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1.
Dalton Trans ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609393

RESUMO

Considering that cyclotriphosphazene polycarboxylic acid is a kind of organic ligand with fantastic structures and performances and the unique luminescence characteristics of rare earth ions, a series of porous lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs) (CH3)2NH2[Ln3(HCPCP)1.5(CH3COO)]·6DMA (Ln = Ce (1), Sm (2), Eu (3), Tb (4), HCPCP = hexa(4-carboxyphenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene, and DMA = N,N-dimethylacetamide) were synthesized with novel topological network structures. Compound 4 exhibited a sensitive recognition of -NO2, and had a fluorescence quenching phenomenon for seven kinds of nitro aromatic compounds (NACs). In particular, it showed the best fluorescence response to 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), and the KSV values were 2.86 × 105 M-1 and 8.21 × 104 M-1, and the limit of detection (LOD) values were 0.20 µM and 0.71 µM, respectively. At the same time, we successfully doped different concentrations of Eu3+ into compound 4 to obtain a series of doped Ln-MOF materials x%Eu3+@4 (x = 0.5, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 20). With the increase of Eu3+ doping ratios, the characteristic peaks of Tb3+ and Eu3+ changed regularly, and the energy transfer from Tb3+ to Eu3+ ions occurred. By changing the excitation wavelength of the samples with different Eu3+ doping concentrations, a higher quality white light emitting material 7.5%Eu3+@4 (λex = 340 nm) was finally obtained, with a CIE coordinate of (0.3268, 0.3212).

2.
Nat Genet ; 53(10): 1493-1503, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594040

RESUMO

How two subgenomes in allo-tetraploids adapt to coexistence and coordinate through structure and expression evolution requires extensive studies. In the present study, we report an improved genome assembly of allo-tetraploid common carp, an updated genome annotation of allo-tetraploid goldfish and the chromosome-scale assemblies of a progenitor-like diploid Puntius tetrazona and an outgroup diploid Paracanthobrama guichenoti. Parallel subgenome structure evolution in the allo-tetraploids was featured with equivalent chromosome components, higher protein identities, similar transposon divergence and contents, homoeologous exchanges, better synteny level, strong sequence compensation and symmetric purifying selection. Furthermore, we observed subgenome expression divergence processes in the allo-tetraploids, including inter-/intrasubgenome trans-splicing events, expression dominance, decreased expression levels, dosage compensation, stronger expression correlation, dynamic functionalization and balancing of differential expression. The potential disorders introduced by different progenitors in the allo-tetraploids were hypothesized to be alleviated by increasing structural homogeneity and performing versatile expression processes. Resequencing three common carp strains revealed two major ecotypes and uncovered candidate genes relevant to growth and survival rate.

3.
Plant Physiol ; 187(2): 917-930, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608955

RESUMO

Cell cycle is one of the most fundamentally conserved biological processes of plants and mammals. Casein kinase1s (CK1s) are critical for cell proliferation in mammalian cells; however, how CK1s coordinate cell division in plants remains unknown. Through genetic and biochemical studies, here we demonstrated that plant CK1, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) EL1-like (AELs), regulate cell cycle/division by modulating the stability and inhibitory effects of Kip-related protein6 (KRP6) through phosphorylation. Cytological analysis showed that AELs deficiency results in suppressed cell-cycle progression mainly due to the decreased DNA replication rate at S phase and increased period of G2 phase. AELs interact with and phosphorylate KRP6 at serines 75 and 109 to stimulate KRP6's interaction with E3 ligases, thus facilitating the KRP6 degradation through the proteasome. These results demonstrate the crucial roles of CK1s/AELs in regulating cell division through modulating cell-cycle rates and elucidate how CK1s/AELs regulate cell division by destabilizing the stability of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor KRP6 through phosphorylation, providing insights into the plant cell-cycle regulation through CK1s-mediated posttranslational modification.

4.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 49: 116438, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610571

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is one of the most common pathological consequences of chronic liver diseases (CLD). To develop effective antifibrotic strategies, a novel class of 1-(substituted phenyl)-1,8-naphthalidine-3-carboxamide derivatives were designed and synthesized. By means of the collagen type I α 1 (COL1A1)-based screening and cytotoxicity assay in human hepatic stellate cell (HSC) line LX-2, seven compounds were screened out from total 60 derivatives with high inhibitory effect and relatively low cytotoxicity for further COL1A1 mRNA expression analysis. It was found that compound 17f and 19g dose-dependently inhibited the expression of fibrogenic markers, including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), matrix metalloprotein 2 (MMP-2), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFß1) on both mRNA and protein levels. Further mechanism studies indicated that they might suppress the hepatic fibrogenesis via inhibiting both PI3K/AKT/Smad and non-Smad JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathways. Furthermore, 19g administration attenuated hepatic histopathological injury and collagen accumulation, and reduced fibrogenesis-associated protein expression in liver tissues of bile duct ligation (BDL) rats, showing significant antifibrotic effect in vivo. These findings identified 1,8-naphthalidine derivatives as potent anti-hepatic fibrosis agents, and provided valuable information for further structure optimization.

5.
Nature ; 598(7879): 188-194, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616074

RESUMO

The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop is one of the fundamental network motifs in the brain. Revealing its structural and functional organization is critical to understanding cognition, sensorimotor behaviour, and the natural history of many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Classically, this network is conceptualized to contain three information channels: motor, limbic and associative1-4. Yet this three-channel view cannot explain the myriad functions of the basal ganglia. We previously subdivided the dorsal striatum into 29 functional domains on the basis of the topography of inputs from the entire cortex5. Here we map the multi-synaptic output pathways of these striatal domains through the globus pallidus external part (GPe), substantia nigra reticular part (SNr), thalamic nuclei and cortex. Accordingly, we identify 14 SNr and 36 GPe domains and a direct cortico-SNr projection. The striatonigral direct pathway displays a greater convergence of striatal inputs than the more parallel striatopallidal indirect pathway, although direct and indirect pathways originating from the same striatal domain ultimately converge onto the same postsynaptic SNr neurons. Following the SNr outputs, we delineate six domains in the parafascicular and ventromedial thalamic nuclei. Subsequently, we identify six parallel cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic subnetworks that sequentially transduce specific subsets of cortical information through every elemental node of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Thalamic domains relay this output back to the originating corticostriatal neurons of each subnetwork in a bona fide closed loop.

6.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113910, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626950

RESUMO

The effectiveness of campaign-style enforcement (CSE) on water pollution, especially the long-term effectiveness, is controversial, and little knowledge is known about the channels through which the effectiveness happens. We take advantage of China's Environmental Protection Interview (EPI)- a distinguished form of CSE launched in 2014, as a natural experiment to estimate the short-term and long-term effects of CSE on water pollution. Using a time-varying difference-in-differences model based on city panel data from 2006 to 2018, we find that EPI can lead to an average 14.5% reduction in water pollution, and this effect is still persistent in the long term. Mechanism analysis shows that EPI reduces water pollution mainly through the pressure effect on the government, the penalty effect on the firms, and the mobilization effect on the public. Heterogeneity analysis shows that the effect of EPI on water pollution is more significant in cities with high initial pollution, low public complaints, and low economic levels. Further cost-benefit analysis based on the estimated value of water pollution reduction shows that the upper health benefit of EPI is $520.97 billion, which is 4.87 times higher than its estimated cost of $107.05 billion.

7.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(5): 1676-1679, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627461

RESUMO

ß-thalassemia is a monogenetic inherited hemolytic anemia, which results in a series of pathophysiological changes due to partial or complete inhibition of the synthesis of ß-globin chain. The curative therapy for this disease is to reconstitute hematopoiesis, and transplantation with genetically modified autologous hematopoietic stem cells can avoid the major difficulties of traditional allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation,such as HLA matching and immune rejection. ß-thalassemia gene therapy strategies mainly include gene integration and genome editing. The former relies on the development of lentiviral vectors and adds a fully functional HBB gene to the chromosome; the latter rapidly develops with the research of specific nuclease which can repair the HBB gene in situ. In this review, the latest progress of the two strategies in gene therapy of ß-thalassemia is summarized.


Assuntos
Talassemia beta , Edição de Genes , Terapia Genética , Vetores Genéticos , Humanos , Globinas beta/genética , Talassemia beta/genética , Talassemia beta/terapia
8.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 877-882, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622609

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the relationship between angiotensin Ⅰ-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism and the genetic risks for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to evaluate the impact of ACE I/D genotypes on clinical, hormonal, metabolic and oxidative stress parameters in patients with PCOS. Methods: This was a retrospective case-control study involving a total of 1 020 PCOS patients and 825 female controls who visited the outpatient clinic of the Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, West China Second Hospital of Sichuan University between 2006 and 2019. The ages of the subjects ranged between 17 and 44. The ACE I/D genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis. 667 PCOS patients and 527 controls were selected for an analysis of their genotypes and the hormonal, metabolic and oxidative stress parameters. Results: The genotype distributions of the ACE I/D single nucleotide polymorphism was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both the PCOS group and the control group (all P>0.05), which was representative of the population. There were no statistically significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies between the PCOS and the control groups ( P>0.05). After adjusting for both age and body mass index (BMI), there was no statistically significant difference in clinical characteristics among all genotypes in either the PCOS group or the control group. In the PCOS group, compared with the II genotype subgroup, the ID genotype subgroup had lower luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, while the DD genotype subgroup had higher homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Compared with the ID genotype subgroup, the DD genotype subgroup had lower serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) level, but higher total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels ( P<0.05). In the control group, II genotype subgroup had a higher level of total oxidant status (TOS) than that of the DD genotype subgroup. Conclusion: ACE I/D genetic polymorphism is not associated with risks for PCOS. The I/D variation of ACE gene may be related to insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, hyperandrogenemia and oxidative stress in PCOS patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(12): 1, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473190

RESUMO

Purpose: HIV infection is associated with a variety of ocular surface diseases. Understanding the difference of the ocular microbiota between HIV-infected and healthy individuals as well as the influence of antiretroviral therapy will help to investigate the pathogenesis of these conditions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on subjects including HIV-negative individuals, untreated HIV-infected individuals, and HIV-infected individuals with antiretroviral therapy. Conjunctival microbiota was assessed by bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing of the samples obtained from the conjunctival swab. Results: The microbial richness in ocular surface was similar in HIV-negative, untreated HIV-positive, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) subjects. The bacterial compositions were similar in the two HIV infection groups but were significantly different from the HIV-negative group. HAART changed the beta diversity of bacterial community as determined by Shannon index. CD4+ T cell count had no significant influence on the diversity of ocular microbiota in HIV-infected individuals. Conclusions: The data revealed the compositional and structural difference in conjunctival microbial community in subjects with and without HIV infection, indicating that HIV infection or its treatment, may contribute to ocular surface dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Bactérias/genética , Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Adulto , Bactérias/metabolismo , Túnica Conjuntiva/patologia , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral/análise , Feminino , Seguimentos , HIV , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo
11.
Asian J Surg ; 2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588136
12.
EMBO J ; : e107277, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558085

RESUMO

The dorsal and ventral human telencephalons contain different neuronal subtypes, including glutamatergic, GABAergic, and cholinergic neurons, and how these neurons are generated during early development is not well understood. Using scRNA-seq and stringent validations, we reveal here a developmental roadmap for human telencephalic neurons. Both dorsal and ventral telencephalic radial glial cells (RGs) differentiate into neurons via dividing intermediate progenitor cells (IPCs_div) and early postmitotic neuroblasts (eNBs). The transcription factor ASCL1 plays a key role in promoting fate transition from RGs to IPCs_div in both regions. RGs from the regionalized neuroectoderm show heterogeneity, with restricted glutamatergic, GABAergic, and cholinergic differentiation potencies. During neurogenesis, IPCs_div gradually exit the cell cycle and branch into sister eNBs to generate distinct neuronal subtypes. Our findings highlight a general RGs-IPCs_div-eNBs developmental scheme for human telencephalic progenitors and support that the major neuronal fates of human telencephalon are predetermined during dorsoventral regionalization with neuronal diversity being further shaped during neurogenesis and neural circuit integration.

13.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(9): 693-699, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561081

RESUMO

A chemical investigation on the fermentation products of Sanghuangporus sanghuang led to the isolation and identification of fourteen secondary metabolites (1-14) including eight sesquiterpenoids (1-8) and six polyphenols (9-14). Compounds 1-3 were sesquiterpenes with new structures which were elucidated based on NMR spectroscopy, high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. All the isolates were tested for their stimulation effects on glucose uptake in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, and cellular antioxidant activity. Compounds 9-12 were subjected to molecular docking experiment to primarily evaluate their anti-coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) activity. As a result, compounds 9-12 were found to increase the glucose uptake of insulin-resistant HepG2 cells by 18.1%, 62.7%, 33.7% and 21.4% at the dose of 50 µmol·L-1, respectively. Compounds 9-12 also showed good cellular antioxidant activities with CAA50 values of 12.23, 23.11, 5.31 and 16.04 µmol·L-1, respectively. Molecular docking between COVID-19 Mpro and compounds 9-12 indicated potential SARS-CoV-2 inhibitory activity of these four compounds. This work provides new insights for the potential role of the medicinal mushroom S. sanghuang as drugs and functional foods.


Assuntos
Agaricales , COVID-19 , Polifenóis , Sesquiterpenos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Basidiomycota , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Polifenóis/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
14.
Org Biomol Chem ; 19(38): 8377-8383, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528986

RESUMO

2-Alkenyl-tetrahydropyrans belong to a rare class of natural products that exhibit broad antifungal activities. Their structural instability and rareness in nature have restrained their discovery and drug development. In this study, the heterologous expression of a single highly reducing polyketide synthase (HR-PKS, App1) from Trichoderma applanatum in Aspergillus nidulans leads to the formation of seven 2-alkenyl-tetrahydropyran derivatives including one known compound virensol C (1) and six new compounds (2-7). However, introducing App1 into Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the identification of additional two 2-alkenyl-tetrahydropyrans lacking the hydroxyl or methoxyl group at the C-2 position (8 and 9). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis using NMR and HR-ESI-MS.

15.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569229

RESUMO

Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has emerged as a vital tool to reveal the native structure of beam-sensitive biomolecules and materials. Yet high-resolution cryo-EM analysis is still limited by the poorly controlled specimen preparation and urgently demands a robust supporting film material to prepare desirable samples. Here, we developed a bilayer Janus graphene membrane with the top-layer graphene being functionalized to interact with target molecules on the surface, while the bottom layer being kept intact to reinforce its mechanical steadiness. The ultraclean and atomically thin bilayer Janus membrane prepared by our protocol on one hand generates almost no extra noise and on the other hand reduces the specimen motion during cryo-EM imaging, thus allowing the atomic-resolution characterization of surface functional groups. Using such Janus membranes in cryo-EM specimen preparation, we were able to directly image the lithium dendrite and reconstruct macromolecules at near-atomic resolution. Our results demonstrate the bilayer Janus design as a promising supporting material for high-resolution cryo-EM and EM imaging.

16.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 721198, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552561

RESUMO

GLP-1 is derived from intestinal L cells, which takes effect through binding to GLP-1R and is inactivated by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). Since its discovery, GLP-1 has emerged as an incretin hormone for its facilitation in insulin release and reduction of insulin resistance (IR). However, GLP-1 possesses broader pharmacological effects including anti-inflammation, neuro-protection, regulating blood pressure (BP), and reducing lipotoxicity. These effects are interconnected to the physiological and pathological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD), hypertension, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Currently, the underlying mechanism of these effects is still not fully illustrated and a better understanding of them may help identify promising therapeutic targets of AD, hypertension, and NASH. Therefore, we focus on the biological characteristics of GLP-1, render an overview of the mechanism of GLP-1 effects in diseases, and investigate the potential of GLP-1 analogues for the treatment of related diseases in this review.

17.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 6240-6250, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486477

RESUMO

Although the mechanism of osteoarthritis (OA) has been widely studied and the use of quercetin for OA therapy is well documented, the relevant characteristics of the microbiome and metabolism remain unclear. This study reports changes in the gut microbiota and metabolism during quercetin therapy for OA in a rat model and provides an integrative analysis of the biomechanism. In this study, the rats were categorized into 3 different groups: the OA model, quercetin treatment, and control groups. The OA rats was conducted using a monoiodoacetate (MIA) injection protocol. The rats in the quercetin group received daily intragastric administration of quercetin from day 1 to day 28. Stool samples were collected, and DNA was extracted. We used an integrated approach that combined the sequencing of whole 16S rRNA, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) measurements and metabolomics analysis by mass spectrometry (MS) to characterize the functional impact of quercetin on the gut microbiota and metabolism in a rat model of OA. The use of quercetin partially abrogated intestinal flora disorder and reversed fecal metabolite abnormalities. Compared with the control rats, the OA rats showed differences at both the class level (Clostridia, Bacteroidia, and Bacilli) and the genus level (Lactobacillus and unidentified Ruminococcaceae). Acetic acid, propionic acid and 24 metabolites were significantly altered among the three groups. However, the changes were significantly abrogated in quercetin-treated OA rats. Consequently, this study provided important evidence regarding perturbations of the gut microbiome and the function of these changes in a potential new mechanism of quercetin treatment.

18.
J Ultrasound Med ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To externally validate the Ovarian-adnexal Reporting and Data System (O-RADS) and evaluate its performance in differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses (AMs) compared with the Gynecologic Imaging Reporting and Data System (GI-RADS) and Assessment of Different NEoplasias in the adneXa (ADNEX). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 734 cases from the Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University. All patients underwent transvaginal or transabdominal ultrasound examination. Pathological diagnoses were obtained for all the included AMs. O-RADS, GI-RADS, and ADNEX were used to evaluate AMs by two sonologists, and the diagnostic efficacy of the three systems was analyzed and compared using pathology as the gold standard. We used the kappa index to evaluate the inter-reviewer agreement (IRA). RESULTS: A total of 734 AMs, including 564 benign masses, 69 borderline masses, and 101 malignant masses were included in this study. O-RADS (0.88) and GI-RADS (0.90) had lower sensitivity than ADNEX (0.95) (P < .05), and the PPV of O-RADS (0.98) was higher than that of ADNEX (0.96) (P < .05). These three systems showed good IRA. CONCLUSION: O-RADS, GI-RADS, and ADNEX showed little difference in diagnostic performance among resident sonologists. These three systems have their own characteristics and can be selected according to the type of center, access to patients' clinical data, or personal comfort.

19.
Biomater Sci ; 9(20): 6889-6902, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519743

RESUMO

Biofilm-related bacterial infections are extremely resistant to antibiotics, mainly due to the impermeability of the intensive matrices, which allow the bacteria to survive antibiotic treatment. Herein, step-by-step dual stimuli-responsive azithromycin-loaded nanoparticles (CM/AZM@Tyr) was constructed for efficient biofilm eradication. CM/AZM@Tyr was prepared by the self-assembly of poly(ε-caprolactone)-polyethylene glycol-polyethylenimine (PCL-PEG-PEI) into cationic micelles and simultaneously encapsulated AZM into the hydrophobic core, which is further bound with cis-aconityl-D-tyrosine (CA-Tyr) through electrostatic interaction. Upon initial penetration, CM/AZM@Tyr could show step-by-step dual-response to the microenvironment of biofilms. Firstly, the CA-Tyr shell rapidly responded to the acidic microenvironment and released D-Tyr to disassemble the biofilm mass. Then, the exposed cationic CM/AZM micelles could bind firmly to the negatively-charged bacteria cell membrane. With the enzymolysis of the PCL core, the rapidly releasing AZM could kill the bacteria over the depth of biofilms. Massive accumulation was observed in the infected lungs of biofilms-associated lung infection mice after the i.v. injection of CM/Cy5.5@Tyr under the 3D mode of the in vivo Imaging System. Reduced bacterial burden and alleviated fibrosis in the infected lungs were also obtained after treatment with CM/AZM@Tyr mainly due to its intensive penetration in the biofilm and the orderly release of the biofilm dispersant and antimicrobial agents. In summary, this research developed an effective strategy for the treatment of blood-accessible biofilm-induced infections.

20.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489530

RESUMO

Respiratory chain complex I deficiency elicits mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxidative species (ROS), which plays a crucial role in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. However, it remains unclear whether the impairment in other complexes in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation chain is also sufficient to trigger PD onset. Here we show that inhibition of Complex II or III in the electron transport chain (ETC) induces the motor disorder and PD pathologies in neuronal Thy1-C/EBPß transgenic mice. Through a cell-based screening of mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors, we identified TTFA (complex II inhibitor) and Atovaquone (complex III inhibitor), which robustly block the oxidative phosphorylation functions, strongly escalate ROS, and activate C/EBPß/AEP pathway that triggers dopaminergic neuronal cell death. Oral administration of these inhibitors to Thy1-C/EBPß mice elicits constipation and motor defects, associated with Lewy body-like inclusions. Deletion of SDHD (Succinate dehydrogenase) gene from the complex II in the Substantia Nigra of Thy1-C/EBPß mice triggers ROS and PD pathologies, resulting in motor disorders. Hence, our findings demonstrate that mitochondrial ETC inactivation triggers PD pathogenesis via activating C/EBPß/AEP pathway.

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