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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) is one of the minimally invasive options for choledocholithiasis. Primary closure of the common bile duct (CBD) upon completion of laparoscopic choledochotomy is safe in selected patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of primary closure of CBD after LCBDE in patients aged 70 years or older. METHODS: A total of 116 patients (51 males and 65 females) who suffered from choledocholithiasis and underwent primary closure of the CBD (without T-tube drainage) after LCBDE from January 2003 to December 2017 were recruited. They were classified into two groups according to age: group A (≥70 years, n = 56), and group B (<70 years, n = 60). The preoperative characteristics, intraoperative details, and postoperative outcomes of the two groups were evaluated. RESULTS: The mean operative time was 172.02 min for group A and 169.92 min for group B (P = 0.853). The mean hospital stay was 7.40 days for group A and 5.38 days for group B (P < 0.001). Bile leakage occurred in two patients in group A and one in group B (3.57% vs 1.67%, P = 0.952). There were no significant differences in the rates of postoperative complications and mortality between the two groups. At median follow-up time of 60 months, stone recurrence was detected in one patient in group A and two in group B (1.79% vs 3.33%, P = 1.000). Stenosis of CBD was not observed in group A and slight stenosis in one patient in group B (0 vs 1.67%, P = 1.000). CONCLUSION: Primary closure of the CBD upon completion of laparoscopic choledochotomy is safe and feasible in elderly patients ≥70 years old.

2.
Immunol Lett ; 214: 45-51, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491433

RESUMO

Melatonin has protective effects against inflammation but its role in epididymitis is unknown. We addressed this in the present study using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated sheep epididymal epithelial cells as an in vitro inflammation model. We found that interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 mRNA levels; COX-2 and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 protein levels; and nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 phosphorylation were increased by LPS treatment. These effects were reversed in a dose-dependent manner by melatonin (10-11-10-7 M). Quantitative reverse transcription PCR and immunofluorescence analyses showed that the melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2 were expressed in sheep epididymal epithelial cells. The inhibitory effect of melatonin on inflammation was abrogated by the MT1 and MT2 receptor antagonist luzindole and the MT2 ligand 4-phenyl-2-propanamide tetraldehyde. Thus, melatonin exerted anti-inflammatory effect in epididymal epithelial cells by inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB signaling, suggesting its potential as an effective drug for the treatment of epididymitis in sheep.

3.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515730

RESUMO

Urine-derived stem cells (USCs) have shown potentials for the treatment of skeletal and urological disorders. Based on published literature and our own data, USCs consist of heterogeneous populations of cells. In this paper, we identify and characterize two morphologically distinct subpopulations of USCs from human urine samples, named as spindle-shaped USCs (SS-USCs) and rice-shaped USCs (RS-USCs) respectively. The two subpopulations showed similar clone-forming efficiency, while SS-USCs featured faster proliferation, higher motility, and greater potential for osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, RS-USCs showed greater potential for chondrogenic differentiation. POU5F1 was strongly expressed in both subpopulations, but MYC was weakly expressed. Both subpopulations showed similar patterns of CD24, CD29, CD34, CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105 expression, while a higher percentage of RS-USCs were positive for CD133. SS-USCs were positive for VIM, weakly positive for SLC12A1 and UMOD, and negative for KRT18, NPHS1, AQP1 and AQP2, indicating a renal mesenchyme origin; while RS-USCs are positive for VIM, partially positive for KRT18, NPHS1, AQP1, SLC12A1 and UMOD, and negative for AQP2, indicating a nephron tubule origin. The above results can facilitate understanding of the biological characteristics of subpopulations of USCs, and provide a basis for further research and applications of such cells.

4.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 176, 2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vomeronasal type 1 receptor genes (V1Rs) are expected to detect intraspecific pheromones. It is believed that rodents rely heavily on pheromonal communication mediated by V1Rs, but pheromonal signals are thought to be confined in subterranean rodents that live in underground burrows. Thus, subterranean rodents may show a contrasting mode of V1R evolution compared with their superterranean relatives. RESULTS: We examined the V1R evolution in subterranean rodents by analyzing currently available genomes of 24 rodents, including 19 superterranean and 5 subterranean species from three independent lineages. We identified a lower number of putatively functional V1R genes in each subterranean rodent (a range of 22-40) compared with superterranean species (a range of 63-221). After correcting phylogenetic inertia, the positive correlation remains significant between the small V1R repertoire size and the subterranean lifestyle. To test whether V1Rs have been relaxed from functional constraints in subterranean rodents, we sequenced 22 intact V1Rs in 29 individuals of one subterranean rodent (Spalax galili) from two soil populations, which have been proposed to undergo incipient speciation. We found 12 of the 22 V1Rs to show significant genetic differentiations between the two natural populations, indicative of diversifying selection. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates convergent reduction of V1Rs in subterranean rodents from three independent lineages. Meanwhile, it is noteworthy that most V1Rs in the two Spalax populations are under diversifying selection rather than relaxed selection, suggesting that functional constraints on these genes may have retained in some subterranean species.

5.
Arch Toxicol ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506784

RESUMO

As one of the isoprenoids and widely derived from many fruits and vegetables, ß-ionone (BI) has a potent inhibitory proliferation of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. However, its exact mechanism is still uncompleted understood and needs to be further verified. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), as a potential target of cancer chemoprevention, has been played pivotal roles in proliferation of tumor cells and carcinogenesis. Thus, the objective of present study was to determine that BI inhibited the activity of COX-2 in breast cancer and related to cancer cell models. Cell proliferation, DNA synthesis, the distribution of cell cycle, apoptosis induction and the expression of P38-MAPK protein were determined in MCF-7 cells by methylene blue, 3H-thymidine (TdR) incorporation, flow cytometry, TUNEL and Western blotting assays. Quinone reductase (QR) activity was determined in murine hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cells by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of COX-2 in a phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced cell model and mammary tumor tissues was examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that BI significantly inhibited cell proliferation and DNA synthesis, arrested the distribution of cell cycle at the S phase or decreased proteins related to cell cycle such as cyclin D1 and CDK4, induced apoptosis and increased the expression of p-P38 in MCF-7 cells. BI at low doses (< 50 µmol/L) significantly increased QR activity, decreased the expression of COX-2 protein and prostaglandin E2 (PEG2) release in cell models. In addition, BI also significantly decreased the expression of COX-2 protein in rat mammary tumor tissues. Therefore, our findings indicate that BI possesses inhibitory proliferation of breast cancer cells through down-regulation of COX-2 activity.

6.
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(5): 4382-4398, 2019 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499667

RESUMO

Due to both the hidden nature and the irreversibility of Alzheimers disease (AD), it has become the killer of the elderly and is thus the focus of much attention in the medical field. Radiologists compare the predicted brain age with the ground truth in order to provide a preliminary analysis of AD, which helps doctors diagnose AD as early in its development as possible. In this paper, a transfer learning-based method of predicting brain age using MR images and dataset of a public brain was proposed. In order to get the best transfer results, we froze different layers and only fine-tuned the remaining layers. We used three planes of brain MR images together to predict age for the first time and experiment results showed that the proposed method performs better than the state-of-the-art method under mean absolute error metric by 0.6 years. In addition, to explore the relationship between brain MR images of different planes and predicted age accuracy, we used three different planes of brain MR images to predict age respectively for the first time and found that sagittal plane MR images outperformed two other planes in age estimation. Finally, our research identified, the effective regions that contribute to brain age estimation for cognitively normal individuals and for AD patients with deep learning. For AD patients, the effective region is mainly concentrated in the frontal lobe of the brain, verifying the relevant medical conclusions about AD.

7.
J Card Surg ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Kommerell diverticulum with aortic dissection involving aortic arch is a rare but troublesome condition. The purpose of this study is to summarize the experience and strategy of surgical treatment. METHOD: From November 2015 to January 2018, seven consecutive patients underwent surgical treatment in our institution. Three patients with acute type A aortic dissection and one patient with acute type B aortic dissection received total arch replacement and frozen elephant trunk (FET) implantation through median sternotomy. Three patients with chronic type B aortic dissection underwent total aortic arch and descending aorta replacement through median sternotomy and lateral thoracotomy. RESULT: There were seven male patients whose median age was 42.3 ± 11.7 (from 14 to 54) years old. There was no perioperative death in this study. One patient had postoperative critical illness polyneuropathy and required prolonged mechanical ventilation (485 hours) and recovered finally. Follow up was completed for all seven patients with a median follow-up time of 7 (3-46) months. One patient with type A dissection developed aneurysm of the descending aorta distal to the FET and received reintervention. No clinical events and abnormal computed tomography manifestations were found in the other seven patients. CONCLUSION: Total arch replacement and FET through single median incision is a reliable method for Kommerell diverticulum associated with acute dissection involving arch. For Kommerell diverticulum associated with chronic type A or B aortic dissection involving aortic arch, graft replacement by double or single incision is safe and appropriate.

8.
J Foot Ankle Surg ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494029

RESUMO

The purposes of this study were to integrate the types of interconnecting fibers among components of the chiasma plantare and to deduce their flexion actions. The chiasma plantare and the long flexor tendons in 52 cadaveric feet (26 left feet and 25 right feet) were dissected and removed via gross anatomic dissection. The connections among the flexor digitorum longus (FDL), flexor hallucis longus (FHL), and quadratus plantae (QP) were then classified and analyzed. The connection between the FHL and FDL was type I in 43 (86%) cases, type III in 2 (4%) cases, and type V in 5 (10%) cases, with the FHL manipulating the first through third toes and the FDL manipulating the first through the fifth toes. The shape of the QP in 28 (56%) cases exhibited a 2-headed QP, and in 22 (44%) cases, a medial-headed QP. The composition of the chiasma plantare was 2 layers in 28 (56%) cases and 3 layers in 22 (44%) cases: 9 (18%) cases were type a, 2 (4%) cases were type b1, and 1 (2%) case each was classified as type b2 and b3. The FHL controlled the second toe in 10 (20%) cases; both the second and third toes in 27 (54%) cases; and the second, third, and fourth toes in 13 (26%) cases. The QP manipulated the third and fourth toes in all cases, the second toe in 38 (76%) cases, and the fifth toe in 11 (22%) cases. These data suggest that such variations might result from tendon transfer. In conclusion, we considered the FDL to be more advanced for the recovery of both the ankle and the forefoot based on this study.

9.
Curr Opin Struct Biol ; 58: 175-182, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374473

RESUMO

Not long after the invention of transmission electron microscope (TEM), phase plate was proposed as a novel electron-optical apparatus at the back-focal plane of the objective lens to modulate the magnified specimen images with enhanced contrast, especially in cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) application of biological specimens. In the past two decades, novel phase plates of different kinds were designed and fabricated for cryo-EM application. Some of them such as the Volta phase plate have already been proved very useful in single particle cryo-EM and cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) analysis. In this review, we discuss the current progress, challenges and opportunities of cryo-EM with phase plate.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-17A is involved in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis (AR). Increased expression of IL-17A is correlated with disease severity and nasal eosinophilia. However, the molecular mechanisms by which IL-17A contributes to T-helper 2 cytokine IL-13-driven pathology in AR remain unclear. We sought to obtain mechanistic insight into how IL-17A and IL-13 regulate the epithelial production of eotaxin-3 representing eosinophilic inflammation in AR. METHODS: Human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) from AR patients were cultured and stimulated with IL-17A, IL-13, or IL-17A and IL-13. Phosphorylated signal transducer activator of transcription 6 (p-STAT6) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) in HNECs were assayed using Western blotting. Immunocytochemistry was used to determine p-STAT6-positive expression in the cells. Eotaxin-3 expression in the cells and culture supernatants was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Stimulation with IL-13 alone induced STAT6 phosphorylation and promoted p-STAT6 nuclear translocation, leading to eotaxin-3 production by HNECs. These effects were further enhanced by cotreatment with IL-13 and IL-17A, whereas IL-17A alone had no impact on STAT6 or eotaxin-3 expression. Incubation with IL-17A or IL-13 increased the level of SOCS1 protein in the cells, whereas the addition of IL-17A attenuated IL-13-induced SOCS1 expression. CONCLUSION: IL-17A potentiated IL-13-driven STAT6 activation through the downregulation of SOCS1 expression, leading to enhancement of eotaxin-3 production by HNECs. These factors contributed to eosinophilic inflammation in AR.

11.
Dermatol Online J ; 25(7)2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450274

RESUMO

Granulomatous slack skin (GSS) is a rare subtype of mycosis fungoides. It usually presents as slowly evolving, erythematous, slack plaques that usually involve folds of lax skin. Herein, we report a case of GSS and we show electron microscopy examination. Atypical T cells with convoluted and cerebriform nuclei, lymphophagocytosis, and elastophagocytosis are key features of GSS under electron microscopy.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(34): 30977-30986, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365226

RESUMO

Understanding the microstructural evolution of bimetallic Pt nanoparticles under electrochemical polarization is critical to developing durable fuel cell catalysts. In this work, we develop a colloidal synthetic method to generate core-shell Au@Pt nanoparticles of varying surface Pt coverages to understand how as-synthesized bimetallic microstructure influences nanoparticle structural evolution during formic acid oxidation. By comparing the electrochemical and structural properties of our Au@Pt core-shells with bimetallic AuPt alloys at various stages in catalytic cycling, we determine that these two structures evolve in divergent ways. In core-shell nanoparticles, Au atoms from the core migrate outward onto the surface, generating transient "single-atom" Pt active sites with high formic acid oxidation activity. Metal migration continues until Pt is completely encapsulated by Au, and catalytic reactivity ceases. In contrast, AuPt alloys undergo surface dealloying and significant leaching of Pt out of the nanoparticle. Elucidating the dynamic restructuring processes responsible for high electrocatalytic reactivity in Pt bimetallic structures will enable better design and predictive synthesis of nanoparticle catalysts that are both active and stable.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16885, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to systematically assess the efficacy and safety of fasudil for the treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (ASH). METHODS: This study will include all of randomized controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of fasudil for the treatment of ASH. Ten electronic databases of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Ovid, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure will be searched from inception to the May 1, 2019 without language restrictions. We will also search gray literatures to avoid missing any other potential studies. Two authors will independently perform study selection, data extraction and management, and methodologic quality assessment. The primary outcome is limbs function. The secondary outcomes comprise of muscle strength, muscle tone, quality of life, and adverse events. RESULTS: This study will provide a comprehensive literature search on the current evidence of fasudil for the treatment of ASH from primary and secondary outcomes. CONCLUSION: The results of this study will present evidence to determine whether fasudil is an effective and safety treatment for patients with ASH. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019136215.

14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 361, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transfer of chloroplast DNA into nuclear genome is a common process in plants. These transfers form nuclear integrants of plastid DNAs (NUPTs), which are thought to be driving forces in genome evolution, including sex chromosome evolution. In this study, NUPTs in the genome of a dioecious plant Asparagus officinalis L. were systematically analyzed, in order to investigate the characteristics of NUPTs in the nuclear genome and the relationship between NUPTs and sex chromosome evolution in this species. RESULTS: A total of 3155 NUPT insertions were detected, and they represented approximated 0.06% of the nuclear genome. About 45% of the NUPTs were organized in clusters. These clusters were derived from various evolutionary events. The Y chromosome contained the highest number and largest proportion of NUPTs, suggesting more accumulation of NUPTs on sex chromosomes. NUPTs were distributed widely in all of the chromosomes, and some regions preferred these insertions. The highest density of NUPTs was found in a 47 kb region in the Y chromosome; more than 75% of this region was occupied by NUPTs. Further cytogenetic and sequence alignment analysis revealed that this region was likely the centromeric region of the sex chromosomes. On the other hand, the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) and the adjacent regions did not have NUPT insertions. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that NUPTs were involved in shaping the genome of A. officinalis through complicated process. NUPTs may play important roles in the centromere shaping of the sex chromosomes of A. officinalis, but were not implicated in MSY formation.

15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3699, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420534

RESUMO

WHAMM, a member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family, is an actin nucleation promoting factor (NPF) that also associates with membranes and microtubules. Here we report that WHAMM is required for autophagic lysosome reformation (ALR). WHAMM knockout causes impairment of autolysosome tubulation, which results in accumulation of enlarged autolysosomes during prolonged starvation. Mechanistically, WHAMM is recruited to the autolysosome membrane through its specific interaction with PI(4,5)P2. WHAMM then works as an NPF which promotes assembly of an actin scaffold on the surface of the autolysosome to promote autolysosome tubulation. Our study demonstrates an unexpected role of the actin scaffold in regulating autophagic lysosome reformation.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16879, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optic atrophy (OPA) is a very tricky disorder. Presently, no effective management is available for this condition. Previous studies have reported that acupuncture may be effective for the treatment of OPA. However, its effectiveness is still inconclusive. Thus, this study will aim to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for OPA. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search for relevant studies will be performed from the databases of PUMBED, EMBASE, CINAHI, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and other literature sources from inception up to the present. No language limitations will be applied to all literature searches. We will consider all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and case-controlled trials (CCTs) for assessing the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for OPA. The primary outcomes include the rates of vision improvement and visual field improvement. The secondary outcomes consist of the increased visual field average sensitivity, pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP) amplitude, and shortened PVEP latency, as well as any expected and unexpected adverse reactions. Risk of bias assessment will be performed by Cochrane risk of bias for RCTs and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for CCTs. RESULTS: In this study, we will outline details of the aims and methods on the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of OPA. CONCLUSION: The results of this study will summarize the most current evidence of acupuncture for the treatment of patients with OPA. DISSEMINATION AND ETHICS: The results of this study are expected to be published on peer-reviewed journals. This is a literature-based study; therefore, no ethical approval is necessary. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019135785.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Atrofia Óptica/terapia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Humanos , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(16): 6252-6272, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444316

RESUMO

The prediction of clinical outcome for patients with infiltrative gliomas is challenging. Although preoperative hematological markers have been proposed as predictors of survival in glioma and other cancers, systematic investigations that combine these data with other relevant clinical variables are needed to improve prognostic accuracy and patient outcomes. We investigated the prognostic value of preoperative hematological markers, alone and in combination with molecular pathology, for the survival of 592 patients with Grade II-IV diffuse gliomas. On univariate analysis, increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and decreased albumin-to-globulin ratio (AGR), all predicted poor prognosis in Grade II/III gliomas. Multivariate analysis incorporating tumor status based on the presence of IDH mutations, TERT promoter mutations, and 1p/19q codeletion showed that in lower-grade gliomas, high NLR predicted poorer survival for the triple-negative, IDH mutation only, TERT mutation only, and IDH and TERT mutation groups. NLR was an independent prognostic factor in Grade IV glioma. We therefore propose a prognostic model for diffuse gliomas based on the presence of IDH and TERT promoter mutations, 1p/19q codeletion, and NLR. This model classifies lower-grade gliomas into nine subgroups that can be combined into four main risk groups based on survival projections.

18.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387898

RESUMO

Tumor associated myeloid cells are one of the prominent components of solid tumors, serving as major immune regulators for the tumor microenvironment (TME) and an obstacle for the immune checkpoint blocking (ICB) therapy. However, it remains unclear how metabolic processes regulates the generation of suppressive myeloid cells in the TME. Here, we found that hematopoietic precursor cells are enriched in the tissues of several types of human cancer and can differentiate into immature myeloid cells (IMCs). Tumor-infiltrating IMCs are highly immunosuppressive, glycolytic and proliferative, as indicated by high level of M-CSFR, Glut1, and Ki67. To elucidate the role of metabolism in regulating the generation of IMCs, we induced suppressive IMCs from hematopoietic precursor cells with GM-CSF and G-CSF in vitro. We found that the generation of suppressive IMCs was accompanied by increased glycolysis, but not affected by glucose deprivation due to alternative catabolism. Generation of IMCs relied on glutaminolysis, regardless of glucose availability. Glutamine metabolism not only supported the expansion of IMCs with glutamine-derived α-ketoglutarate but also regulated the suppressive capacity through the glutamate-NMDA receptor axis. Moreover, inhibition of glutaminase GLS1 enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of anti-PD-L1 treatment, with reduced arginase 1+ myeloid cells, increased CD8+, IFN-γ+ and Granzyme B+ T cells, and delayed tumor growth in an ICB-resistant mouse model. Our work identified a novel regulatory mechanism of glutamine metabolism in controlling the generation of suppressive IMCs in the TME.

19.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-28, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389257

RESUMO

With a growing demand for safe, nutritious, and fresh-like produce, a number of disinfection technologies have been developed. This review comprehensively examines the working principles and applications of several emerging disinfection technologies. The chemical treatments, including chlorine dioxide, ozone, electrolyzed water, essential oils, high-pressure carbon dioxide, and organic acids, have been improved as alternatives to traditional disinfection methods to meet current safety standards. Non-thermal physical treatments, such as UV-light, pulsed light, ionizing radiation, high hydrostatic pressure, cold plasma, and high-intensity ultrasound, have shown significant advantages in improving microbial safety and maintaining the desirable quality of produce. However, using these disinfection technologies alone may not meet the requirement of food safety and high product quality. Several hurdle technologies have been developed, which achieved synergistic effects to maximize lethality against microorganisms and minimize deterioration of produce quality. The review also identifies further research opportunities for the cost-effective commercialization of these technologies.

20.
Immunol Invest ; : 1-13, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405308

RESUMO

Aims The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays a pivotal role in regulating the innate and the acquired immune systems. The present study aimed to investigate the association of Crohn's disease (CD) with AhR polymorphisms in a cohort of patients from Southeast China. Methods An improved multiple ligase detection reaction technique was applied to examine the polymorphisms of rs2158041, rs2066853, and rs10249788 in 310 patients with CD and 573 controls. Results Compared to the controls, the variant allele (T) and genotype (CT+TT) of rs2158041 were less frequent in patients with CD (both p < 0.05). Similar conclusions were drawn from patients with ileal CD and with stricture CD as compared to the controls (all p < 0.0083). However, no significant differences were observed in allele and genotype frequencies of rs2066853 and rs10249788 between patients with CD and the controls (all p > 0.05). Although rs2158041 and rs10249788 were in complete linkage disequilibrium with rs2066853, respectively, only the frequency of haplotype (TG) formed by rs2158041 and rs2066853 was significantly lower in patients with CD than that in the controls (p < 0.05). Conclusions AhR (rs2158041) might be a susceptible locus for CD, especially for the two subtypes: ileal CD and stricture CD.

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