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1.
Epidemiol Health ; : e2021029, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887820

RESUMO

Objectives: Although previous studies have investigated the correlation between fruit and vegetable consumption and depression, the results remain inconclusive. The present study aimed to investigate the association between weekly fruit and vegetable consumption and depressive symptoms in elderly Koreans. Methods: A multiple covariate linear regression analysis was performed using the data including 1,226 elderly individuals ≥60 years of age, who participated in the Korean Elderly Environmental Panel-II study from 2012 to 2014. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Korean version of the Short form Geriatric Depression Scale (SGDS-K). Generalized linear mixed-effects models were constructed to analyze the repeated measurements for 305 people who participated in the survey every year. Results: After the adjustment for confounders, the SGDS-K scores were negatively associated with the frequency of weekly fruit consumption such as in -0.17 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.28, -0.05), -0.17 (95% CI -0.27, -0.07), -0.42 (95% CI -0.54, -0.29), and -0.33 (95% CI -0.44, -0.21) in the order of less than once/week, 1-3 times/week, 4-6 times/week, and daily, compared to no consumption, respectively. The SGDS-K scores were also negatively associated with the frequency of vegetable consumption: -0.86 (95% CI -1.18, -0.55), -0.18 (95% CI -0.35, -0.01), -0.36 (95% CI -0.53, -0.18), and -0.15, (95% CI -0.29, 0.00) in the above order, respectively. Conclusion: Fruit consumption was inversely associated with the level of depression in a dose-dependent manner. Although there was no dose-response relationship between vegetable consumption and the level of depression, it was negatively associated with the SGDS-K scores.

3.
Environ Res ; 197: 111139, 2021 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848554

RESUMO

Although many studies have evaluated the effects of ambient particulate matter with diameters of less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) on stroke mortality in the general population, little is known about the mortality effects of PM2.5 in post-stroke populations. Therefore, a retrospective cohort was constructed using information from the health insurance database to evaluate whether exposure to PM2.5 is associated with increased mortality in aged stroke survivors residing in seven Korean metropolitan cities. A total of 45,513 older adults (≥65 years) who visited emergency rooms due to stroke and who were discharged alive between 2008 and 2016 were followed up. By using district-level modeled PM2.5 concentrations and a time-varying Cox proportional hazard model, associations between 1-month and 2-month moving average PM2.5 exposures and mortality in stroke survivors were evaluated. The annual average concentration of PM2.5 was 27.9 µg/m3 in the seven metropolitan cities, and 14,880 subjects died during the follow-up period. A 10 µg/m3 increase in the 1-month and 2-month moving average PM2.5 exposures was associated with mortality hazard ratios of 1.07 (95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.09) and 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.08), respectively. The effects of PM2.5 were similar across types of stroke (ischemic and hemorrhagic), age groups (65-74, 75-84, and ≥85), and income groups (low and high) but were greater in women than in men. This study highlights the adverse health effects of ambient PM2.5 in post-stroke populations. Active avoidance behaviors against PM2.5 are recommended for aged stroke survivors.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670787

RESUMO

Only a few studies have examined the impacts of environmental exposure on frailty. This study investigated the association between phthalates and frailty among community-dwelling older adults. The Korean Elderly Environmental Panel II (KEEP II) study is a repeated panel data study of 800 community-dwelling older adults in South Korea. Frailty was measured with five items defined by Fried and colleagues. Environmental pollutants in the form of two types of metabolites for Di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHPs)-Mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and Mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP)-were obtained from urine specimens. Analyses were performed using repeated linear mixed models. The concentration levels of both MEOHP and MEHHP in urine were significantly higher in the pre-frail or frail group than its counterparts. While adjusting for covariates, MEOHP level was positively associated with the likelihood of being pre-frail or frail in both males and females; the concentration level of MEHHP also had a positive impact on the likelihood of being pre-frail or frail in females. The DEHP metabolite concentrations were significantly lower among adults with daily fruit consumption in both males and females. DEHPs, measured by metabolite concentrations, may increase the risk of frailty among older men and women; further studies are necessary. The preventive effects of nutrition on DEHP risk should also be further investigated.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Poluentes Ambientais , Fragilidade , Ácidos Ftálicos , Idoso , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , República da Coreia
5.
Environ Res ; 195: 110865, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to heavy metals during critical developmental phases has been implicated in allergic phenotypes. However, few studies have been conducted on the gender-specific association of prenatal heavy metal exposure with atopic dermatitis (AD) in infants. OBJECTIVE: To examine the gender-specific association of prenatal exposure to multiple heavy metals with AD incidence in 6-month-old infants using data from the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH). METHODS: We evaluated 738 mother-child pairs from the MOCEH study, an ongoing prospective birth cohort. The concentrations of three heavy metals (lead, mercury and cadmium) in maternal blood samples were measured during early and late pregnancy. Each quartile of heavy metal concentration was used to consider the possible nonlinear association with AD. For assessing the multi-pollutant model, we constructed the multivariate regression model including all three heavy metals at both early and late pregnancy. Further, the group Lasso model was used to perform the variable selection with categorized exposures and assess the effect of multiple pollutants including their pairwise interactions. RESULTS: A total of 200 incident cases of AD were diagnosed in 6-month-old infants. In the multivariate regression model of the boy group, adjusted odds ratios comparing the second, third and fourth quartile of lead exposure in boys with the first quartile were 1.83 (95% CI: 1.00, 3.38), 1.04 (0.91, 3.32) and 2.40 (1.18, 4.90), respectively. However, the only second quartile of lead exposure compared to first quartile was significantly associated with AD in girls. In addition, the results of the group Lasso model were similar with the results of multivariate regression model. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that lead exposure in late pregnancy increases risk of AD in 6-month-old boys although the strength of association is weak. Further studies are needed to confirm the susceptibility window and gender differences in lead-induced AD.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Metais Pesados , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Criança , Dermatite Atópica/induzido quimicamente , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Caracteres Sexuais
6.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 54(1): 37-45, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in the electrical, mechanical, medical, and food industries. Previous studies have suggested that BPA is an endocrine disruptor. Regulation of BPA has led to increased use of bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS). However, few studies have investigated the associations of BPF and BPS with thyroid dysfunction in children. Our study investigated the associations of prenatal BPA and early childhood BPA, BPF, and BPS exposure with thyroid function in 6-year-old children. METHODS: Prenatal BPA concentrations were measured during the second trimester of pregnancy in an established prospective birth cohort. We measured urinary BPA, BPF, and BPS concentrations and thyroid hormone levels (thyroid-stimulating hormone, total T3, and free T4) in 6-year-old children (n=574). We examined the associations between urinary bisphenol concentrations and percentage change of thyroid hormone concentrations using multivariate linear regression. We also compared thyroid hormone levels by dividing the cohort according to BPA, BPF, and BPS concentrations. RESULTS: The associations between prenatal BPA and total T3 levels were statistically significant in all models, except for girls when using a crude model. The associations between urinary BPA and BPS concentrations and levels of all thyroid hormones were not statistically significant. However, we observed that lower free T4 levels (-1.94%; 95% confidence interval, -3.82 to -0.03) were associated with higher urinary BPF concentrations in girls only. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identified significant associations between prenatal BPA exposure and total T3 levels in all children and between BPF exposure and free T4 levels in girls only.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Sulfonas/análise , Hormônios Tireóideos/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/urina , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenóis/urina , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia , Sulfonas/urina , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue
7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 363-369, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The complete contact tracing of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) cases in South Korea allows a unique opportunity to investigate cluster characteristics. This study aimed to investigate all reported COVID-19 clusters in the Seoul metropolitan area from January 23 to September 24, 2020. METHODS: Publicly available COVID-19 data was collected from the Seoul Metropolitan City and Gyeonggi Province. Community clusters with ≥5 cases were characterized by size and duration, categorized using K-means clustering, and the correlation between the types of clusters and the level of social distancing investigated. RESULTS: A total of 134 clusters comprised of 4033 cases were identified. The clusters were categorized into small (type I and II), medium (type III), and large (type IV) clusters. A comparable number of daily reported cases in different time periods were composed of different types of clusters. Increased social distancing was related to a shift from large to small-sized clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Classification of clusters may provide opportunities to understand the pattern of COVID-19 outbreaks better and implement more effective suppression strategies. Social distancing administered by the government may effectively suppress large clusters but may not effectively control small and sporadic clusters.

8.
Chemosphere ; 272: 129619, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465612

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Although an association of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with asthma incidence has been assumed, there is insufficient evidence regarding the effect of long-term exposure to PM2.5 on incident asthma among elderly adults. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate an association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and incident asthma among elderly adults in South Korea. METHODS: Adults ≥65 years of age (n = 1,220,645) who did not visit hospitals for asthma during a washout period (between 2008 and 2010) were followed up until 2016 using data from the National Health Insurance System in South Korea. Incident asthma was defined as the number of patients with a primary diagnostic code of asthma who visited hospitals more than twice. We linked the health data with district-level PM2.5 concentrations and estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident asthma after adjusting for potential confounders in time-varying Cox proportional hazard models. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Over 5,942,256 person-years, 54,522 patients developed asthma, with an incidence of 9.2 cases/1000 person-years. A 10 µg/m3 increase in the 36-month mean PM2.5 concentration was significantly associated with a 9% increase in incident asthma (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.14). This association was found to be robust for different definitions of incident asthma and washout periods. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with the incidence of asthma in elderly adults. This finding provides evidence of an association between PM2.5 and adult-onset asthma.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Incidência , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379204

RESUMO

Although several studies have evaluated the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in children, their results were inconsistent Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the association between short-term exposure to PM2.5 and ALRI hospitalizations in children (0-5 years) living in seven metropolitan cities of Korea. The ALRI hospitalization data of children living in seven metropolitan cities of Korea from 2008 to 2016 was acquired from a customized database constructed based on National Health Insurance data. The time-series data in a generalized additive model were used to evaluate the relationship between ALRI hospitalization and 7-day moving average PM2.5 exposure after adjusting for apparent temperature, day of the week, and time trends. We performed a meta-analysis using a two-stage design method. The estimates for each city were pooled to generate an average estimate of the associations. The average PM2.5 concentration in 7 metropolitan cities was 29.0 µg/m3 and a total of 713,588 ALRI hospitalizations were observed during the 9-year study period. A strong linear association was observed between PM2.5 and ALRI hospitalization. A 10 µg/m3 increase in the 7-day moving average of PM2.5 was associated with a 1.20% (95% CI: 0.71, 1.71) increase in ALRI hospitalization. While we found similar estimates in a stratified analysis by sex, we observed stronger estimates of the association in the warm season (1.71%, 95% CI: 0.94, 2.48) compared to the cold season (0.31%, 95% CI: -0.51, 1.13). In the two-pollutant models, the PM2.5 effect adjusted by SO2 was attenuated more than in the single pollutant model. Our results suggest a positive association between PM2.5 exposure and ALRI hospitalizations in Korean children, particularly in the warm season. The children need to refrain from going out on days when PM2.5 is high.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
10.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143561, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residential greenness has been reported to be positively associated with health benefits for children, including improved cognitive function. We investigated the association between the intelligence quotient (IQ) of 6-year-old children in Seoul, South Korea and surrounding greenness currently and during the mothers' pregnancy. We also analyzed whether these effects differed by the type of greenness, such as natural or built greenness. METHODS: This study considered 189 mother-child dyads from the Environment and Development of Children Cohort study, who lived in Seoul during the prenatal period and when the child was 6 years old. We defined surrounding greenness using Landsat image data from Korean Arirang satellite images with buffers within 100 m - 2000 m of the radius of each participant's residential address. We separately analyzed two types of greenness, namely natural and built greenness. The children's IQ (total, verbal, and performance IQ) was measured using the Korean Educational Developmental Institute's Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. RESULTS: Prenatal exposure to built greenness in 500 m and 1000 m buffers was associated with children's total IQ in a full model [difference in IQ (95% CI): 3.46(0.68, 6.24) and 3.42 (0.53, 6.31) per interquartile increase in proportion of greenness]. However, postnatal exposure to built greenness in all buffers was associated in children's total IQ. We found a stronger association between children's total IQ and built greenness rather than natural greenness. CONCLUSIONS: We found that 6-year-old children tended to score higher on total IQ if they lived in greener neighborhoods. The results provide further evidence of the health benefits of greenness and provide support for urban planning and public health to build healthy urban cities for children and pregnant women.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147845

RESUMO

We investigated whether cellular phone use was associated with increased risk of tumors using a meta-analysis of case-control studies. PubMed and EMBASE were searched from inception to July 2018. The primary outcome was the risk of tumors by cellular phone use, which was measured by pooling each odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI). In a meta-analysis of 46 case-control studies, compared with never or rarely having used a cellular phone, regular use was not associated with tumor risk in the random-effects meta-analysis. However, in the subgroup meta-analysis by research group, there was a statistically significant positive association (harmful effect) in the Hardell et al. studies (OR, 1.15-95% CI, 1.00 to 1.33- n = 10), a statistically significant negative association (beneficial effect) in the INTERPHONE-related studies (case-control studies from 13 countries coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC); (OR, 0.81-95% CI, 0.75 to 0.89-n = 9), and no statistically significant association in other research groups' studies. Further, cellular phone use with cumulative call time more than 1000 h statistically significantly increased the risk of tumors. This comprehensive meta-analysis of case-control studies found evidence that linked cellular phone use to increased tumor risk.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pyrethroids are associated with adverse health consequences, even at low-dose exposures. However, there is limited evidence on pyrethroids exposure levels among vulnerable elder population and on their exposure sources. OBJECTIVE: We tried to determine pyrethroids exposure levels among Korean elders and their exposure sources. METHODS: We measured levels of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), a pyrethroids metabolite, in urines repeatedly collected from 1239 Korean rural and urban elders; we also explored exposure sources for pyrethroids using questionnaire data. RESULTS: Our participants had high levels of 3-PBA with 446 (36.0%) of elders with 3-PBA level over 2 ng/mL of 95th percentile of the German representative populations. After adjustment for sex, age, smoking status, visit episode, and surveyed season using linear mixed effect models, household insecticide spray use was significantly associated with 3-PBA level (ß = 0.03 and p = 0.02) and the association was apparent only for females (ß = 0.03 and p = 0.03). In the analyses for nonlinear relationships using generalized additive mixed models, there was a J-shape change in 3-PBA level by insecticide spray use (p < 0.01 both in total population and in females). SIGNIFICANCE: Household insecticide spray was a predominant exposure source for pyrethroids at community level among Korean elders, warning more stringent control for frequently exposed environmental factors for pyrethroids including insecticide spray.

13.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to particulate matter <2.5 µm in size (PM2.5) is considered a risk factor for premature death. However, only a few studies have been conducted in areas with moderate PM2.5 concentrations. Moreover, an ageing society may be more susceptible to environmental exposure and future burden of mortality due to PM2.5. METHODS: This study estimates hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality from long-term exposure to moderate PM2.5 concentrations in the elderly populations of seven cities in South Korea. We also projected nationwide elderly mortality caused by long-term exposure to PM2.5, accounting for population ageing until 2045. Mortality in 1 720 230 elderly adults aged ≥65 years in 2008 was monitored across 2009-16 and linked to modelled PM2.5 concentrations. RESULTS: A total of 421 100 deaths occurred in 2009-16, and the mean of annual PM2.5 concentration ranged between 21.1 and 31.9 µg/m3 in most regions. The overall HR for a 10 µg/m3 increase in a 36-month PM2.5 moving average was 1.024 (95% confidence intervals: 1.009, 1.039). We estimated that 11 833 all-cause nationwide elderly deaths were attributable to PM2.5 exposure. Annual death tolls may increase to 17 948 by 2045. However, if PM2.5 is reduced to 5 µg/m3 by 2045, the tolls may show a lower increase to 3646. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to moderately high levels of PM2.5 was associated with increased mortality risk among the elderly. Thus, PM2.5 reduction in response to the projected ageing-associated mortality in South Korea is critical.

14.
Psychiatry Investig ; 17(9): 951-959, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to 1) explore the relationships among work-life balance (WLB), burnout, and empathy and 2) investigate the roles of the subtypes of burnout relating to WLB and empathy. METHODS: A total of 105 health care professionals from a general hospital in Seoul were assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy, and a one-sentence-question on subjective WLB. Multiple questions on psychiatric problems, including sleep problems, anxiety, depressive symptom, and alcohol problems, were also included. RESULTS: In the mediation analyses, personal achievement was considered as a potential mediating variable between WLB and empathy. The direct effect (ß=3.93, 95% CI: 1.21-6.64) and the indirect effect (ß=1.95, 95% CI: 0.52-3.76) of WLB on empathy were also significant. CONCLUSION: Interventions encouraging personal achievement may help mitigate burnout of health professionals.

15.
Nutr Neurosci ; : 1-9, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurobehavioral disorder in children. There are limited studies for diet or dietary supplement effects on ADHD in preschool children in Asia. This study aimed to determine the association between dietary patterns in 4-year-old children and ADHD symptoms in 6-year-old children. METHODS: We estimated dietary intake in 4-year-old children using a food frequency questionnaire. Using 33 food groups, major dietary patterns were identified in relation to the consumption of sweets, vegetables, meats, and carbohydrates. Parents of 6-year-old children used the Korean version of the ADHD Rating Scale for ADHD symptom assessment. RESULTS: A sweet dietary pattern was associated with a higher risk of attention deficit (AD) (relative risk [RR], 1.34; confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.55), hyperactivity (RR, 1.40; CI, 1.19-1.64), and ADHD symptoms (RR, 1.37; CI, 1.23-1.52). A vegetable dietary pattern was associated with a lower risk of ADHD symptoms (RR, 0.81; CI, 0.72-0.90). Food item analysis of the sweet dietary pattern showed that intake scores for chocolate, chips, and fruit jams positively correlated with AD, hyperactivity, and ADHD symptoms. DISCUSSION: These findings can be useful to further understand the roles of dietary factors in ADHD.

16.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924180

RESUMO

Clinical trial results have recently demonstrated that inhibiting inflammation by targeting the interleukin-1ß pathway can offer a significant reduction in lung cancer incidence and mortality, highlighting a pressing and unmet need to understand the benefits of inflammation-focused lung cancer therapies at the genetic level. While numerous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have explored the genetic etiology of lung cancer, there remains a large gap between the type of information that may be gleaned from an association study and the depth of understanding necessary to explain and drive translational findings. Thus, in this study we jointly model and integrate extensive multiomics data sources, utilizing a total of 40 genome-wide functional annotations that augment previously published results from the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) GWAS, to prioritize and characterize single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that increase risk of squamous cell lung cancer through the inflammatory and immune responses. Our work bridges the gap between correlative analysis and translational follow-up research, refining GWAS association measures in an interpretable and systematic manner. In particular, reanalysis of the ILCCO data highlights the impact of highly associated SNPs from nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway genes as well as major histocompatibility complex mediated variation in immune responses. One consequence of prioritizing likely functional SNPs is the pruning of variants that might be selected for follow-up work by over an order of magnitude, from potentially tens of thousands to hundreds. The strategies we introduce provide informative and interpretable approaches for incorporating extensive genome-wide annotation data in analysis of genetic association studies.

17.
Environ Res ; 191: 109909, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous studies have suggested that mercury exposure and folate levels during pregnancy may influence early childhood neurodevelopment. Rapid catch-up growth in children is associated with an increased risk of pathological nervous system development. We evaluated whether the association between prenatal folate and mercury-related neuropsychological dysfunction was modified by growth velocity during childhood. METHODS: The Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) birth cohort study began in 2006 and by 2010, 1751 women had been enrolled before the second trimester of their pregnancy along with their partners. Participants visited the research center at birth and 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. We measured mercury levels in maternal and cord blood and folate in maternal serum. Questionnaires to evaluate the environment and health of their child were administered and anthropometric factors including body weight and height were measured. Certified investigators used the Bayley test to measure neurobehavioral outcomes. We calculated postnatal growth change as the change in infant weight for-age z-score between birth and 3 years. Multiple linear regression and mixed models were used to examine the association between mercury exposure and children's neurodevelopment as well as the modifying effects of folate and growth velocity. RESULTS: A total of 30.6% of children experienced rapid growth during the first 3 years of life. Median values of mercury in the low folate group were significantly higher in rapid growers (3.41 µg/L in maternal blood and 5.63 µg/L in cord blood) than in average/slow growers (3.05 µg/L in maternal blood and 5.19 µg/L in cord blood). Rapid growers were also significantly associated with decreased psychomotor development scores during the first 3 years of life and with having mothers who had low prenatal folate levels, even after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSION: Prenatal mercury exposure adversely affects infant neurodevelopment and is associated with rapid growth during the first 3 years of life. This effect was limited to children whose mothers had low prenatal folate levels, suggesting a protective effect of folate against developmental neurotoxicity due to mercury exposure and rapid catch-up growth.

18.
Environ Res ; 191: 110060, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested links between exposure to ambient air pollutants and increased risk of congenital heart defects. However, few studies have investigated the association between other congenital diseases and traffic-related air pollution. In this study, we assessed the relationship between prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with congenital diseases in South Korea. METHODS: Patients with one or more congenital diseases and a control group of patients with non-infective gastroenteritis and colitis with a case:control ratio of 1:3 were obtained from the National Health Insurance Service data for 2008-2013 in South Korea. We estimated the associations of PM2.5 and NO2 exposures with congenital diseases using generalized estimation equations after controlling for covariates. RESULTS: Maternal PM2.5 exposure during the first and second trimester showed positive associations with overall congenital diseases, with changes of 14.7% (95% confidence intervals (CI), 9.3%, 20.3%) and 16.2% (95% CI, 11.0%, 21.7%), respectively, per 11.1 µg/m3 and 10.2 µg/m3 increase of PM2.5 interquartile range (IQR). Similarly, NO2 exposure during the first and second trimester was associated with increased numbers of overall congenital anomalies, with 8.2% (95% CI, 4.2%, 12.3%) and 15.6% (95% CI, 9.3%, 22.2%) more cases, respectively, per 10.6 ppb increase of NO2. We found that maternal PM2.5 exposure during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy was significantly associated with increased risk of specific congenital diseases, including subtypes affecting the circulatory, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal system. However, no significant associations were observed during the third trimester. Maternal NO2 exposure across the entire pregnancy was associated with malformations of the musculoskeletal system. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified significant links between in utero exposure to PM2.5 and NO2 and certain congenital diseases, and suggests that stricter controls on PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations are required.

19.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115369, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810816

RESUMO

Long-term air pollution exposure has been suggested to increase the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the association between short-term air pollution exposure and ADHD-related outcomes is still unknown. We investigated the associations between short-term exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), nitrogen oxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hospital admissions with a principal diagnosis of ADHD among adolescents (age 10-19 years) in 16 regions of the Republic of Korea from 2013 to 2015. We estimated the region-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from quasi-Poisson regressions adjusted for potential confounders, considering single-day and moving average lag. Consequently, we performed meta-analyses to pool the region-specific estimates. The risks of ADHD-related hospital admissions were increased in the single-day and moving average lag models for PM10 (largest association for lag 1 in the single-day lag model, RR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.20; lag 0-2 in the moving average lag model, RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.27), NO2 (lag 3, RR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.73; lag 1-3, RR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.38, 2.04), and SO2 (lag 1, RR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.41; lag 1-3, RR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.49). The associations were similar between boys and girls, but they were stronger among adolescents aged 15-19 years than those aged 10-14 years for NO2 and SO2. In conclusion, the results indicate that short-term exposure to PM10, NO2, and SO2 may be a risk factor for the exacerbation of ADHD symptoms, leading to hospitalization.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , República da Coreia , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(10)2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750115

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The levels of adrenal androgens are increased through the action of steroidogenic enzymes with morphological changes in the adrenal zona reticularis. OBJECTIVE: We investigated longitudinal changes in androgen levels and steroidogenic enzyme activities during early childhood. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: From a prospective children's cohort, the Environment and Development of Children cohort, 114 boys and 86 girls with available blood samples from ages 2, 4, and 6 years were included. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Serum concentrations of adrenal androgens using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and steroidogenic enzyme activity calculated by the precursor/product ratio. RESULTS: During ages 2 to 4 years, 17,20-lyase and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfotransferase activities increased (P < 0.01 for both in boys). During ages 4 to 6 years, 17,20-lyase activity persistently increased, but 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17ß-HSD activities decreased (P < 0.01 for all). Serum DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S) levels persistently increased from 2, 4, to 6 years, and DHEA, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione levels increased during ages 4 to 6 years (P < 0.01 for all). Serum DHEA-S levels during early childhood were associated with body mass index z-scores (P = 0.001 in only boys). CONCLUSION: This study supports in vivo human evidence of increased 17,20-lyase and DHEA sulfotransferase activities and decreased 3ß-HSD activity during early childhood.

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