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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(7): e60, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619921
2.
Mol Cells ; 44(1): 38-49, 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510050

RESUMO

Airway mucus secretion is an essential innate immune response for host protection. However, overproduction and hypersecretion of mucus, mainly composed of the gel- forming MUC5AC protein, are significant risk factors for patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The transforming growth factor ß (TGFß) signaling pathway negatively regulates MUC5AC expression; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we showed that TGFß significantly reduces the expression of MUC5AC mRNA and its protein in NCI-H292 cells, a human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell line. This reduced MUC5AC expression was restored by a TGFß receptor inhibitor (SB431542), but not by the inhibition of NF-κB (BAY11-7082 or Triptolide) or PI3K (LY294002) activities. TGFß-activated Smad3 dose-dependently bound to MUC5AC promoter. Notably, TGFß-activated Smad3 recruited HDAC2 and facilitated nuclear translocation of HDAC2, thereby inducing the deacetylation of NF-κB at K310, which is essential for a reduction in NF-κB transcriptional activity. Both TGFß-induced nuclear translocation of Smad3/HDAC2 and deacetylation of NF-κB at K310 were suppressed by a Smad3 inhibitor (SIS3). These results suggest that the TGFß-activated Smad3/HDAC2 complex is an essential negative regulator for MUC5AC expression and an epigenetic regulator for NF-κB acetylation. Therefore, these results collectively suggest that modulation of the TGFß1/Smad3/HDAC2/NF-κB pathway axis can be a promising way to improve lung function as a treatment strategy for asthma and COPD.

3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(46): e394, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258330

RESUMO

This study compared the anthelminthic effects of three different brands of praziquantel being used in Sudan against Schistosoma haematobium (S. haematobium) infection. We enrolled 1,286 schoolchildren from six primary schools and examined their urine samples for eggs of S. haematobium at the baseline survey and follow-up two weeks after administering the medication. The schoolchildren were divided into three groups based on the three brands of praziquantel (different material production), with two school children for one brand. The overall baseline prevalence of S. haematobium infection was 15.5%. Two weeks after treatment with brands A, B, and C of praziquantel, cure rates were 87.1%, 82.4% and 83.8% respectively, and the egg-reduction rates were 69.0%, 81.0% and 70.6% respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in cure rates and egg-reduction rates between the three brands. We conclude that the three different commercial brands of praziquantel used in Sudan have similar anthelminthic effects on S. haematobium.

4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008998, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370333

RESUMO

Clonorchiasis caused by Clonorchis sinensis is endemic in East Asia; approximately 15 million people have been infected thus far. To diagnose the infection, serodiagnostic tests with excellent functionality should be performed. First, 607 expressed sequence tags encoding polypeptides with a secretory signal were expressed into recombinant proteins using an in vitro translation system. By protein array-based screening using C. sinensis-infected sera, 18 antigen candidate proteins were selected and assayed for cross-reactivity against Opisthorchis viverrini-infected sera. Of the six antigenic proteins selected, four were synthesized on large scale in vitro and evaluated for antigenicity against the flukes-infected human sera using ELISA. CsAg17 antigen showed the highest sensitivity (77.1%) and specificity (71.2%). The sensitivity and specificity of the bacterially produced CsAg17-28GST fusion antigen was similar to those of CsAg17 antigen. CsAg17 antigen can be used to develop point-of-care serodiagnostic tests for clonorchiasis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Clonorquíase/diagnóstico , Clonorchis sinensis/imunologia , Animais , Clonorchis sinensis/genética , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Peixes/parasitologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Opisthorchis/imunologia , Testes Imediatos , Proteogenômica , Alimentos Crus/parasitologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008511, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) is endemic in Fiji but its prevalence is not known and likely to have changed after a decade of mass drug administration (MDA) for lymphatic filariasis (LF). By linking with LF transmission assessment surveys (LF-TAS), we undertook the first nation-wide assessment of STH in Fijian primary schools, as well as an analysis of factors associated with STH infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional assessment for STH was conducted in all four Divisions of Fiji from 2014 to 2015. In the Western, Central, and Northern Divisions, schools were sub-sampled after LF-TAS, while, in the Eastern Division, schools were selected via simple random sampling. For the diagnosis of STH, stool samples were examined by coproscopy with a single Kato-Katz thick smear (KK) and the formol-ether-acetate concentration technique, except for the samples from the Eastern Division where only KK was used. Mean prevalence of any STH among class 1-2 students at the national level was 10.5% (95% CI: 6.9-15.5). Across the three Divisions via LF-TAS, the prevalence levels for ascariasis were 8.7% (95% CI: 4.3-16.6), hookworm 3.9% (95% CI: 2.3-6.6) and trichuriasis 0%. In the Eastern Division, ascariasis prevalence was 13.3% (95% CI: 6.4-25.6), and hookworm 0.7% (95% CI: 0.2-2.5), with one case of trichuriasis. Among class 3-8 students, ascariasis prevalence was lower. Lower risk of any STH was associated with wearing shoes (adjusted OR 0.54, 95% CI: 0.32-0.90) and having piped water from the Fiji Water Authority at home (adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI: 0.25-0.92). CONCLUSIONS: After a decade of community-based LF-MDA, STH in school-age children in Fiji is now close to 10%, but localities of endemicity remain. Preventive chemotherapy should be maintained in areas with elevated STH prevalence alongside targeted delivery of integrated WASH interventions. LF-TAS has provided an opportunity to develop future public health surveillance platforms.


Assuntos
Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Ascaris/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fiji/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Prevalência , Sapatos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação , Abastecimento de Água
6.
Infect Chemother ; 52(3): 427-440, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869557

RESUMO

Korea had been one of hyperendemic countries of human parasitic infections until 1970s. In 1966, the Law for the Prevention of Parasitic Diseases was enacted, and the nationwide anti-parasitic control program began in 1969. The initiation of the national program was supported financially by Japan. The program included screening of whole students in Korea and treatment of all egg positive cases twice a year, and ended in 1995. In addition to student program, deworming campaign was run in the community, and 8 national status surveys were implemented from 1971 to 2012. Whole helminth egg positive rate was 84.3% in 1971 and decreased to 2.6% in 2012. Ascaris and other intestinal nematodes, Paragonimus, Taenia, and intestinal protozoa had decreased significantly throughout the country, but Clonorchis sinensis and intestinal trematodes are still prevalent locally in endemic areas. Lymphatic filariasis had been endemic in Jeju-do and other southern islands but elimination was endorsed in 2008. The control of parasitic infection in Korea was successful with statistical prevalence data, which can be a benchmarking model. In conclusion, the successful control in Korea could be achieved by social agreement of the priority, professional guidelines and systematic approach with good anthelminthics supply, and simultaneous economic growth.

7.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(4): 413-419, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871635

RESUMO

Eosinophilia occurs commonly in many diseases including allergic diseases and helminthic infections. Toxocariasis has been suggested as one cause of eosinophilia. The present study was undertaken to examine the prevalence of toxocariasis in patients with eosinophilia and to identify the risk factors for toxocariasis. This prospective cohort study recruited a total of 81 patients with eosinophilia (34 males and 47 females) who visited the outpatient clinic at Seoul National University Hospital from January 2017 to February 2018 and agreed to participate in this study. The prevalence of toxocariasis was examined by T. canis-specific ELISA, and the various risk factors for toxocariasis were evaluated by a questionnaire survey. Among 81 patients with eosinophilia, 18 were positive for anti-T. canis antibodies (22.2%); 88.9% were male (16/18) and 11.1% were female (2/18). Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that males (OR 21.876, 95% CI: 1.667-287.144) with a history of consuming the raw meat or livers of animals (OR 5.899, 95% CI: 1.004-34.669) and a heavy alcohol-drinking habit (OR 8.767, 95% CI: 1.018-75.497) were at higher risk of toxocariasis in patients with eosinophilia. Toxocariasis should be considered a potential cause of eosinophilia when the patient has a history of eating the raw meat or livers of animals in Korea. A single course of albendazole is recommended to reduce the migration of Toxocara larvae in serologically positive cases with eosinophilia.


Assuntos
Eosinofilia/etiologia , Toxocaríase/complicações , Toxocaríase/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toxocara canis/imunologia , Toxocaríase/diagnóstico , Toxocaríase/parasitologia
8.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(4): 421-430, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871636

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate whether mass drug administration (MDA) intervention has an equivalent effect on reducing the prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium infection regardless of the baseline values. A repeated cross-sectional survey was performed targeting students of 12 primary schools in Al Jabalain and El Salam districts of White Nile State, Sudan, at both 1 week before and 8 months after the MDA. Prior to the baseline survey, school-aged children in Al Jabalain had received MDA interventions twice in 4 years, while those in El Salam had not. The baseline prevalence was 9.1% in Al Jabalain and 35.2% in El Salam, which were reduced to 1.8% and 5.5% at 8 months after the MDA, respectively. The corresponding reduction rates were 80.3% and 84.4%, not significant difference between both districts. However, changes in the geometric mean intensity (GMI) of egg counts were significantly different between both districts. The baseline GMIs were 14.5 eggs per 10 ml of urine (EP10) in Al Jabalain and 18.5 EP10 in El Salam, which were reduced to 7.1 and 11.2 EP10 after treatment, respectively. The corresponding reduction rates were 51.0% and 39.5%. In conclusion, MDA interventions were found to bring about similar relative reduction in prevalence regardless of the baseline value; however, the relative reduction in infection intensity was more salient in the district with a low baseline value for both prevalence and intensity. This clearly points to the importance of repeated MDA interventions in endemic areas, which will eventually contribute to schistosomiasis elimination.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Sudão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008885, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559217

RESUMO

Regulation of cell junctions is crucial for the integrity of epithelial tissues and organs. Cell junctions also play roles in controlling cell proliferation for organ growth. Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a conserved protein involved in growth control, but its role in cell junctions is unknown. Here we show that Drosophila Tctp directly interacts with the septate junction protein Coracle (Cora) to regulate epithelial integrity and organ growth. Tctp localizes together with Cora in the epidermis of the embryo. Loss of Cora reduces the level of Tctp in the epidermis but not vice versa. cora/+ or Tctp/+ single heterozygotes develop normally to adulthood. However, double heterozygotes for cora and Tctp mutations show severe disruption of epithelia causing synthetic lethality in the embryo. Double knockdown of Cora and Tctp in eye imaginal disc synergistically leads to disruption of the eye disc, resulting in a severe reduction or loss of eye and head. Conversely, double knockdown of Cora and Tctp in wing disc causes overgrowth as well as cell death. Inhibition of cell death under this condition causes hyperplastic growth of the wing disc. Tctp also shows direct and functional interaction with Cora-associated factors like Yurt and Na+/K+-ATPase. This study suggests that proper levels of Tctp and Cora are essential for the maintenance of the Cora complex and the integrity of epithelia. Our data also provide evidence that both Cora and Tctp are required to suppress overgrowth in developing wing.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Epitélio/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Asas de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Embrião não Mamífero , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Discos Imaginais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Junções Intercelulares/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Morfogênese/genética , Mutações Sintéticas Letais , Asas de Animais/metabolismo
11.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(25): e208, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study analyzed publishing data of scholarly journals which were published in 2018 by academic societies of science and technology in Korea to observe journal editing and publishing status. METHODS: A total of 346 regional journals (59 natural science, 118 engineering, 44 agriculture, fisheries, and oceanography, and 125 medical and pharmacy) and 141 international journals (32 natural science, 43 engineering, 12 agriculture, fisheries, and oceanography, 54 medical and pharmacy) were included in this analysis, which applied the journal review by the Korea Federation of Science and Technology. Websites of the journals and the submitted publication data in 2019 were reviewed. RESULTS: Except for a few journals, all of the journals were published by academic societies. Basic information of journals was well displayed by both offline and online. Most of the 346 regional journals were published in Korean language or mixed with English but 77 (22.3%), mostly medical, were in English. One-third (n = 104) journals published less than 40 articles while 9 published over 200, and 261 journals (75.4%) received less than 100 submissions in 2018. Most (n = 298, 86.1%) of them were enlisted in the Korean Citation Index (KCI). Editorial board members performed manuscript editing in 171 (49.4%) journals, and most of the journals paid < 50,000,000 won for publishing costs. Of 141 international journals, 138 (97.9%) were published in English and all of them published overseas submissions. Forty-one (29.1%) journals accepted < 20% of submissions but 58 (41.1%) accepted 100%. Of them, 124 (87.9%) were indexed in the KCI, 93 (66.0%) in the Web of Science, 120 in Scopus, and 62 in PubMed. Editorial board members in 38 (27.0%) journals took responsibility of manuscript editing. Publishing cost of 79 (56.0%) journals was < 50,000,000 won. Only 157 (32.2%) of total 487 journals, mostly medical, documented gendered innovation in their instruction to authors. CONCLUSION: Most of the Korean science and technology journals keep global standard of editing and publishing. Their offline and online visibility is acceptable but most regional journals are small and of low academic impact while international journals are globally indexed and acknowledged. Korean scholarly journals should invite more and better articles to keep quality publication.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0226586, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421720

RESUMO

It is vital to share details of concrete experiences of conducting a nationwide disease survey. By doing so, the global health community could adapt previous experiences to expand geographic mapping programs, eventually contributing to the development of disease control and elimination strategies. A nationwide survey of schistosomiasis and intestinal helminthiases was conducted from December 2016 to March 2017 in Sudan. We aimed to describe details of the key activities and cost components required for the nationwide survey. We investigated which activities were necessary to prepare and conduct a nationwide survey of schistosomiasis and intestinal helminthiases, and the types and amounts of transportation, personnel, survey equipment, and consumables that were required. In addition, we estimated financial and economic costs from the perspectives of the donor and the Ministry of Health. Cash expenditures incurred to implement the survey were defined as financial costs. For economic costs, we considered the true value for society as a whole, and this category therefore accounted for the costs of all goods and services used for the project, including those that were not sold in the market and therefore had no market price (e.g., time spent by head teachers and teachers). We organized costs into capital and recurrent items. We ran one-way sensitivity and probabilistic analyses using Monte-Carlo methods with 10,000 draws to examine the robustness of the primary analysis results. A total of USD 1,465,902 and USD 1,516,238 was incurred for the financial and economic costs, respectively. The key cost drivers of the nationwide survey were personnel and transportation, for both financial and economic costs. Personnel and transportation accounted for around 64% and 18% of financial costs, respectively. If a government finds a way to mobilize existing government officials with no additional payments using the health system already in place, the cost of a nationwide survey could be remarkably reduced.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Helmintíase/economia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/economia , Esquistossomose/economia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Programas Governamentais , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Sudão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Cytokine ; 131: 155116, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388485

RESUMO

Longifolioside A is an iridoid glucoside compound isolated from Pseudolysimachion rotundum var. subintegrum, which has been used in traditional herbal medicines to treat respiratory inflammatory diseases. Logifolioside A is a potent antioxidant; however, its underlying pharmacological mechanisms of action in inflammatory diseases are unknown. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effects of longifolioside A in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction systems using human THP-1 macrophages and HEK293 cells stably expressing human TLR4 protein (293/HA-hTLR4). Longifolioside A significantly reduced the release of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, -8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in LPS-stimulated THP-1 macrophages. Furthermore, longifolioside A inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediator genes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 that produce nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), respectively. Longifolioside A suppressed the phosphorylation of PKCδ, IRAK4, IKKα/ß, IκBα, and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (ERK 1/2 and JNK, but not p38), thereby inactivating the nuclear localization of NF-κB and AP-1, and thus decreasing the expression of inflammatory response genes. Notably, longifolioside A disrupted the interaction between human TLR4 and the TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), an early step during TLR4 activation, thereby reducing IL-8 secretion in 293/HA-hTLR4 cells. This inhibitory effect was comparable to that of TAK-242 (a TLR4 inhibitor, or resatorvid). Our results indicate that longifolioside A prevents inflammatory response by suppressing TLR4 activation required for NF-κB and AP-1 activation.

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