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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 175: 254-261, 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561459

RESUMO

The efficiency of enzymatic cyclodextrin production using cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases (CGTases) is limited by product inhibition. In this study, maltose binding site 2 (MBS2) of the ß-CGTase from Bacillus circulans STB01 was modified to decrease product inhibition. First, two point mutants were prepared at position 599 (A599V and A599N). Then, two double mutants incorporating alanine at position 633 (A599N/Y633A and A599V/Y633A) were prepared. Finally, the entire MBS2 region was replaced by that of the α-CGTase from Paenibacillus macerans JFB05-01 to form multipoint mutant MBS2 ߠ→ α. All five mutants exhibited mixed-type product inhibition, although both the competitive and uncompetitive components of this inhibition were decreased. The total cyclization activities of A599N, A599V and A599V/Y633A were 15.6%, 76.8% and 70.9% lower than that of the wild-type, respectively, while that of A599N/Y633A was 22.4% higher. Among the mutants, only MBS2 ߠ→ α showed catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) comparable with that of the wild-type. Moreover, A599N, A599N/Y633A and MBS2 ߠ→ α produced cyclodextrin yields 13.1%, 15.8% and 19.7% greater than that of the wild-type, respectively. These results suggest that A599N, A599N/Y633A and MBS2 ߠ→ α may be more suitable than the wild-type for cyclodextrin production.

2.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To identify risk factors by developing a nomogram for predicting surgical outcomes for female patients who underwent tension free vaginal tape (TVT) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). METHODS: Data on 365 patients with pure SUI who underwent TVT at the Shanghai General Hospital between February, 2017 and July, 2018, were retrospectively collected. Within this group, symptoms of patients who were found to have disappeared or have been improved (subjective success group) were compared with symptoms of those patients who were found to have no change or recurrence (subjective failure group). We evaluated the effect of treatment after TVT surgery on SUI patients based upon patient prognosis. RESULTS: During the study period, 327 women underwent TVT surgery and met the qualifications for inclusion in six-month follow-up consultations and 38 patients were lost. Multivariable logistic regression analysis of risk factors that were important in relation to the failure of surgery indicated two independent predictors: total cholesterol (TC) (P=0.005) and maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP) (P=0.028). We developed a nomogram to predict prognosis after TVT in female patients with SUI using these parameters. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a predictive model for preoperative estimation of prognosis in female patients who underwent TVT based treatment for SUI. This model could select patients who were found to have successful postoperative outcomes, which can lead to a rational therapeutic choice.

3.
Biosci Rep ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616161

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the most general gynecological malignancies and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We aimed to select candidate genes related to the diagnosis and prognosis of CC. METHODS: The mRNA expression profile datasets were downloaded. We also downloaded RNA-sequencing gene expression data and related clinical materials from TCGA, which included 307 cervical cancer samples and 3 normal samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained by R software. GO function analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs were performed in the DAVID dataset. Using machine learning, the optimal diagnostic mRNA biomarkers for CC were identified. We used qRT-PCR and HPA database to exhibit the differences in gene and protein levels of candidate genes. RESULTS: A total of 313 DEGs were screened from the microarray expression profile datasets. DNMT1, CHAF1B, CHAF1A, MCM2, CDKN2A were identified as optimal diagnostic mRNA biomarkers for CC. Additionally, the GEPIA database showed that the DNMT1, CHAF1B, CHAF1A, MCM2 and CDKN2A were associated with the poor survival of CC patients. HPA databases and qRT-PCR confirmed that these genes were highly expressed in CC tissues. CONCLUSION: The present study identified five DEmRNAs, including DNMT1, CHAF1B, CHAF1A, MCM2 and KNTC1, as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of CC.

4.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes of symptoms, Chinese medicine (CM) syndrome, and lung inflammation absorption during convalescence in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who had not totally recovered after hospital discharge and whether CM could promote the improvement process. METHODS: This study was designed as a prospective cohort and nested case-control study. A total of 96 eligible patients with COVID-19 in convalescence were enrolled from Beijing Youan Hospital and Beijing Huimin Hospital and followed up from the hospital discharged day. Patients were divided into the CM (64 cases) and the control groups (32 cases) based on the treatment with or without CM and followed up at 14, 28, 56, and 84 days after discharge. In the CM group, patients received the 28-day CM treatment according to two types of CM syndrome. Improvements in clinical symptoms, CM syndrome, and absorption of lung inflammation were observed. RESULTS: All the 96 patients completed the 84-day follow-up from January 21 to March 28, 2020. By the 84th day of follow-up, respiratory symptoms were less than 5%. There was no significant difference in the improvement rates of symptoms, including fatigue, sputum, cough, dry throat, thirst, and upset, between the two groups (P>0.05). Totally 82 patients (85.42%) showed complete lung inflammation absorption at the 84-day follow-up. On day 14, the CM group had a significantly higher absorption rate than the control group (P<0.05) and the relative risk of absorption for CM vs. control group was 3.029 (95% confidence interval: 1.026-8.940). The proportions of CM syndrome types changed with time prolonging: the proportion of the pathogen residue syndrome gradually decreased, and the proportion of both qi and yin deficiency syndrome gradually increased. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 in convalescence had symptoms and lung inflammation after hospital discharge and recovered with time prolonging. CM could improve lung inflammation for early recovery. The types of CM syndrome can be transformed with time prolonging. (Registration No. ChiCTR2000029430).

5.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570690

RESUMO

In mammals, mature miR-122 is 22 nucleotides long and can be involved in regulating a variety of physiological and biological pathways. In this study, the expression profile and effects of grouper Epinephelus coioides miR-122 response to Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) infection were investigated. The sequences of mature microRNAs (miRNAs) from different organisms are highly conserved, and miR-122 from E. coioides exhibits high similarity to that from mammals and other fish. The expression of miR-122 was up-regulated during SGIV infection. Up-regulation of miR-122 could significantly enhance the cytopathic effects (CPE) induced by SGIV, the transcription levels of viral genes (MCP, VP19, LITAF and ICP18), and viral replication; reduce the expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-8), and the activity of AP-1 and NF-κB, and miR-122 can bind the target gene p38α MAPK to regulate the SGIV-induced cell apoptosis and the protease activity of caspase-3. The results indicated that SGIV infection can up-regulate the expression of E. coioides miR-122, and up-regulation of miR-122 can affect the activation of inflammatory factors, the activity of AP-1 and NF-κB, and cell apoptosis to regulate viral replication and proliferation.

6.
J Neuroimmunol ; 353: 577487, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578311

RESUMO

Complement component 3 (C3) had been proved to be involved in the pathogenesis and exacerbation of both myasthenia gravis (MG) patients and experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) models. We evaluated the underlying association between five SNPs (rs344555, rs7951, rs3745568, rs366510 and rs163913) in C3 gene and Chinese adult MG patients. Our study consisted of 409 adult MG patients and 487 healthy controls. Subgroups were classified by gender, onset age, thymoma, anti-AChR antibody, onset muscle involvement (ocular/generalized) and severity (Oosterhuis score at the maximal severity during the initial two years after the onset of MG). We found significant differences in allele frequencies between MG and the control group, between various MG subgroups and the control group in rs344555 and rs3745568. There were significant differences in genotype frequencies between MG group and the control group, between MG subgroups and the control group under the codominant and additive inheritance models in rs344555 and rs3745568. No association was found between the frequencies of these SNPs and the severity of MG. We also used a comprehensive classification which was close to the clinical scenario to minimize the interaction among clinical features. In rs344555, the T allele frequency in thymoma (-) AChR-Ab (+) subgroup was significantly higher than that in the control group. Our results indicated that rs344555 was associated with the susceptibility of Chinese adult MG patients; rs3745568 was probably associated with the susceptibility of Chinese adult MG patients. No association was found between the frequencies of these SNPs and the severity of MG.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e23922, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis was conducted in order to understand the clinical efficacy of stent insertion with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation for the treatment of malignant biliary obstruction (MBO). METHODS: The Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for all relevant studies published through July 2020. The meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan v5.3, with analyzed study endpoints including the rate of stent dysfunction, time to stent dysfunction, stent patency, complication rate, and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: In total, 35 potentially relevant studies were initially identified, of which 6 were ultimately included in the present meta-analysis. These 6 studies included 429 MBO patients that were treated either only via stenting (n = 221) or via stenting in combination with HIFU ablation (n = 208). Pooled stent dysfunction rates in the stent and stent with HIFU groups were 25.9% and 18.0%, respectively (OR: 1.59; 95% CI: 0.88, 2.84, P = .12). The average time to stent dysfunction was significantly longer in the stent with HIFU group relative to the stent group (MD: -3.15; 95% CI: -3.53, -2.77, P < .0001). Pooled complication rates in the stent and stent with HIFU groups were 17.1% and 19.6%, respectively (OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.49, 1.58, P = .67). Stent patency and OS were both significantly longer in the stent with HIFU group relative to the stent group (P < .0001 and.0001, respectively). Funnel plot analyses did not reveal any significant evidence of publication bias linked to the selected study endpoints. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis found that a combined stenting and HIFU ablation approach can achieve better stent patency and OS in MBO patients relative to stent insertion alone.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/cirurgia , Colestase/cirurgia , Ablação por Ultrassom Focalizado de Alta Intensidade , Stents , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/complicações , Colestase/complicações , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Endocrine ; 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548014

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and body weight, body mass index (BMI), lipid profiles, and fat distribution in subjects with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and controls. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in 192 patients with PHPT and 202 controls. Serum concentrations of calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), PTH, lipids profiles, and other hormones were quantified. Bone mineral density was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fat distribution evaluation utilizing quantitative computed tomography was conducted in another 66 patients with PHPT and 155 controls. RESULTS: PHPT patients were older (P < 0.001) and had less body weight (P < 0.001), lower BMI (P = 0.019), lower serum concentrations of 25(OH)D (P < 0.001), total cholesterol (P = 0.036), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P = 0.036), and higher circulating concentration of free fatty acid (FFA) (P = 0.047) as compared with controls. After adjusting multiple confounders, PTH was positively correlated with weight (r = 0.311, P < 0.001), BMI (r = 0.268, P < 0.01), and visceral adipose tissue area (VAA) (r = 0.191, P < 0.05) in the first tertile of PTH. However, these associations were not observed in the second tertile. While in the third tertile, PTH was negatively correlated with weight (r = -0.200, P < 0.05), BMI (r = -0.223, P < 0.05) and marginally with VAA (r = -0.306, P = 0.065), it showed positive association with FFA (r = 0.230, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The inverted U-shape relationship between PTH and body weight, BMI, VAA found in this study is helpful to explain the conflicting results among these parameters, and extend our understanding of the metabolic effects of PTH.

9.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 507-515, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522374

RESUMO

Ligustrazine, an alkaloid monomer extracted from Chuanxiong Rhizoma, has the function of protecting nerve cells. However, the effect and mechanism of ligustrazine on retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury still need to be clarified. In our study, retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5) were used to establish a retinal I/R injury model by anaerobic cultivation. Cell viability, autophagy, and apoptosis were evaluated by cell counting kit 8 assay, transmission electron microscopy, and TUNEL staining after treatment with ligustrazine, PI3K inhibitor Ly294002, and/or mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, respectively. Besides, the levels of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and autophagy-related proteins were determined by western blot. Moreover, one-way ANOVA was adopted for inter-group comparisons of measurement data. Our results demonstrated that low-concentration ligustrazine significantly enhanced cell viability and suppressed cell autophagy and apoptosis of RGC-5 cells after I/R injury, suggesting the protective effect of low-concentration ligustrazine on retinal I/R injury. Moreover, the alleviating effect of ligustrazine on RGC-5 with retinal I/R injury was mechanistically associated with the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. In conclusion, low-concentration ligustrazine has a significant protective effect on RGC-5 cells with retinal I/R injury by activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523381

RESUMO

Composting has become the most important way to recycle medicinal herbal residues (MHRs). The traditional composting method, adding a microbial agent at one time, has been greatly limited due to its low composting efficiency, mutual influence of microbial agents, and unstable compost products. This study was conducted to assess the effect of multi-phase inoculation on the lignocellulose degradation, enzyme activities, and fungal community during MHRs composting. The results showed that multi-phase inoculation treatment had the highest thermophilic temperature (68.2 °C) and germination index (102.68%), significantly improved available phosphorus content, humic acid, and humic substances concentration, accelerated the degradation of cellulose and lignin, and increased the activities of cellulase in the mature phase, xylanase, manganese peroxidase, and utilization of phenolic compounds. Furthermore, the non-metric multi-dimensional scaling showed that the composting process and inoculation significantly influenced fungal community composition. In multi-phase inoculation treatment, Thermomyces in mesophilic, thermophilic, and mature phase, unclassified_Sordariales, and Coprinopsis in mature phase were the dominant genus that might be the main functional groups to degrade lignocellulose and improve the MHRs composting process.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543933

RESUMO

In this work, a new α-γ-type [Mo8O26]4- anion was first synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and was obtained by introducing molybdate to the synthesis of metal-organic complex (MOC) under hydrothermal conditions. An octamolybdate-based MOC, namely, {[Cu8(H2O)6](dpyh)4(α-γ-Mo8O26) }·(ß-Mo8O26)·8.5H2O (H2dpyh = N,N-bis(3-pyrazolamide)-1,2-hexahydrobenzene), was obtained. The α-γ-type [Mo8O26]4- anion was composed of four MoO6 octahedra and four MoO5 trigonal bipyramids by sharing their edges and corners. The title complex exhibited a 1D structure in which an α-γ-type [Mo8O26]4- anion was connected with [Cu4(dpyh)2] units in a staggered manner. Under optimized conditions, complex 1 as the catalyst can achieve a highly efficient conversion (more than 99%) of thioanisole within 30 min and above 99% selectivity toward sulfoxide. Furthermore, efficient catalytic oxidation of thioether derivatives was also performed with 1 as the catalyst. In addition, the stable electrochemical sensing performance and adsorption capacity toward organic dyes were tested.

12.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 34, 2021 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with no absolute cure. The evidence of the involvement of gut microbiota in PD pathogenesis suggests the need to identify certain molecule(s) derived from the gut microbiota, which has the potential to manage PD. Osteocalcin (OCN), an osteoblast-secreted protein, has been shown to modulate brain function. Thus, it is of interest to investigate whether OCN could exert protective effect on PD and, if yes, whether the underlying mechanism lies in the subsequent changes in gut microbiota. RESULTS: The intraperitoneal injection of OCN can effectively ameliorate the motor deficits and dopaminergic neuronal loss in a 6-hydroxydopamine-induced PD mouse model. The further antibiotics treatment and fecal microbiota transplantation experiments confirmed that the gut microbiota was required for OCN-induced protection in PD mice. OCN elevated Bacteroidetes and depleted Firmicutes phyla in the gut microbiota of PD mice with elevated potential of microbial propionate production and was confirmed by fecal propionate levels. Two months of orally administered propionate successfully rescued motor deficits and dopaminergic neuronal loss in PD mice. Furthermore, AR420626, the agonist of FFAR3, which is the receptor of propionate, mimicked the neuroprotective effects of propionate and the ablation of enteric neurons blocked the prevention of dopaminergic neuronal loss by propionate in PD mice. CONCLUSIONS: Together, our results demonstrate that OCN ameliorates motor deficits and dopaminergic neuronal loss in PD mice, modulating gut microbiome and increasing propionate level might be an underlying mechanism responsible for the neuroprotective effects of OCN on PD, and the FFAR3, expressed in enteric nervous system, might be the main action site of propionate. Video abstract.

13.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive decline in cognitive function. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important risk factor for AD. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been identified to be effective in T2DM treatment and neuroprotection. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects and possible mechanisms of DAla2GIP-Glu-PAL, a novel long-lasting GIP analogue, in APP/PS1 AD mice. METHODS: Multiple behavioral tests were performed to examine the cognitive function of mice. In vivo hippocampus late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) was recorded to reflect synaptic plasticity. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to examine the Aß plaques and neuroinflammation in the brain. IL-1ß, TNF-α, and cAMP/PKA/CREB signal molecules were also detected by ELISA or western blotting. RESULTS: DAla2GIP-Glu-PAL increased recognition index (RI) of APP/PS1 mice in novel object recognition test, elevated spontaneous alternation percentage of APP/PS1 mice in Y maze test, and increased target quadrant swimming time of APP/PS1 mice in Morris water maze test. DAla2GIP-Glu-PAL treatment enhanced in vivo L-LTP of APP/PS1 mice. DAla2GIP-Glu-PAL significantly reduced Aß deposition, inhibited astrocyte and microglia proliferation, and weakened IL-1ß and TNF-α secretion. DAla2GIP-Glu-PAL also upregulated cAMP/PKA/CREB signal transduction and inhibited NF-κB activation in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice. CONCLUSION: DAla2GIP-Glu-PAL can improve cognitive behavior, synaptic plasticity, and central pathological damage in APP/PS1 mice, which might be associated with the inhibition of neuroinflammation, as well as upregulation of cAMP-/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. This study suggests a potential benefit of DAla2GIP-Glu-PAL in the treatment of AD.

15.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449280

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the underlying mechanism of Panax notoginseng saponin (PNS) on gastric epithelial cell injury and barrier dysfunction induced by dual antiplatelet (DA). METHODS: Human gastric mucosal epithelial cell (GES-1) was cultured and divided into 4 groups: a control, a DA, a PNS+DA and a LY294002+PNS+DA group. GES-1 apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry, cell permeability were detected using Transwell, level of prostaglandins E2 (PGE2), 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in supernatant were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), expression of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated-PI3K (p-PI3K), Akt, phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß) and Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) were measured by Western-blot. RESULTS: DA induced apoptosis and hyper-permeability in GES-1, reduced supernatant level of PGE2, 6-keto-PGF1α and VEGF (P<0.05). Addition of PNS reduced the apoptosis of GES-1 caused by DA, restored the concentration of PGE2, 6-keto-PGF1α and VEGF (P<0.05). In addition, PNS attenuated the alteration of COX-1 and COX-2 expression induced by DA, up-regulated p-PI3K/p-Akt, down-regulated RhoA and GSK-3ß. LY294002 mitigated the effects of PNS on cell apoptosis, cell permeability, VEGF concentration, and expression of RhoA and GSK-3ß significantly. CONCLUSIONS: PNS attenuates the suppression on COX/PG pathway from DA, alleviates DA-induced GES-1 apoptosis and barrier dysfunction through PI3K/Akt/VEGF-GSK-3ß-RhoA network pathway.

16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(1): 459-473, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395281

RESUMO

4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD, EC 1.13.11.27) has been recognized as one of the most promising targets in the field of herbicide innovation considering the severity of weed resistance currently. In a persistent effort to develop effective HPPD-inhibiting herbicides, a structure-guided strategy was carried out to perform the structural optimization for triketone-quinazoline-2,4-diones, a novel HPPD inhibitor scaffold first discovered in our lab. Herein, starting from the crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana (At)HPPD complexed with 6-(2-hydroxy-6-oxocyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl)-1,5-dimethyl-3-(o-tolyl)quinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (MBQ), three subseries of quinazoline-2,4-dione derivatives were designed and prepared by optimizing the hydrophobic interactions between the side chain of the core structure at the R1 position and the hydrophobic pocket at the active site entrance of AtHPPD. 6-(2-Hydroxy-6-oxocyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl)-1,5-dimethyl-3-(3-(trimethylsilyl)prop-2-yn-1-yl)quinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (60) with the best inhibitory activity against AtHPPD was identified to be the first subnanomolar-range AtHPPD inhibitor (Ki = 0.86 nM), which significantly outperformed that of the lead compound MBQ (Ki = 8.2 nM). Further determination of the crystal structure of AtHPPD in complex with compound 60 (1.85 Å) and the binding energy calculation provided a molecular basis for the understanding of its high efficiency. Additionally, the greenhouse assay indicated that 6-(2-hydroxy-6-oxocyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl)-1,5-dimethyl-3-propylquinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (28) and compound 60 showed acceptable crop safety against peanut and good herbicidal activity with a broad spectrum. Moreover, compound 28 also showed superior selectivity for wheat at the dosage of 120 g ai/ha and favorable herbicidal efficacy toward the gramineous weeds at the dosage of as low as 30 g ai/ha. We believe that compounds 28 and 60 have promising prospects as new herbicide candidates for wheat and peanut fields.

17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 823, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436913

RESUMO

The challenge of decoding information about complex diseases hidden in huge number of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes is undertaken based on five dbGaP studies. Current genome-wide association studies have successfully identified many high-risk SNPs associated with diseases, but precise diagnostic models for complex diseases by these or more other SNP genotypes are still unavailable in the literature. We report that lung cancer, breast cancer and prostate cancer as the first three top cancers worldwide can be predicted precisely via 240-370 SNPs with accuracy up to 99% according to leave-one-out and 10-fold cross-validation. Our findings (1) confirm an early guess of Dr. Mitchell H. Gail that about 300 SNPs are needed to improve risk forecasts for breast cancer, (2) reveal an incredible fact that SNP genotypes may contain almost all information that one wants to know, and (3) show a hopeful possibility that complex diseases can be precisely diagnosed by means of SNP genotypes without using phenotypical features. In short words, information hidden in SNP genotypes can be extracted in efficient ways to make precise diagnoses for complex diseases.

18.
Neurochem Res ; 46(3): 686-698, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389470

RESUMO

28-O-caffeoyl betulin (B-CA) has been demonstrated to reduce the cerebral infarct volume caused by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) injury. B-CA is a novel derivative of naturally occurring caffeoyl triterpene with little information associated with its pharmacological target(s). To date no data is available regarding the effect of B-CA on brain metabolism. In the present study, a 1H-NMR-based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the therapeutic effects of B-CA on brain metabolism following MCAO in rats. Global metabolic profiles of the cortex in acute period (9 h after focal ischemia onset) after MCAO were compared between the groups (sham; MCAO + vehicle; MCAO + B-CA). MCAO induced several changes in the ipsilateral cortex of ischemic rats, which consequently led to the neuronal damage featured with the downregulation of NAA, including energy metabolism dysfunctions, oxidative stress, and neurotransmitter metabolism. Treatment with B-CA showed statistically significant rescue effects on the ischemic cortex of MCAO rats. Specifically, treatment with B-CA ameliorated the energy metabolism dysfunctions (back-regulating the levels of succinate, lactate, BCAAs, and carnitine), oxidative stress (upregulating the level of glutathione), and neurotransmitter metabolism disturbances (back-regulating the levels of γ-aminobutyric acid and acetylcholine) associated with the progression of ischemic stroke. With the administration of B-CA, the levels of three phospholipid related metabolites (O-phosphocholine, O-phosphoethanolamine, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) and NAA improved significantly. Overall, our findings suggest that treatment with B-CA may provide neuroprotection by augmenting the metabolic changes observed in the cortex following MCAO in rats.

20.
Fitoterapia ; 150: 104834, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513430

RESUMO

Four new lathyrane-type diterpenoids (1-4) and a novel macrocyclic diterpenoid (5) featuring a 5/7/7/4-fused ring system, together with seventeen known ones (6-22), were isolated from the seeds of Euphorbia lathyris. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses and single crystal X-ray crystallography. These isolates were evaluated for their inhibition against nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in BV-2 microglial cells. As a result, the inhibitory rates of compounds 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9-11, 13-15, 20, and 21 on NO production were more than 40% with the cell viability more than 80% at their effective concentrations. In addition, compounds 6 and 11 markedly reduced the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-1ß in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells.

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