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1.
Insect Sci ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411007

RESUMO

Microorganisms provide many physiological functions to herbivorous hosts. Spider mites (genus Tetranychus) are important agricultural pests throughout the world; however, the composition of the spider mite microbial community, especially gut microbiome, remains unclear. Here, we investigated the bacterial community in five spider mite species and their associated feces by deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The composition of the bacterial community was significantly different among the five prevalent spider mite species, and some bacterial symbionts showed host-species specificity. Moreover, the abundance of the bacterial community in spider mite feces was significantly higher than that in the corresponding spider mite samples. However, Flavobacterium was detected in all samples, and represent a "core microbiome". Remarkably, the maternally inherited endosymbiont Wolbachia was detected in both spider mite and feces. Overall, these results offer insight into the complex community of symbionts in spider mites, and give a new direction for future studies.

2.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 113: 103211, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425852

RESUMO

Wolbachia are intracellular bacteria that manipulate host reproduction by several mechanisms including cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). However, the underlying mechanisms of Wolbachia-induced CI are not entirely clear. Here, we monitored the Wolbachia distribution in the male gonads of the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, SBPH) at different development stages, and investigated the influence of Wolbachia on male gonads by a quantitative proteomic analysis. A total of 276 differentially expressed proteins were identified, with the majority of them participating in metabolism, modification, and reproduction. Knocking down the expression of outer dense fiber protein (ODFP) and venom allergen 5-like (VA5L) showed decreased egg reproduction, and these two genes might be responsible for Wolbachia improved fecundity in infected L. striatellus; whereas knocking down the expression of cytosol amino-peptidase-like (CAL) significantly decreased the egg hatch rate in Wolbachia-uninfected L. striatellus, but not in the Wolbachia-infected one. Considering that the mRNA/protein level of CAL was downregulated by Wolbachia infection and dsCAL treatment closely mimicked Wolbachia-induced CI, we presumed that CAL might be one of the factors determining the CI phenotype.

3.
Insect Mol Biol ; 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265751

RESUMO

Wolbachia and Spiroplasma are both maternally inherited endosymbionts in arthropods, and they can co-infect the same species. However, how they interact with each other in the same host is not clear. Here we investigate a co-infected Tetranychus truncatus spider mite strain that shares the same genetic background with singly infected and uninfected strains to detect the impacts of the two symbionts on their host. We found that Wolbachia-infected and Spiroplasma-infected mites can suffer significant fitness costs involving decreased fecundity, although with no effect on lifespan or development. Wolbachia induced incomplete cytoplasmic incompatibility in T. truncatus both in singly infected and doubly infected strains, resulting in female killing. In both females and males of the co-infected spider mite strain, Wolbachia density was higher than Spiroplasma density. Transcriptome analysis of female adults showed that the most differentially expressed genes were found between the co-infected strain and both the singly infected Spiroplasma strain and uninfected strain. The Wolbachia strain had the fewest differentially expressed genes compared with the co-infected strain, consistent with the higher density of Wolbachia in the co-infected strain. Wolbachia, therefore, appears to have a competitive advantage in host mites over Spiroplasma and is likely maintained in populations by cytoplasmic incompatibility despite having deleterious fitness effects.

4.
Nature ; 572(7767): 56-61, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316207

RESUMO

The radiation-based sterile insect technique (SIT) has successfully suppressed field populations of several insect pest species, but its effect on mosquito vector control has been limited. The related incompatible insect technique (IIT)-which uses sterilization caused by the maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia-is a promising alternative, but can be undermined by accidental release of females infected with the same Wolbachia strain as the released males. Here we show that combining incompatible and sterile insect techniques (IIT-SIT) enables near elimination of field populations of the world's most invasive mosquito species, Aedes albopictus. Millions of factory-reared adult males with an artificial triple-Wolbachia infection were released, with prior pupal irradiation of the released mosquitoes to prevent unintentionally released triply infected females from successfully reproducing in the field. This successful field trial demonstrates the feasibility of area-wide application of combined IIT-SIT for mosquito vector control.

5.
Mol Ecol ; 28(14): 3306-3323, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183910

RESUMO

While it has been proposed in several taxa that the mitochondrial genome is associated with adaptive evolution to different climatic conditions, making links between mitochondrial haplotypes and organismal phenotypes remains a challenge. Mitonuclear discordance occurs in the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus, with one mitochondrial haplogroup (HGI) more common in the cold climate region of China relative to another form (HGII) despite strong nuclear gene flow, providing a promising model to investigate climatic adaptation of mitochondrial genomes. We hypothesized that cold adaptation through HGI may be involved, and considered mitogenome evolution, population genetic analyses, and bioassays to test this hypothesis. In contrast to our hypothesis, chill-coma recovery tests and population genetic tests of selection both pointed to HGII being involved in cold adaptation. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that HGII is nested within HGI, and has three nonsynonymous changes in ND2, ND5 and CYTB in comparison to HGI. These molecular changes likely increased mtDNA copy number, cold tolerance and fecundity of SBPH, particularly through a function-altering amino acid change involving M114T in ND2. Nuclear background also influenced fecundity and chill recovery (i.e., mitonuclear epistasis) and protein modelling indicates possible nuclear interactions for the two nonsynonymous changes in ND2 and CYTB. The high occurrence frequency of HGI in the cold climate region of China remains unexplained, but several possible reasons are discussed. Overall, our study points to a link between mtDNA variation and organismal-level evolution and suggests a possible role of mitonuclear interactions in maintaining mtDNA diversity.

6.
Insect Sci ; 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173475

RESUMO

Wolbachia and Spiroplasma are intracellular bacteria that are of great interest to entomologists, because of their ability to alter insect host biology in multiple ways. In the spider mite Tetranychus truncatus, co-infection of Wolbachia and Spiroplasma can induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) and fitness costs; however, little is known about the effect of co-infection at the genetic level and the molecular mechanisms underlying CI. In this study, we explored the influence of the two symbionts on male mite host fitness and used RNA sequencing to generate the transcriptomes of T. truncatus with four different types of infection. In total, we found symbiont-infected lines had a higher hatch proportion than the uninfected line, and the development time of the uninfected line was longer than that of the other lines. Co-infection changed the expression of many genes related to digestion detoxification, reproduction, immunity and oxidation reduction. Our results indicate that co-infection of Wolbachia and Spiroplasma confers multiple effects on their hosts, and helps illuminate the complex interactions between endosymbionts and arthropods.

7.
Autophagy ; : 1-18, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223056

RESUMO

Macroautophagy/autophagy deficit induces intracellular MAPT/tau accumulation, the hallmark pathology in Alzheimer disease (AD) and other tauopathies; however, the reverse role of MAPT accumulation in autophagy and neurodegeneration is not clear. Here, we found that overexpression of human wild-type full-length MAPT, which models MAPT pathologies as seen in sporadic AD patients, induced autophagy deficits via repression of autophagosome-lysosome fusion leading to significantly increased LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3)-II and SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) protein levels with autophagosome accumulation. At the molecular level, intracellular MAPT aggregation inhibited expression of IST1 (IST1 factor associated with ESCRT-III), a positive modulator for the formation of ESCRT (the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport) complex that is required for autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Upregulating IST1 in human MAPT transgenic mice attenuated autophagy deficit with reduced MAPT aggregation and ameliorated synaptic plasticity and cognitive functions, while downregulating IST1 per se induced autophagy deficit with impaired synapse and cognitive function in naïve mice. IST1 can facilitate association of CHMP2B (charged multivesicular body protein 2B) and CHMP4B/SNF7-2 to form ESCRT-III complex, while lack of IST1 impeded the complex formation. Finally, we demonstrate that MAPT accumulation suppresses IST1 transcription with the mechanisms involving the ANP32A-regulated mask of histone acetylation. Our findings suggest that the AD-like MAPT accumulation can repress autophagosome-lysosome fusion by deregulating ANP32A-INHAT-IST1-ESCRT-III pathway, which also reveals a vicious cycle of MAPT accumulation and autophagy deficit in the chronic course of AD neurodegeneration.Abbreviations: AAV: adeno-associated virus; Aß: ß-amyloid; aCSF: artificial cerebrospinal fluid; AD: Alzheimer disease; ANP32A: acidic nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family member A; ATG: autophagy related; AVs: autophagic vacuoles; CEBPB: CCAAT enhancer binding protein beta; CHMP: charged multivesicular body protein; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified eagle's medium; EBSS: Earle's balanced salt solution; EGFR: epidermal growth factor receptor; ESCRT: endosomal sorting complex required for transport; fEPSPs: field excitatory postsynaptic potentials; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GSK3B: glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta; HAT: histone acetyl transferase; HDAC: histone deacetylase; INHAT: inhibitor of histone acetyl transferase; IST1: IST1 factor associated with ESCRT-III; LAMP2: lysosomal associated membrane protein 2; LTP: long-term potentiation; MAP1LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MAPT/tau: microtubule associated protein tau; MVB: multivesicular bodies; MWM: Morris water maze; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline solution; RAB7: member RAS oncogene family; SNAREs: soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1.

8.
J Econ Entomol ; 112(5): 2362-2368, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145796

RESUMO

Deciphering genetic structure and inferring migration routes of insects with high migratory ability have been challenging, due to weak genetic differentiation and limited resolution offered by traditional genotyping methods. Here, we tested the ability of double digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq)-based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in revealing the population structure relative to 13 microsatellite markers by using four small brown planthopper populations as subjects. Using ddRADseq, we identified 230,000 RAD loci and 5,535 SNP sites, which were present in at least 80% of individuals across the four populations with a minimum sequencing depth of 10. Our results show that this large SNP panel is more powerful than traditional microsatellite markers in revealing fine-scale population structure among the small brown planthopper populations. In contrast to the mixed population structure suggested by microsatellites, discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) of the SNP dataset clearly separated the individuals into four geographic populations. Our results also suggest the DAPC analysis is more powerful than the principal component analysis (PCA) in resolving population genetic structure of high migratory taxa, probably due to the advantages of DAPC in using more genetic variation and the discriminant analysis function. Together, these results point to ddRADseq being a promising approach for population genetic and migration studies of small brown planthopper.

9.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 78(1): 15-27, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093855

RESUMO

Tetranychus pueraricola is a newly reported spider mite that occurs frequently in mainland China. It is possible that this species was introduced from elsewhere and became a serious pest recently. However, the correct identification of red-pigmented spider mites has repeatedly proven problematic. There is also the possibility that T. pueraricola in China was long misidentified as its sibling species, Tetranychus urticae (red form). To test which of these two scenarios is the more likely, individuals from 14 populations of T. pueraricola and five populations of T. urticae (red form) in China were sampled and genotyped using mitochondrial COI and microsatellite loci. Unlike a recent invasive species, the genetic diversity of T. pueraricola was very high with high mitochondrial genetic diversity (16 haplotypes), high effective alleles (Ne = 2.038 ± 0.081) and expected heterozygosity (He = 0.395 ± 0.016). Surprisingly, we found that all T. urticae (red form) populations shared only one mitochondrial haplotype and showed quite low genetic diversity (Ne = 1.443 ± 0.055; He = 0.234 ± 0.025) which was even lower than that of the green form of T. urticae in mainland China from a previous study. We did not detect significant signals of recent bottlenecks for most populations from both species. These results suggest T. pueraricola is unlikely to be a recent invasive pest but a species that has existed in China for a long time. It is probable that T. pueraricola in China has long been misidentified as T. urticae (red form).


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Tetranychidae/genética , Animais , China , Feminino , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie , Tetranychidae/classificação
10.
J Insect Physiol ; 116: 125-133, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128084

RESUMO

Wolbachia are intracellular bacteria carried by thousands of arthropod species. The success of Wolbachia is due to efficient vertical transmission by the host maternal germline. Wolbachia's behavior during host oogenesis is well characterized, although their behavior during embryogenesis is unclear. Vertical transmission of Wolbachia wStri in the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus is extraordinarily efficient. To understand why, we investigated its localization and dynamics in L. striatellus embryos. Microscopic observations indicated that the Wolbachia were mainly localized at the anterior region of the embryo during early embryogenesis. The distribution of Wolbachia within the anterior region was established during oogenesis, and according to a phylogenetic analysis, may be due to intrinsic factors in Wolbachia. We observed that wStri migrated to the posterior part cells during late embryogenesis, in the region where gonads were formed. An expression profile of Wolbachia-infected host embryonic development genes revealed Ddx1 mRNAs, which is required for host viability and in the germ line, accumulated in the posterior region of 3-day-old embryos, while other development genes mRNAs were significantly more abundant in the posterior region of 6-day-old embryos. These genes thus appear to be associated with the localization of Wolbachia wStri in the anterior region, although their functions remain unclear. These results can explain Wolbachia wStri high prevalence in L. striatellus.

11.
EMBO Rep ; 20(6)2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085626

RESUMO

Intracellular tau accumulation forming neurofibrillary tangles is hallmark pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but how tau accumulation induces synapse impairment is elusive. By overexpressing human full-length wild-type tau (termed hTau) to mimic tau abnormality as seen in the brain of sporadic AD patients, we find that hTau accumulation activates JAK2 to phosphorylate STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 1) at Tyr701 leading to STAT1 dimerization, nuclear translocation, and its activation. STAT1 activation suppresses expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) through direct binding to the specific GAS element of GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B promoters, while knockdown of STAT1 by AAV-Cre in STAT1flox/flox mice or expressing dominant negative Y701F-STAT1 efficiently rescues hTau-induced suppression of NMDAR expression with amelioration of synaptic functions and memory performance. These findings indicate that hTau accumulation impairs synaptic plasticity through JAK2/STAT1-induced suppression of NMDAR expression, revealing a novel mechanism for hTau-associated synapse and memory deficits.

12.
New Phytol ; 224(2): 860-874, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883796

RESUMO

Extracellular DNA, released by damaged plant cells, acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP). We demonstrated previously that the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, SBPH) secreted DNase II when feeding on artificial diets. However, the function of DNase II in insect feeding remained elusive. The influences of DNase II on SBPHs and rice plants were investigated by suppressing expression of DNase II or by application of heterogeneously expressed DNase II. We demonstrated that DNase II is mainly expressed in the salivary gland and is responsible for DNA-degrading activity of saliva. Knocking down the expression of DNase II resulted in decreased performance of SBPH reared on rice plants. The dsDNase II-treated SBPH did not influenced jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET) pathways, but elicited a higher level of H2 O2 and callose accumulation. Application of heterogeneously expressed DNase II in DNase II-deficient saliva slightly reduced the wound-induced defence response. We propose a DNase II-based invading model for SBPH feeding on host plants, and provide a potential target for pest management.

13.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 101(2): e21548, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912174

RESUMO

Rice planthoppers (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) are notorious pests for rice (Oryza sativa) in Asia, posing a serious threat to rice production and grain security. Rice planthoppers harbor diverse bacterial symbionts, including Wolbachia, Cardinium, Spiroplasma, and Arsenophonus, which are known to manipulate reproduction in arthropod hosts. This microreview is to introduce current knowledge of bacterial reproductive manipulators in rice planthoppers, including their diversity, population dynamics, localization, transmission, and biological functions.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Masculino , Simbiose
14.
Insect Sci ; 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924288

RESUMO

Bacteria symbionts in herbivores play an important role in host biology and ecology, and are affected by environmental factors such as temperature, diet, habitat, antibiotics and so on. However, the effects of antibiotics on the microbiome of the small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus (SBPH) remain unclear. Here, we studied the effects of tetracycline on the diversity and composition of bacterial colonies in different tissues of SBPH using high throughput sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA amplicons. Our results show that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria were most abundant in SBPH, and the genera Asaia and Wolbachia were most abundant in all body parts of SBPH. Antibiotic treatment had persistent effects on the composition of the SBPH microbiome. Tetracycline depleted the population of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Tenericutes and Fusobacteria, and nearly 100% eliminated Wolbachia, Bacteroides and Abiotrophia in SBPH. Together, these results suggest that antibiotic exposure affects the bacteria symbionts of different body parts in SBPH and will facilitate future studies of the bacterial symbionts of arthropod hosts.

15.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1865(6): 1477-1489, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal immune activation (MIA) is an independent risk factor for psychiatric disorders including depression spectrum in the offsprings, but the molecular mechanism is unclear. Recent studies show that interferon-stimulated gene-15 (ISG15) is involved in inflammation and neuronal dendrite development; here we studied the role of ISG15 in MIA-induced depression and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: By vena caudalis injecting polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) into the pregnant rats to mimic MIA, we used AAV or lentivirus to introduce or silence ISG15 expression. Synaptic plasticity was detected by confocal microscope and Golgi staining. Cognitive performances of the offspring were measured by Open field, Forced swimming and Sucrose preference test. RESULTS: We found that MIA induced depression-like behaviors with dendrite impairments in the offspring with ISG15 level increased in the offsprings' brain. Overexpressing ISG15 in the prefrontal cortex of neonatal cubs (P0) could mimic dendritic pathology and depressive like behaviors, while downregulating ISG15 rescued these abnormalities in the offsprings. Further studies demonstrated that MIA-induced upregulation of inflammatory cytokines promoted ISG15 expression in the offspring' brain which suppressed Rap2A ubiquitination via NEDD4 and thus induced Rap2A accumulation, while upregulating NEDD4 abolished ISG15-induced dendrite impairments. CONCLUSIONS: These data reveal that MIA impedes offsprings' dendrite development and causes depressive like behaviors by upregulating ISG15 and suppressing NEDD4/Rap2A signaling. The current findings suggest that inhibiting ISG15 may be a promising intervention of MIA-induced psychiatric disorders in the offsprings.

16.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 100(4): e21537, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666693

RESUMO

Planthoppers are highly destructive pests that damage rice plants by feeding and transmitting viruses. They feed on phloem sap using specialized mouthparts and secrete saliva during feeding. Over the past decade, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic approaches have greatly improved our understanding of the complexity of planthopper saliva, and have provided a glimpse of planthopper-plant interactions. Here we focus on a few recent advances in planthopper saliva and discuss how salivary components influence planthopper performance. Understanding the molecular basis of saliva in planthopper-plant interactions will provide evolutionary insights, and promote the development of novel strategies for controlling agricultural pests.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Poaceae/parasitologia
17.
J Econ Entomol ; 112(2): 894-905, 2019 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535231

RESUMO

Endosymbionts are widely distributed among insects via intraspecific vertical transmission and interspecific horizontal transmission. Parasitoids have attracted considerable interest due to their possible role in the horizontal transmission of endosymbionts. Horizontal transmission of endosymbionts between whiteflies via parasitoids has been revealed in the laboratory. However, whether this occurs under field conditions remains unknown. Here, the diversity and phylogenetic relationships of endosymbionts in 1,350 whiteflies and 36 parasitoids that emerged from whitefly nymphs collected from three locations in Jiangsu Province of China were investigated. Only Rickettsia and Wolbachia were identified in both whiteflies and parasitoids, with an overall infection frequency of 22.67% in whiteflies and 16.67% in parasitoids for Wolbachia and of 12.15% in whiteflies and 25% in parasitoids for Rickettsia. Despite the distant relationship between whiteflies and their parasitoids, phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Rickettsia and Wolbachia individuals collected from the two types of organisms were grouped together. Furthermore, shared haplotypes were also identified, which was consistent with the horizontal transmission of endosymbionts between parasitoids and whiteflies. In addition, a parasitoid resistance-related symbiont, Hamiltonella, was detected in whiteflies at a 100% infection frequency, probably accounting for the relatively low parasitism of the whiteflies in the field. The factors affecting the infection frequency of the four secondary endosymbionts in whiteflies were also examined.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Wolbachia , Animais , China , Filogenia , Simbiose
18.
Proteomics ; : e1800302, 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520223

RESUMO

The spider mite Tetranychus evansi has a remarkable ability to suppress and manipulate plant defenses, which makes it an ideal model to investigate plant-herbivores interactions. In this study, we performed a de novo assembly of the transcriptome of T. evansi, and characterized the proteins in its secreted saliva by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 29,365 unigenes were assembled and 136 saliva proteins were identified. Comparative analysis of the saliva proteins in T. evansi, T. truncatus, and T. urticae showed that 64 protein groups were shared by at least two Tetranychus species, and 52 protein groups were specifically identified in T. evansi. In addition, some saliva proteins were common in arthropod species, while others were species-specific. These results will help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which T. evansi modulates plant defenses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

19.
Microbiologyopen ; : e743, 2018 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311439

RESUMO

Bacterial symbionts may influence the fitness of their herbivore hosts, but such effects have been poorly studied across most invertebrate groups. The spider mite, Tetranychus truncatus, is a polyphagous agricultural pest harboring various bacterial symbionts whose function is largely unknown. Here, by using a high-throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing approach, we characterized the bacterial diversity and community composition of spider mites fed on five host plants after communities were modified following tetracycline exposure. We demonstrated that spider mite bacterial diversity and community composition were significantly affected by host plants and antibiotics. In particular, the abundance of the maternally inherited endosymbionts Wolbachia and Spiroplasma significantly differed among spider mites that were reared on different plant species and were completely removed by antibiotics. There was an overall tendency for daily fecundity to be lower in the mites with reduced bacterial diversity following the antibiotic treatment. Our data suggest that host plants and antibiotics can shape spider mite bacterial communities and that bacterial symbionts improve mite performance.

20.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2016, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30233514

RESUMO

Wolbachia in host germ lines are essential for their vertical transmission to the next generation. It is unclear how the regulation of host oocyte development influences Wolbachia location and the mechanistic basis of transmission. Here, we investigated whether vitellogenin influences Wolbachia transmission in Laodelphax striatellus. Wolbachia increased in density and spread from the anterior tropharium to developing oocytes as ovaries developed. Microscopic observations indicated that Wolbachia invaded ovarioles from the tropharium of its anterior side rather than the pedicel side. Wolbachia utilized the host Vg transovarial transportation system to enter the ovaries and were transmitted from the tropharium into the developing oocytes through nutritive cords. These observations were supported by knocking down the Vg transcript, in which low Wolbachia titers were detected in ovaries and fewer Wolbachia were transmitted into oocytes. Our findings establish a link between the Vg-related mode of transovarial transmission and efficient maternal transmission of Wolbachia.

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