centres. METHODS: A total of 608 patients (male:female=479:129; mean age, 53.26±10.26 years) with 608 symptomatic uis-VADAs underwent reconstructive treatments using stent(s) with coils between January 2009 and December 2015. Treatments and predictors of unfavorable outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Mainly, three methods were used to treat patients with uis-VADAs, including routine single-stent in 208 patients (such as Enterprise and others), new low-profile LVIS single stent in 107 patients, and multiple stents in 293 patients. During the median 66 months of clinical follow-up, 14 patients died, and 16 of the remaining 594 survivors had unfavorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score 3-5). The overall mortality rate was 2.3% (14/608), and the unfavorable outcome (mRS score 3-6) rate was 4.9% (30/608). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that preprocedural ischemic infarctions (OR=3.78; 95% CI 1.52 to 9.40; p<0.01), diabetes mellitus (OR=3.74; 95% CI 1.31 to 10.68; p=0.01), and procedural complications (OR=14.18; 95% CI 5.47 to 36.80; p<0.01) were predictors of unfavorable outcome in the reconstructed VADAs. CONCLUSIONS: This multicenter study indicated that preprocedural ischemic infarctions, diabetes mellitus, and procedural complications were related to unfavorable clinical outcomes in the reconstructed uis-VADAs.

8.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-8, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747287

RESUMO

A new dihydroflavone, 2(S)-isookanin-4'-methoxy-8-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (1), and a new polyacetylene glucoside, (10S)-tridecane-2E-ene-4,6,8-triyne-1-ol-10-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (2), along with seven known compounds (3-9), were isolated from the herb of Bidens parviflora Willd. The structures of all the extracted compounds were elucidated by HR-ESI-MS, 1 D and 2 D NMR spectra, as well as circular dichroism (CD).

9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 561, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: AP2/ERF transcription factors (TFs) constitute one of the largest TF families in plants, which play crucial roles in plant metabolism, growth, and development as well as biotic and abiotic stresses responses. Although the AP2/ERF family has been thoroughly identified in many plant species and several AP2/ERF TFs have been functionally characterized, little is known about this family in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), an important affinal drug and diet vegetable. Recent completion of the ginger genome sequencing provides an opportunity to investigate the expression profiles of AP2/ERF genes in ginger on a genome-wide basis. RESULTS: A total of 163 AP2/ERF genes were obtained in the Z.officinale genome and renamed according to the chromosomal distribution of the ZoAP2/ERF genes. Phylogenetic analysis divided them into three subfamilies, of which 35 belonged to the AP2 subfamily, 120 to ERF, three to RAV, and five to Sololist, respectively, which is in accordance with the number of conserved domains and gene structure analysis. A total of 10 motifs were detected in ZoAP2/ERF genes, and some of the unique motifs were found to be important for the function of ZoAP2/ERF genes. The chromosomal localization, gene structure, and conserved protein motif analyses, as well as the characterization of gene duplication events provided deep insight into the evolutionary features of these ZoAP2/ERF genes. The expression profiles derived from the RNA-seq data and quantitative reserve transcription (qRT-PCR) analysis of ZoAP2/ERFs during development and responses to abiotic stresses were investigated in ginger. CONCLUSION: A comprehensive analysis of the AP2/ERF gene expression patterns in various tissues by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR showed that they played an important role in the growth and development of ginger, and genes that might regulate rhizome and flower development were preliminary identified. In additionally, the ZoAP2/ERF family genes that responded to abiotic stresses were also identified. This study is the first time to identify the ZoAP2/ERF family, which contributes to research on evolutionary characteristics and better understanding the molecular basis for development and abiotic stress response, as well as further functional characterization of ZoAP2/ERF genes with an aim of ginger crop improvement.

10.
Hum Cell ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807408

RESUMO

This study is to investigate the underlying mechanisms of mitochondrial quality control (MQC) regulated by HtrA2/Omi during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). We utilized the mnd2 mouse model, which has a missense mutation in HtrA2/Omi, to investigate the HtrA2/Omi regulation in mitochondria after I/R injury in the cerebral cortex. Compared to homozygous (HtrA2mnd2) mice, heterozygous (HtrA2Hetero) mice showed aging signs at a later age, increased HtrA2/Omi expression in the brain cortex, and lesser neurodegenerative signs. The brain cortex of HtrA2Hetero mice had increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity; lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA); higher expressions of mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mtUPR)-related proteins, NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 7 (Ndufs7), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) proteins; more mitochondrial fission; higher levels of ATP and mtDNA copies; elevated sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) activity; and increased NAD+/NADH ratio. After 1.5 h of I/R, the brain cortex of HtrA2Hetero mice had a larger infarction size, reduced HtrA2/Omi expression, decreased S-X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), and increased C-Caspase3 than that of wild-type animals (WT). Mitochondria from the HtrA2Hetero brain cortex showed decreased ATP production and MQC deficiency after 1.5 h I/R. Genipin pre-treatment reduced the aforementioned I/R injury in the HtrA2Hetero brain cortex. In conclusion, mitochondrial function is compensated in the HtrA2Hetero brain cortex via the upregulation of the UCP2-SIRT3-PGC1 axis. Decreased HtrA2/Omi function damages mitochondrial quality in the HtrA2Hetero mouse brain cortex, leading to more brain I/R injury. Genipin pre-treatment ameliorates brain damages via the mitochondrial UCP2-SIRT3-PGC1 axis.

11.
Clin Mol Hepatol ; 2021 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839623

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely associated with metabolic dysfunction. Among the multiple factors, genetic variation acts as important modifiers. Klotho, an enzyme encoded by the klotho (KL) gene in human, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic dysfunctions. However, the impact of variants in KL on NAFLD risk remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of KL rs495392 C>A polymorphism on the histological severity of NAFLD. Methods: We evaluated the impact of the KL rs495392 polymorphism on liver histology in 531 Chinese with NAFLD and replicated that in the population-based Rotterdam Study cohort. The interactions between the rs495392 and vitamin D and patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) rs738409 polymorphism were also analyzed. Results: Carriage of the rs495392 A allele had a protective effect on steatosis severity (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42 - 0.89, P = 0.010) in Chinese patients. After adjustment for potential confounders, the A allele remained significant with a protective effect (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45 - 0.98, P = 0.040). The effect on hepatic steatosis was confirmed in the Rotterdam Study cohort. Additional analysis showed the association between serum vitamin D levels and NAFLD specifically in rs495392 A allele carriers, but not in non-carriers. Moreover, we found that the rs495392 A allele attenuated the detrimental impact of PNPLA3 rs738409 G allele on the risk of severe hepatic steatosis. Conclusions: The KL rs495392 polymorphism has a protective effect against hepatic steatosis in patients with NAFLD.

12.
J Chem Ecol ; 47(12): 950-967, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762210

RESUMO

Synthetic pheromones have been used for pest control over several decades. The conventional synthesis of di-unsaturated pheromone compounds is usually complex and costly. Camelina (Camelina sativa) has emerged as an ideal, non-food biotech oilseed platform for production of oils with modified fatty acid compositions. We used Camelina as a plant factory to produce mono- and di-unsaturated C12 chain length moth sex pheromone precursors, (E)-9-dodecenoic acid and (E,E)-8,10-dodecadienoic acid, by introducing a fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase FatB gene UcTE from California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) and a bifunctional ∆9 desaturase gene Cpo_CPRQ from the codling moth, Cydia pomonella. Different transgene combinations were investigated for increasing pheromone precursor yield. The most productive Camelina line was engineered with a vector that contained one copy of UcTE and the viral suppressor protein encoding P19 transgenes and three copies of Cpo_CPRQ transgene. The T2 generation of this line produced 9.4% of (E)-9-dodecenoic acid and 5.5% of (E,E)-8,10-dodecadienoic acid of the total fatty acids, and seeds were selected to advance top-performing lines to homozygosity. In the T4 generation, production levels of (E)-9-dodecenoic acid and (E,E)-8,10-dodecadienoic acid remained stable. The diene acid together with other seed fatty acids were converted into corresponding alcohols, and the bioactivity of the plant-derived codlemone was confirmed by GC-EAD and a flight tunnel assay. Trapping in orchards and home gardens confirmed significant and specific attraction of C. pomonella males to the plant-derived codlemone.

13.
Asian J Surg ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627688

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the outcomes of patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the palate undergoing pedicled facial-submental artery island flap (FSIF) reconstruction following resection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 41 patients with early stage disease and 9 patients with advanced-stage disease underwent radical excision and neck dissection. 37 IIb, 4 class IIa and 9 IIIb maxillary defects were reconstructed with FSIF, folded FSIF or folded FSIF with titanium mesh respectively. The skin paddles were 3 × 8 to 5 × 15 cm and 3 × 8 to 5 × 14 cm, respectively. 5 patients with high grade disease were treated with cobalt 60 adjuvant radiotherapy after operation. RESULTS: One flap failure occurred, yielding a success rate of 98.0% in the reconstruction of palate II and III defects with FSIF or titanium mesh. The patients were seen for follow-up for 16-60 months postoperative. 76.0% patients alive with no disease (AND); 14.0% patients alive with disease (AD) and 10.0% died of disease (DD). Rates of AND, AD and DD differed significantly according to histopathologic grade and TNM stage (P < 0.001); rates of AND, AD and DD differed obviously according to necrosis of the tumors lymph node metastasis, and tumour cell anaplasia and treatment (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Radical resection with wide safety margins of normal tissues including neck dissection is the mainstay of treatment modality. The patients with high grade disease should be treated with postoperative radiotherapy. The FSIF is a reliable and safe method for repairing Brown class II maxillary defects.

15.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 698698, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692767

RESUMO

Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the leading cause of death in diabetic patients. Folic acid has a protective effect on diabetes-induced cardiomyocyte damage. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of folic acid on cardiomyocytes cultured under high glucose and fat (HGF) conditions and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Bioinformatics analysis was used to identify the potential drugs through the Drug-Gene Interaction database. H9C2 cardiomyocytes were cultured with 30 mM glucose and 500 nM palmitic acid in the presence or absence of folic acid or YAP1 inhibitor (verteporfin) or YAP1 siRNA. The cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release were measured using specific assay kits. Pyroptosis was detected by flow cytometry. The concentrations of IL-1ß and IL-18 in the supernatants were measured by ELISA. The NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1 mRNA levels were detected by qRT-PCR and that the proteins expression of NLRP3, ASC, cleaved caspase-1 (p10), caspase-1, YAP1, p-YAP1, LATS1 and P-LATS1 were detected by Western blotting. C57BL/6 mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) combined with streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally to establish a T2DM model, folic acid or PBS treatment for 8 weeks by oral gavage, blood glucose and body weight were measured every 4 weeks, mouse heart tissue was used to detect pyroptosis and hippo signaling pathway related protein expression. We identified 427 differentially expressed genes in the cardiac tissues of high fat diet + streptozotocin mice, among the 30 most significantly DEGs, folic acid was predicted to be the most likely therapeutic drug. Folic acid alleviated HGF-induced cell damage in vitro and in vivo by decreasing activation of the Hippo pathway, as indicated by lower LDH release and increased cell viability, and decreased expression of NLRP3, ASC, cleaved caspase-1, IL-1ß, IL-18, p-YAP and p-LATS. Verteporfin or YAP1 siRNA neutralized the protective effect of folic acid by reversing YAP1-induced pyroptosis. Folic acid reduced NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis by down-regulating the Hippo signaling pathway, thereby effectively reducing T2DM-induced damage in H9C2 cells and animals.

16.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 32(9): 758-764, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caspase-cleaved K18 (cK18) may accurately reflect hepatocyte apoptosis in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, NASH can also exist within the normal range of cK18. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors and characteristics of NASH within the normal serum levels of cK18. METHODS: In the study, 227 histopathologically confirmed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients with normal cK18 levels (≤200 U/L), measured in serum using ELISA kits, were enrolled. The Rs738409 allele, coding patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3), was detected by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis was defined as an NAFLD activity score (NAS) ≥5 with each part >0. RESULTS: The prevalence of NASH was 31.7% among NAFLD patients with normal serum cK18 levels. Compared with non-NASH, NASH had a higher possibility of occurrence with central obesity, insulin resistance, and the G allele of PNPLA3. The mean serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were higher in NASH patients. Moreover, ALT, AST, TC, LDL-C, central obesity, and the PNPLA3 G allele were risk factors for NASH in NAFLD patients with normal serum cK18 levels, with odds ratios of 1.01 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.02), 1.03 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.05), 1.33 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.68), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.92), 2.19 (95% CI: 1.15, 4.18), and 2.48 (95% CI: 1.15, 5.36), respectively; all P < .05. CONCLUSIONS: The major risk factors for NASH were central obesity, AST, and the PNPLA3 G allele, in NAFLD with low hepatocyte apoptosis.

17.
Nature ; 600(7887): 59-63, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666339

RESUMO

Mare volcanics on the Moon are the key record of thermo-chemical evolution throughout most of lunar history1-3. Young mare basalts-mainly distributed in a region rich in potassium, rare-earth elements and phosphorus (KREEP) in Oceanus Procellarum, called the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT)4-were thought to be formed from KREEP-rich sources at depth5-7. However, this hypothesis has not been tested with young basalts from the PKT. Here we present a petrological and geochemical study of the basalt clasts from the PKT returned by the Chang'e-5 mission8. These two-billion-year-old basalts are the youngest lunar samples reported so far9. Bulk rock compositions have moderate titanium and high iron contents  with KREEP-like rare-earth-element and high thorium concentrations. However, strontium-neodymium isotopes indicate that these basalts were derived from a non-KREEP mantle source. To produce the high abundances of rare-earth elements and thorium, low-degree partial melting and extensive fractional crystallization are required. Our results indicate that the KREEP association may not be a prerequisite for young mare volcanism. Absolving the need to invoke heat-producing elements in their source implies a more sustained cooling history of the lunar interior to generate the Moon's youngest melts.

18.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 750936, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566576

RESUMO

As a common neurophysiological phenomenon, voluntary muscle fatigue is accompanied by changes in both the central nervous system and peripheral muscles. Considering the effectiveness of the muscle network and the functional corticomuscular coupling (FCMC) in analyzing motor function, muscle fatigue can be analyzed by quantitating the intermuscular coupling and corticomuscular coupling. However, existing coherence-based research on muscle fatigue are limited by the inability of the coherence algorithm to identify the coupling direction, which cannot further reveal the underlying neural mechanism of muscle fatigue. To address this problem, we applied the time-delayed maximal information coefficient (TDMIC) method to quantitate the directional informational interaction in the muscle network and FCMC during a right-hand stabilized grip task. Eight healthy subjects were recruited to the present study. For the muscle networks, the beta-band information flow increased significantly due to muscle fatigue, and the information flow between the synergist muscles were stronger than that between the synergist and antagonist muscles. The information flow in the muscle network mainly flows to flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), flexor carpi ulnar (FCU), and brachioradialis (BR). For the FCMC, muscle fatigue caused a significant decrease in the beta- and gamma-band bidirectional information flow. Further analysis revealed that the beta-band information flow was significantly stronger in the descending direction [electroencephalogram (EEG) to surface electromyography (sEMG)] than that in the ascending direction (sEMG to EEG) during pre-fatigue tasks. After muscle fatigue, the beta-band information flow in the ascending direction was significantly stronger than that in the descending direction. The present study demonstrates the influence of muscle fatigue on information flow in muscle networks and FCMC. We proposes that beta-band intermuscular and corticomuscular informational interaction plays an adjusting role in autonomous movement completion under muscle fatigue. Directed information flow analysis can be used as an effective method to explore the neural mechanism of muscle fatigue on the macroscopic scale.

19.
Rheumatol Int ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499196

RESUMO

In view of the possible involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) in pathogenesis of adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) based on our previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) results, the primary objective of this study, therefore, was to investigate the correlations between the content of VEGF-C in serum and clinical and biochemical markers of AOSD. Blood samples were collected from 80 patients with AOSD, 26 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 30 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 31 healthy control subjects. The serum VEGF-C levels were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis and comparisons were conducted. A significantly higher serum VEGF-C level was observed in patients with AOSD than in HC. Serum VEGF-C levels had high AUC value of 0.8145 for distinguishing AOSD group from healthy group with sensitivity of 0.7097 and specificity of 0.8250. It also showed good diagnostic value to differentiate AOSD from other autoinflammatory diseases with sensitivity of 0.7500 and specificity of 0.5500. AOSD patients with fever, arthralgia, skin rash, sore throat, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly hepatomegaly and pleuritis, had a higher level than those who did not have these symptoms (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0092, p = 0.0056, p = 0.0123, p = 0.0068, p = 0.0030, p = 0.0020, and p = 0.0018, respectively). The serum VEGF-C levels were also positively correlated with laboratory features and several cytokines related to AOSD disease activity. In conclusion, our study unveiled a close association between serum VEGF-C levels and AOSD including disease activity and clinical hematological manifestations, suggesting the potential utility of VEGF-C as a candidate biomarker to assess disease activity in AOSD.

20.
Contrast Media Mol Imaging ; 2021: 5545178, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366725

RESUMO

Objective: Pre-eclampsia (PE) can cause brain development delay in infants. This work aims to characterize the pattern differences of brain white matter development in premature infants under PE conditions and those without. Methods: Eighty preterm infants delivered by women with PE were selected as the PE group, and ninety-six preterm infants of the same period born to women without high-risk perinatal factors were used as control. All infants underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) examination. The fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured in five regions of interests (ROIs), including posterior limbs of internal capsule (PLIC), splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC), superior frontal gyrus (SFG), superior parietal lobule (SPL), and superior occipital gyrus (SOG). The relationship between the FA values and postmenstrual age (PMA) was analyzed. Results: After adjusting for the birth weight and gestational ages, in the SCC and PLIC, the PMA and FA values showed a low-to-medium intensity positive correlation in the control group (r = 0.30, p=0.003; r = 0.53, p < 0.0001), while no positive relevance was detected in the PE group (r = 0.08, p=0.47; r = 0.19, p < 0.08). In the PE and control groups, in the SPL and SOG, the PMA and FA values showed a near-consistent positive correlation (r = 0.57, r = 0.55 vs. r = 0.31, r = 0.55; all p < 0.05). In the control group, in SFG, the PMA and FA values had a medium intensity positive correlation (r = 0.47, p < 0.0001), but there was no statistical difference in correlation in PE (r = 0.10, p=0.39). Conclusion: PE may cause lagging brain development in the SCC, PLIC, and SFG during infancy. DTI may be an effective and sensitive detection tool.

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