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1.
Eur J Cancer ; 119: 87-96, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Initial 3-year results from our clinical trial in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients showed that induction chemotherapy (IC) with cisplatin and fluorouracil resulted in improved disease-free survival (DFS) with a marginally significant effect on distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), but the effect of IC on locoregional relapse-free survival and overall survival (OS) did not differ significantly. Here, we present 5-year follow-up results. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Our trial was a randomised, open-label phase III trial comparing IC followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) versus CCRT alone in patients with stage III-IVB (except T3N0-1) NPC. The IC followed by CCRT group received cisplatin (80 mg/m2 d1) and fluorouracil (800 mg/m2 d1-5) every 3 weeks for two cycles before CCRT. Both groups were treated with 80 mg/m2 cisplatin every 3 weeks concurrently with radiotherapy. The primary end-points were DFS and DMFS. We did efficacy analyses in the 476 randomised patients (intention-to-treat population). RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 82.6 months, the 5-year DFS rate was 73.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 67.7-79.1) in the IC followed by CCRT group and 63.1% (95% CI 56.8-69.4) in the CCRT alone group (p = 0.007). The 5-year DMFS rate was also significantly higher in the IC followed by CCRT group (82.8%, 95% CI 77.9-87.7) than in the CCRT alone group (73.1%, 95% CI 67.2-79.0, p = 0.014). Our updated analysis revealed an OS benefit of IC: the 5-year OS rate was 80.8% in the IC followed by CCRT group versus 76.8% in the CCRT alone group (p = 0.040). The proportion of patients with eye damage was significantly higher in the CCRT alone group than the IC followed by CCRT group (16.4% [39/238] versus 9.7% [23/238], p = 0.029). CONCLUSION: IC followed by CCRT provides long-term DFS, DMFS and OS benefits compared with CCRT alone in locoregionally advanced NPC and, therefore, can be recommended for these patients.

2.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(6): 703-710, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to explore the value of adding neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) or adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with different risks of treatment failure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 2,263 eligible patients with stage III-IVb NPC treated with CCRT ± NACT or ACT were included in this retrospective study. Distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), overall survival, and progression-free survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and differences were compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: Patients in the low-risk group (stage N0-1 disease and Epstein-Barr virus [EBV] DNA <4,000 copies/mL) who received NACT followed by CCRT achieved significantly better 5-year DMFS than those treated with CCRT alone (96.2% vs 91.3%; P= .008). Multivariate analyses also demonstrated that additional NACT was the only independent prognostic factor for DMFS (hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.22-0.80; P=.009). In both the intermediate-risk group (stage N0-1 disease and EBV DNA ≥4,000 copies/mL and stage N2-3 disease and EBV DNA <4,000 copies/mL) and the high-risk group (stage N2-3 disease and EBV DNA ≥4,000 copies/mL), comparison of NACT or ACT + CCRT versus CCRT alone indicated no significantly better survival for all end points. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of NACT to CCRT could reduce distant failure in patients with low risk of treatment failure.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 145(10): 2873-2883, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044420

RESUMO

We analyzed the number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and Epstein-Barr virus DNA (EBV DNA) for diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis of patients with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (mNPC). The levels of CTCs and EBV DNA were measured at baseline and after first-line chemotherapy in 148 mNPC patients prospectively enrolled between December 2014 and August 2016. We also collected 122 non-mNPC cases within the same time frame for examining CTCs and EBV DNA at baseline. In 270 NPC patients, we observed improved specificity (86.0% vs. 41.0%) and inferior sensitivity (42.3% vs. 81.3%) of CTCs as compared to EBV DNA for diagnosis of distant metastasis. mNPC patients were stratified into unfavorable and favorable prognostic groups, respectively, based on CTC of 12 at baseline and 1 after first-line chemotherapy and EBV DNA of 10,000 at baseline and 4,000 after first-line chemotherapy. Conversion of baseline unfavorable CTCs and EBV DNA to favorable after first-line chemotherapy was associated with significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) compared to patients with unfavorable CTCs and EBV DNA at both time points. Among patients with a complete/partial response as per imaging evaluation, favorable CTCs and EBV DNA levels after first-line chemotherapy were associated with significantly longer PFS and OS. In conclusion, our data demonstrated the number of CTCs and EBV DNA before, after and during first-line chemotherapy were strong predictive markers for mNPC patients. When utilized in conjunction with imaging studies, CTCs and EBV DNA could provide additional prognostic information.

4.
Cancer Res Treat ; 51(4): 1449-1463, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913870

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the survival trends and patterns of failure in patients with stage II nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy over the last 20 years. Materials and Methods: Thirty-eight hundred and eight patients diagnosed with stage II NPC between January 1990 and December 2012 were involved in this retrospective cohort study. All patients were treated with RT. According to the main imaging techniques and RT technology, we categorized these patients into four calendar periods: 1990-1996, 1997-2002, 2003-2007, and 2008-2012. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), locoregional relapse-free survival (LRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were served as the clinical outcome. RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 84.7 months, we observed increasing trends in survival and disease control. The 3- and 5-year OS rates increased from 87.1% and 78.7% in the first calendar period to 97.4% and 94.5% in the last calendar period, respectively (p<0.001). Additionally, significant increasing trends could be seen in the PFS and LRFS during the four calendar periods. In the subgroup analysis, the LRFS in patients older than 50 years at diagnosis showed greater improvement than younger patients. However, the rate of distant metastasis was stable and relatively low, as the 5-year DMFS ranged from 90.5% to 94.7% among the four calendar periods. CONCLUSION: The survival rates in patients with stage II NPC showed increasing trends from 1990 to 2012. The advance of RT provided excellent locoregional control and enhanced OS.

5.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 38(1): 74, 2018 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postradiation nasopharyngeal necrosis (PRNN) is a severe complication after radiotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which can severely affect the quality of life and threaten the patient's life. Only 13.4%-28.6% of patients can be cured by traditional repeated endoscopic debridement. Here, we introduced an innovative curative-intent endoscopic surgery for PRNN patients and evaluated its clinical efficacy. METHODS: Clinical data of 72 PRNN patients who underwent radical endoscopic necrectomy, followed by reconstruction using a posterior pedicle nasal septum and floor mucoperiosteum flap were analyzed to determine the efficacy of this surgery. The endpoints were complete re-epithelialization of the nasopharyngeal defect, relief of headache, and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: All surgeries were successfully performed without any severe postoperative complications or death. The median value of numeric rating scales of pain decreased from 8 before surgery to 0 after surgery (P < 0.001). Fifty-one patients (70.8%) achieved complete re-epithelialization of the nasopharyngeal defect. The number of cycles of radiotherapy (odds ratio [OR], 7.254; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.035-50.821; P = 0.046), postoperative pathological result (OR, 34.087; 95% CI 3.168-366.746; P = 0.004), and survival status of flap (OR, 261.179; 95% CI 17.176-3971.599; P < 0.001) were independent risk factors of re-epithelialization of the nasopharyngeal defects. Postoperative pathological result (hazard ratio [HR], 5.018; 95% CI 1.970-12.782; P = 0.001) was an independent prognostic factor for OS. The 2-year OS rate of the entire cohort was 77.9%. CONCLUSION: Curative-intent endoscopic necrectomy followed by construction using the posterior pedicle nasal septum and floor mucoperiosteum flap is a novel, safe, and effective treatment of PRNN in patients with NPC.


Assuntos
Endoscopia/métodos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(4): 461-473, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29501366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy is currently considered to be the standard treatment regimen for patients with advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma, but has well known side-effects such as gastrointestinal reactions, nephrotoxicity, and ototoxicity. Nedaplatin was developed to decrease the toxic effects induced by cisplatin, and in this trial we assessed whether a nedaplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy regimen was non-inferior to a cisplatin-based regimen in patients with locoregional, stage II-IVB nasopharyngeal carcinoma. METHODS: We did an open-label, non-inferiority, phase 3, randomised, controlled trial at two centres in China. Patients aged 18-65 years with non-keratinising stage II-IVB (T1-4N1-3 or T3-4N0) nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a Karnofsky score of at least 70, and adequate haematological, renal, and hepatic function were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenously either nedaplatin 100 mg/m2 or cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on days 1, 22, and 43 for three cycles concurrently with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Randomisation was done manually using a computer-generated random number code and patients were stratified by treatment centre and clinical stage. Patients and clinicians were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival at 2 years; non-inferiority was shown if the upper limit of the 95% CI for the difference in 2-year progression-free survival between the two groups did not exceed 10%. Analyses were by both intention to treat and per protocol, including all patients who received at least one complete cycle of chemotherapy. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01540136, and is currently in follow-up. FINDINGS: Between Jan 16, 2012, and July 16, 2014, we randomly assigned 402 patients to nedaplatin-based (n=201) or cisplatin-based (n=201) concurrent chemoradiotherapy. In the intention-to-treat population, 2-year progression-free survival was 89·9% (95% CI 85·8-94·0) in the cisplatin group and 88·0% (83·5-94·5) in the nedaplatin group, with a difference of 1·9% (95% CI -4·2 to 8·0; pnon-inferiority=0·0048). In the per-protocol analysis (cisplatin group, n=197; nedaplatin group, n=196), 2-year progression-free survival was 89·7% (95% CI 85·4-94·0) in the cisplatin group and 88·7% (84·2-94·5) in the nedaplatin group, with a difference of 1·0% (95% CI -5·2 to 7·0; pnon-inferiority=0·0020). A significantly higher frequency of grade 3 or 4 vomiting (35 [18%] of 198 in the cisplatin group vs 12 [6%] of 200 in the nedaplatin group, p<0·0001), nausea (18 [9%] vs four [2%], p=0·0021), and anorexia (53 [27%] vs 26 [13%], p=0·00070) was observed in the cisplatin group compared with the nedaplatin group. 11 (6%) patients in the nedaplatin group had grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia compared with four (2%) in the cisplatin group (p=0·065). Patients in the cisplatin group had a higher frequency of any grade or grade 3 or 4 late auditory or hearing toxicities than did patients in the nedaplatin group (grade 3 or 4: three [2%] in the nedaplatin group vs 11 [6%] in the cisplatin group, p=0·030). No patients died from treatment-related causes. INTERPRETATION: Our findings show that nedaplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy represents an alternative doublet treatment strategy to cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy for patients with locoregional, advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Further investigations are needed to explore the potential use of this treatment as induction or adjuvant chemotherapy or in combination with other agents. FUNDING: National Key R&D Program of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Sun Yat-sen University Clinical Research 5010 Program, Sci-Tech Project Foundation of Guangzhou City, National Key Basic Research Program of China, Special Support Plan of Guangdong Province, Sci-Tech Project Foundation of Guangdong Province, Health & Medical Collaborative Innovation Project of Guangzhou City, National Science & Technology Pillar Program during the Twelfth Five-year Plan Period, PhD Start-up Fund of Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, Cultivation Foundation for the Junior Teachers in Sun Yat-sen University, and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(8): 1824-1833, 2018 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29431618

RESUMO

Purpose: Because of the uneven geographic distribution and small number of randomized trials available, the value of additional induction chemotherapy (IC) to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains controversial. This study performed an individual patient data (IPD) pooled analysis to better assess the precise role of IC + CCRT in locoregionally advanced NPC.Experimental Design: Four randomized trials in endemic areas were identified, representing 1,193 patients; updated IPD were obtained. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were the primary and secondary endpoints, respectively.Results: Median follow-up was 5.0 years. The HR for PFS was 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56-0.86; P = 0.0009; 9.3% absolute benefit at 5 years] in favor of IC + CCRT versus CCRT alone. IC + CCRT also improved OS (HR = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.57-0.99; P = 0.04) and reduced distant failure (HR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.51-0.90; P = 0.008). IC + CCRT had a tendency to improve locoregional control compared with CCRT alone (HR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.48-1.01; P = 0.06). There was no heterogeneity between trials in any analysis. No interactions between patient characteristics and treatment effects on PFS or OS were found. After adding two supplementary trials to provide a more comprehensive overview, the conclusions remained valid and were strengthened. In a supplementary Bayesian network analysis, no statistically significant differences in survival between different IC regimens were detected.Conclusions: This IPD pooled analysis demonstrates the superiority of additional IC over CCRT alone in locoregionally advanced NPC, with the survival benefit mainly associated with improved distant control. Clin Cancer Res; 24(8); 1824-33. ©2018 AACR.

8.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 114, 2018 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the prognostic significance of pretreatment quality of life for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. METHODS: We performed a prospective, longitudinal study on 554 newly diagnosed patients with NPC from April 2011 to January 2015. A total of 501 consecutive NPC patients were included. Patients were asked to complete the EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3.0) and QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires before treatment. RESULTS: Global health status among QLQ-C30 correlates with EBV DNA(P = 0.019). In addition, pretreatment appetite loss was significantly correlated with EBV DNA(P = 0.02). Pretreatment teeth, opening mouth, feeding tube was significantly correlated with EBV DNA, with P value of 0.003, < 0.0001, and 0.031, respectively. In multivariate analysis, pretreatment cognitive functioning of QLQ-C30 was significantly associated with LRFS, with HR of 0.971(95%CI 0.951-0.990), P = 0.004. Among scales of QLQ-H&N35 for multivariate analysis, pretreatment teeth (P = 0.026) and felt ill (P = 0.012) was significantly associated with PFS, with HR of 0.984 (95%CI 0.971-.998) and 1.004 (95%CI 1.001-1.007), respectively. Felt ill of QLQ-H&N35 was significantly associated with DMFS, with HR of 1.004(95%CI 1.000-1.007), P = 0.043. There is no QoL scale significantly associated with OS after multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our analysis confirms that pretreatment teeth and felt ill was significantly associated with PFS in NPC patients treated with IMRT. In addition, the posttreatment EBV DNA was significantly associated with OS.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/epidemiologia , Carcinoma/radioterapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Prognóstico , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(3): 648-658, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29030355

RESUMO

Purpose: Metastasis is one of the most important causes of treatment failure in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In T4 or N2-3 patients at high-risk of metastasis, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is inadequate and additional induction chemotherapy (IC) is controversial. There is a critical need to develop a better patient stratification to efficiently identify patients at high-risk of metastasis for additional IC. Recently, Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1)/p62, an autophagy adaptor protein, was identified as one of the metastasis-related proteins in NPC. However, the mechanism by which SQSTM1 is involved in NPC metastasis was not investigated.Experimental Design: The effect of SQSTM1 on cell migration and invasion was examined in vitro and in vivo SQSTM1 expression was analyzed in clinical NPC samples using IHC. Luciferase reporter analyses were conducted to identify the effects of SQSTM1 on NF-κB transcriptional activity. A prediction bio-model was constructed by Cox analysis. Retrospective and prospective randomized clinical data were adopted to build and test the model, respectively.Results: SQSTM1 mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) through the NF-κB pathway to promote NPC metastasis. Inhibiting SQSTM1 enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin in NPC cells. In NPC patients, high SQSTM1 expression was associated with increased risk of distant metastasis. Furthermore, we propose a prognostic bio-model based on SQSTM1 and N-stage to predict NPC metastasis. Most importantly, our prospective randomized study suggested that IC is beneficial for NPC patients with high metastasis risk.Conclusions: The prognostic bio-model identifies NPC patients at high-risk of metastasis for additional IC. Clin Cancer Res; 24(3); 648-58. ©2017 AACR.

10.
Cancer Res Treat ; 50(1): 19-29, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28392551

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic value of treatment-related lymphopenia in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 413 consecutive stage II-IVb NPC patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) were enrolled. The overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method, and differences were compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: A minimum (mini)-absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) of < 390 cells/µL or ALC after 3 months of CCRT (post3m-ALC) < 705 cells/µL was significantly associated with worse outcome than mini-ALC ≥ 390 cells/µL (OS, p=0.002; PFS, p=0.005; DMFS, p=0.004) or post3m-ALC ≥ 705 cells/µL (OS, p < 0.001; PFS, p < 0.001; DMFS, p=0.001). Patients with lymphopenia (mini-ALC < 390 cells/µL and post3m-ALC < 705 cells/µL) had a worse prognosis than those without lymphopenia (mini-ALC ≥ 390 cells/µL and post3m-ALC ≥ 705 cells/µL) (OS, p < 0.001; PFS, p < 0.001; DMFS, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that post3m-ALC was an independent prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 2.78; p=0.015), PFS (HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.82; p=0.003), and DMFS (HR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.13 to 3.08; p=0.014). Multivariate analysis also revealed that patients with lymphopenia had a high risk of death (HR, 3.79; 95% CI, 1.75 to 8.19; p=0.001), disease progression (HR, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.59 to 5.41; p=0.001), and distant metastasis (HR, 3.89; 95% CI, 1.67 to 9.10; p=0.002). Multivariate analysis performed with time dependent Cox regression demonstrated ALC was an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR, 0.995; 95% CI, 0.991 to 0.999; p=0.025) and PFS (HR, 0.993; 95% CI, 0.988 to 0.998; p=0.006). CONCLUSION: Treatment-related lymphopenia was a poor prognostic factor in NPC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/complicações , Linfopenia/etiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma/mortalidade , Carcinoma/radioterapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
11.
Theranostics ; 7(19): 4825-4835, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29187906

RESUMO

Purpose: We used randomized trials of radiotherapy (RT) with or without chemotherapy in non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma to investigate the survival benefit of chemoradiotherapy regimens between two/three-dimensional radiotherapy (2D/3D RT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: Overall, 27 trials and 7,940 patients were included. Treatments were grouped into seven categories including RT alone, induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by RT (IC-RT), RT followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (RT-AC), IC followed by RT followed by AC (IC-RT-AC), concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CRT), IC followed by CRT (IC-CRT), and CRT followed by AC (CRT-AC). To distinguish between 2D/3D RT and IMRT, three categories in IMRT were newly added, including CRT in IMRT, IC-CRT in IMRT, and CRT-AC in IMRT. The P score was used to rank the treatments. Results: Both fixed- and random-effects frequentist and Bayesian network meta-analysis models were applied, which provided similar results and the same ranking. IC-CRT was the most effective regimen compared with CRT-AC and CRT in the IMRT era for overall survival (OS) (HR, 95% CI, IC-CRT vs. CRT-AC, 0.61 (0.45, 0.82); IC-CRT vs. CRT 0.65 (0.47, 0.91)), progression-free survival (PFS) (0.69 (0.54, 0.88); 0.63 (0.49, 0.80)), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) (0.58 (0.28, 1.21); 0.60 (0.42, 0.85)). CRT-AC achieved the highest survival benefit compared with CRT, and IC-CRT for loco-regional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) (0.44 (0.15, 1.28); 0.72 (0.22, 2.33)). Among these 10 categories, after distinguishing between 2D/3D RT and IMRT, IC-CRT in IMRT ranked first for OS, PFS, and DMFS, and CRT-AC in IMRT ranked first for LRRFS. Conclusion: IC-CRT should be the most suitable regimen for loco-regionally advanced NPC in the IMRT era.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos
12.
Eur J Cancer ; 77: 117-126, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28391025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To better manage patients with de novo metastatic NPC (mNPC) including easily identifying individuals' survival outcomes and accurately choosing the most suitable treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three independent cohorts of mNPC patients (a training set of n = 462, an internal prospective validation set of n = 272 and an external prospective validation set of n = 243) were studied. The radiological characteristics of distant metastases, including number of metastatic locations, number of metastatic lesions and size of metastatic lesions, were carefully defined based on imaging data. These three factors and other potential prognostic factors were comprehensively analysed and were further integrated into new subdivisions of stage M1 using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: We successfully subdivided the M1 stage into three categories: M1a, oligo metastasis without liver involvement; M1b, multiple metastases without liver involvement; and M1c, liver involvement irrespective of metastatic lesions. The 3-year overall survival ranged from 54.5% to 72.8%, from 34.3% to 41.6% and from 22.6.0%-23.6% for M1a, M1b and M1c, respectively (P < 0.001). Systemic chemotherapy combined with radical loco-regional radiotherapy may benefit patients in M1a and M1b, not in M1c. Further aggressive treatment of metastatic lesions based on systemic chemotherapy and definitive loco-regional radiotherapy showed no survival benefit, even for patients in M1a (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The subdividing of M1 provided promising prognostic value and could aid clinicians in choosing the most suitable treatment for de novo mNPC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Carcinoma/mortalidade , Carcinoma/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Oral Oncol ; 67: 83-88, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28351585

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the clinical outcomes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with post-radiation nasopharyngeal necrosis (PRNN) and construct a new risk classification system for predicting survival of PRNN. METHODS: A total of 276 patients with PRNN were consecutively enrolled. Complete magnetic resonance (MR) images of the nasopharynx and neck were available for all patients and were used to assess nasopharyngeal necrosis status. After 2010, patients with PRNN were initially treated by radical endoscopic necrectomy followed by reconstruction with nasal flap (ENNF). RESULTS: The 1-year and 2-year overall survival (OS) was 65.0% and 51.6%, respectively. Three variables affected survival: osteoradionecrosis, re-irradiation, and internal carotid artery (ICA) exposure, and only two variables were found to be independent prognostic factors: re-irradiation (hazard ratio [HR] 1.75, P=0.001) and internal carotid artery (ICA) exposure (hazard ratio [HR] 1.80, P=0.001). These two variables were combined to create a new risk classification system for PRNN. 131 (47.5%), 110 (39.9%), and 35 (12.7%) patients were classified into low-, intermediate- and high-risk group, with the 2-year OS rates of 64.8%, 45.1%, and 22.5%, respectively (P<0.001). ENNF was associated with a better OS in these three group patients compared with conservative management with statistical or marginal statistical significance (2-year OS low-risk group, 90.9% vs 61.1%, p=0.081; intermediate-risk group: 100% vs 37.8%, P=0.001; and high-risk group, 57.1% vs 20.8%, p=0.066). CONCLUSION: The new risk classification system provides accurate estimates of prognosis. ENNF surgery may lead to better survival outcome than conservative management in PRNN patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Necrose , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos
14.
Eur J Cancer ; 75: 14-23, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28214653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of NACT followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) versus CCRT alone in locoregionally advanced NPC. METHODS: Patients with stage III-IVB (excluding T3N0-1) NPC were randomly assigned to receive NACT followed by CCRT (investigational arm) or CCRT alone (control arm). Both arms were treated with 80 mg/m2 cisplatin every 3 weeks concurrently with radiotherapy. The investigational arm received cisplatin (80 mg/m2 d1) and fluorouracil (800 mg/m2 civ d1-5) every 3 weeks for two cycles before CCRT. The primary end-point was disease-free survival (DFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). Secondary end-point was overall survival (OS). Survival curves for the time-to-event endpoints were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. The P value was calculated using the 5-year endpoints. RESULTS: Four hundred seventy six patients were randomly assigned to the investigational (n = 238) and control arms (n = 238). The investigational arm achieved higher 3-year DFS rate (82.0%, 95% CI = 0.77-0.87) than the control arm (74.1%, 95% CI = 0.68-0.80, P = 0.028). The 3-year DMFS rate was 86.0% for the investigational arm versus 82.0% for the control arm, with marginal statistical significance (P = 0.056). However, there were no statistically significant differences in OS or locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) rates between two arms (OS: 88.2% versus 88.5%, P = 0.815; LRRFS: 94.3% versus 90.8%, P = 0.430). The most common grade 3-4 toxicity during NACT was neutropenia (16.0%). During CCRT, the investigational arm experienced statistically significantly more grade 3-4 toxicities (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: NACT improved tumour control compared with CCRT alone in locoregionally advanced NPC, particularly at distant sites. However, there was no early gain in OS. Longer follow-up is needed to determine the eventual therapeutic efficacy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Metástase Neoplásica , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Radiology ; 282(1): 171-181, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27479804

RESUMO

Purpose To evaluate the prognostic value of the restaging system after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in patients with advanced-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Materials and Methods This study was approved by the clinical research committee and a written informed consent was required before enrolling in the study. Prospectively enrolled were 412 consecutive patients with stage III-IVb NPC treated with NACT followed by concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Patients were staged before NACT and restaged after NACT. The progression-free survival (PFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method, and differences were compared by using the log-rank test. Results Post-NACT T classification (PFS, P = .001) and N classification (PFS, P < .001; DMFS, P = .001) resulted in better survival curve separations than pre-NACT T classification and N classification. Patients downstaged from N2-N3 to N0-N1 disease had a better prognosis than did patients who continued to have N2-N3 diseases (3-year PFS, 83.8% vs 66.6%, P = .001; 3-year DMFS, 88.0% vs 78.4%, P = .026). Multivariate analysis revealed that post-NACT T classification (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18, 2.36; P = .003) and post-NACT N classification (HR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.03; P = .002) were independent prognostic factors for PFS; also, post-NACT N classification (HR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.07; P = .025) was an independent prognostic factor for DMFS. Multivariate analysis in patients with N2-N3 disease demonstrated that the N downstaging effects of NACT was the only independent prognostic factor for PFS (HR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.81; P = .006) and DMFS (HR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.97; P = .039). Conclusion The post-NACT stage is more representative of prognosis than the pre-NACT stage in advanced-stage NPC patients, which suggests that major clinical decisions should be based on the post-NACT stage. © RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Docetaxel , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Taxa de Sobrevida , Taxoides , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
BMC Cancer ; 16(1): 774, 2016 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27717335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to evaluate the long-term outcome in patients with advanced local recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with or without reirradiation. METHODS: A total of 44 patients treated without reirradiation (non-RT + chemotherapy) were matched with 44 patients treated with reirradiation (re-RT+/-chemtherapy) by age, sex, Karnosky performance score (KPS), rT stage, rN stage, and time interval between initial radiation and recurrence (TI). Overall survival (OS) rate and time to progression (TTP) rate were assessed using Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: From March 2008 to December 2013, a total of 88 well-balanced rT3-4 N0-1 NPC patients were retrospectively analyzed. After a median follow-up of 27 months (range: 6-85), the 5-year OS rate and TTP rate was 23.4 %, 39.0 % in the non-RT + chemotherapy group and 27.5 %, 49.8 % in the re-RT+/-chemtherapy group, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that significant toxic effect was the only significant prognosticator correlated with OS (HR: 2.15, 95 % CI = 1.02-4.53, p = 0.044). No statistically significant survival differences were observed between the two treatment groups in either univariate or multivariate analyses. CONCLUSION: Compared with reiradiation, treating advanced local recurrent NPC with chemotherapy alone warrants further validation in the view of its similar survival and more acceptable toxicities.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/diagnóstico , Carcinoma/terapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causas de Morte , Criança , Terapia Combinada , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Radioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Reirradiação , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Cancer ; 16(1): 777, 2016 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27717354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is a rare malignant disease that lacks a unique clinical staging system to predict the survival of EMP patients and to design individualized treatment. Instead, clinicians have chosen to use the multiple myeloma (MM) staging system. METHODS: Forty-eight EMP patients treated between 1996 and 2014 were included in this study. The new clinical stages were established according to independent survival factors using Cox regression model. RESULTS: Lymph node metastasis and a larger primary tumor (≥5 cm) were the only two independent poor prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (P < 0.05). Stage I was defined as the disease without those two poor prognostic factors. Stage II was defined as the presence of either factor, and Stage III was defined as the presence of both factors. OS was significantly different in each stage of the new staging system (P < 0.001), with a median follow-up time for Stage I, Stage II and Stage III of 68, 23 and 14 months. The new staging system had enhanced prognostic value compared to the MM staging system (the area under ROC 0.763 versus 0.520, P = 0.044). Although no difference was observed between treatments in Stage I, the combination treatment was associated with a significantly beneficial OS in the late stages (5-year OS: 15.3 % versus 79.5 %; P = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: The new staging system exhibited a promising prognostic value for survival and could aid clinicians in choosing the most suitable treatment for EMP patients.


Assuntos
Plasmocitoma/patologia , Plasmocitoma/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Carga Tumoral , Adulto Jovem
18.
Chin J Cancer ; 35(1): 78, 2016 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27527073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum immunoglobulin A antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), viral capsid antigen (VCA-IgA) and early antigen (EA-IgA), are used to screen for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in endemic areas. However, their routine use has been questioned because of a lack of specificity. This study aimed to determine the distributions of different subtypes of antibody and to illustrate how the natural variation patterns affect the specificity of screening in non-NPC participants. METHODS: The distribution of baseline VCA-IgA was analyzed between sexes and across 10-year age groups in 18,286 non-NPC participants using Chi square tests. Fluctuations in the VCA-IgA level were assessed in 1056 non-NPC participants with at least two retests in the first 5-year period (1987-1992) after the initial screening using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The titers of VCA-IgA increased with age (P < 0.001). Using a previous serological definition of high NPC risk, nasopharyngeal endoscopy and/or nasopharyngeal biopsy would be recommended in 55.5% of the non-NPC participants with an initial VCA-IgA-positive status and in 20.6% with an initial negative status during the 5-year follow-up. However, seroconversions were common; 85.2% of the participants with a VCA-IgA-positive status at baseline converted to negative, and all VCA-IgA-negative participants changed to positive at least once during the 5-year follow-up. The EA-IgA status had a high seroconversion probability (100%) from positive to negative; however, it had a low probability (19.6%) from negative to positive. CONCLUSIONS: Age- and sex-specific cutoff titer values for serum anti-EBV antibodies as well as their specific titer fluctuation patterns should be considered when defining high NPC risk criteria for follow-up diagnostics and monitoring.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Adulto , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , China/epidemiologia , DNA Viral/genética , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/sangue , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/sangue , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Oncotarget ; 7(20): 29708-19, 2016 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27102440

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nomogram for predicting more than a 5-year survival for non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) was lacking. This study aimed to develop the new nomograms to predict long-term survival in these patients. RESULTS: The median follow-up time for training set and test set was 95.2 months and 133.3 months, respectively. The significant predictors for death were age, gender, body mass index (BMI), T stage, N stage, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and radiotherapy techniques. For predicting recurrence, age, gender, T stage, LDH, and radiotherapy techniques were significant predictors, whereas age, gender, BMI, T stage, N stage and LDH were significant predictors for distant metastasis. The calibration curves showed the good agreements between nomogram-predicted and actual survival. The c-indices for predicting death, recurrence, and distant metastases between nomograms and the TNM staging system were 0.767 VS.0.686 (P<0.001), 0.655 VS.0.585 (P<0.001), and 0.881 VS.0.754 (P<0.001), respectively. These results were further confirmed in the test set. METHODS: On the basis of a retrospective study of 1593 patients (training set) who received radiotherapy alone or concurrent chemoradiotherapy from 2000 to 2004, significant predictors were identified and incorporated to build the nomograms. The calibration curves of nomogram-predicted survival versus the actual survival were plotted and reviewed. Bootstrap validation was performed to calculate the concordance index (c-index). These models were further validated in an independent prospective trial (test set, n=400). CONCLUSION: The established nomograms suggest more-accurate long-term prediction for patients with non-metastatic NPC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/mortalidade , Nomogramas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma/patologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
20.
Oncotarget ; 7(20): 29739-48, 2016 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27105538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in high-risk (stage III-IVb with EBV DNA≥4000 copies/ml) nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients are unclear. METHODS: A total of 325 high-risk NPC patients treated with IC+CCRT or CCRT alone who were treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) between March 2007 and March 2013 were included. For each patient in the IC+CCRT group, a matched pair in the CCRT group was matching for: gender, age, T stage, N stage, clinical stage and WHO (World Health Organization) type. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), and the secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and locoregional relapse-free survival (LRFS). RESULTS: There were no significant differences in OS, PFS, DMFS, and LRFS between the IC+CCRT (148 patients) and CCRT (177 patients) groups. After matching, 103 paired patients were analyzed, and there were no differences between the IC+CCRT and CCRT groups regarding clinical outcomes. Based on the subgroup analysis of 156 very-high-risk patients (stage N2-3 with EBV DNA ≥4000 copies/ml), the 5-year OS of the IC+CCRT and CCRT groups was 84.3% and 67.5% (P =0.033), respectively. Based on our multivariate analysis, the treatment group was significantly associated with OS (P=0.034; HR0.451, 95%CI 0.216-0.941). CONCLUSIONS: IC+CCRT did not improve the clinical outcomes of high-risk NPC patients compared to CCRT alone. However, in very-high-risk patients, IC+CCRT treatment led to increased OS compared to patients received CCRT treatment alone.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/terapia , Carcinoma/virologia , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Quimioterapia de Indução/métodos , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma/mortalidade , DNA Viral , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
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