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Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 3259238, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721757


Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is the leading cause of acute liver failure in the western world. Oridonin (OD), which is the major active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicine Rabdosia rubescens, reportedly exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. Here, we first find that OD protects against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. The results of hepatic tissue-associated RNA-seq and metabolomics showed that the protective effects of OD were dependent upon urea cycle regulation. And such regulation of OD is gut microbiota partly dependent, as demonstrated by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Furthermore, using 16S rRNA sequencing, we determined that OD significantly enriched intestinal Bacteroides vulgatus, which activated the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway to regulate redox homeostasis against APAP by urea cycle. In conclusion, our study suggests that the Bacteroides vulgatus-urea cycle-Nrf2 axis may be a potential target for reducing APAP-induced liver injury, which is altered by OD.

Free Radic Biol Med ; 172: 578-589, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242792


Acetaminophen (APAP) is the leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF), which is characterized by GSH depletion, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the specific mechanism of APAP-induced ALF remains to be clarified. In this study, we demonstrated that indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) aggravated APAP-induced ALF associated with excess lipid peroxidation, which was reversed by lipid peroxidation inhibitor (ferrostatin-1). Meanwhile, IDO1 deficiency effectively decreased the accumulation of reactive nitrogen species. Additionally, IDO1 deficiency prevented against APAP-induced liver injury through suppressing the activation of macrophages, thereby reduced their iron uptake and export, eventually reduced iron accumulation in hepatocytes through transferrin and transferrin receptor axis. In summary, our study confirmed that APAP-induced IDO1 aggravated ALF by triggering excess oxidative and nitrative stress and iron accumulation in liver. These results offer new insights for the clinical treatment of ALF or iron-dysregulated liver diseases in the future.

Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Dioxigenases , Falência Hepática Aguda , Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Hepatócitos , Ferro/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Falência Hepática Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Falência Hepática Aguda/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo
Am J Chin Med ; 48(8): 1821-1840, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308094


Macrophage autophagy defect is closely related to the progression of atherosclerosis (AS) and is regulated by the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell 2 (TREM2). TREM2 is a key factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the deficiency of which leads to anomalous autophagy in microglia. However, the role of TREM2 in the autophagy of plaque macrophages is still unclear. Geniposide (GP) can inhibit AS progression and enhance macrophage autophagy, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We found that high-fat diet (HFD) feeding significantly increased TREM2 levels and inhibited autophagy in the macrophages of ApoE[Formula: see text] mice. TREM2 overexpression in RAW264.7 macrophages decreased autophagy via activation of mTOR signaling. GP inhibited the progression of AS in ApoE[Formula: see text] mice, reinforced macrophage autophagy, and downregulated TREM2 by inhibiting mTOR signaling. Taken together, augmenting the autophagy levels in plaque macrophages by inhibiting the TREM2/mTOR axis can potentially impede atherosclerotic progression. The promising therapeutic effects of GP seen in this study should be validated in future trials, and the underlying mechanisms have to be elucidated in greater detail.

Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/genética , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/genética , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Iridoides/farmacologia , Iridoides/uso terapêutico , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
Int Immunopharmacol ; 80: 106196, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978803


Sepsis-induced liver injury is very common in intensive care units. Here, we investigated the effects of 6-gingerol on sepsis-induced liver injury and the role of the Nrf2 pathway in this process. 6-Gingerol is the principal ingredient of ginger that exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce polymicrobial sepsis and related liver injury, we found that mice pre-treated with 6-Gingerol showed less incidences of severe liver inflammation and death than untreated CLP groups. 6-Gingerol administration also inhibited the expression of pyroptosis-related proteins, including NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), IL-1ß, and caspase-1. Consistent with these findings, 6-gingerol reduced the effects of pyroptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) in RAW 264.7 cells, as evidenced by IL-1ß and caspase-1 protein levels in the supernatant and propidium iodide (PI) staining. 6-Gingerol was shown to activate the Nrf2 pathway in vivo and in vitro. Notably, Nrf2 siRNA transfection nullified the inhibitory effects of 6-gingerol on pyroptosis in vitro. In summary, these findings suggested that 6-gingerol alleviated sepsis-induced liver injury by inhibiting pyroptosis through the Nrf2 pathway.

Catecóis/farmacologia , Álcoois Graxos/farmacologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Sepse/complicações , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Catecóis/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Álcoois Graxos/uso terapêutico , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/imunologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Piroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Piroptose/imunologia , Células RAW 264.7 , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Sepse/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia