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1.
Int J Biometeorol ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385090

RESUMO

In 2016, South Korea experienced extremely high temperatures and the Korea Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) reported 17 heat-caused deaths during these heat waves, most due to heat stroke. Because the reported number of heat-caused deaths is only part of the total deaths associated with heat waves, we aimed to estimate attributable deaths during heat wave episodes. We linked mortality to meteorological data in 16 regions in South Korea and estimated relative risk at or above threshold of maximum temperature during summer using generalized linear regression models after controlling for confounders. We computed overall, age-, sex-, and cause-specific attributable deaths from 2006 to 2017. With a 1.5% increase in all-cause mortality per 1 °C increase in concurrent days' maximum temperature during summer, this study estimates a total of 1440 all-cause deaths associated with heat waves during the 2006-2017 study period in South Korea. We estimate that 343 deaths in 2016 can be ascribed to heat waves, which is approximately 20 times more than the number reported by the KCDC (17 heat-caused deaths). This study addresses attributable heat wave deaths in South Korea and illustrates that the reports of medically classified heat-caused deaths seriously underestimate the number of deaths attributable to heat waves. Our findings may enable the implementation and reinforcement of government- and individual-level management strategies for heat waves.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12254, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439885

RESUMO

Although varicella zoster (VZ) and herpes zoster (HZ) are caused by the same varicella zoster virus (VZV), the former is caused by primary infection while the latter is caused by reactivation of latent VZV, and their relationships with ambient temperature are also different. It is relatively well-established that VZ incidence declines with ambient temperature, but the relationship between HZ and ambient temperature is inconclusive. Thus, we investigated the effects of ambient temperature on the incidence of HZ in time-series analysis by using data from the Korean National Emergency Department Information System between 2014 and 2016. We applied a generalized linear model to investigate the relationship between ambient temperature and emergency room (ER) visits due to HZ, after controlling for confounders in seven metropolitan cities and nine provinces in South Korea. Region-specific estimates were pooled to obtain the national average estimates. There were a total of 61,957 ER visits nationwide for HZ during the study period. HZ significantly increased by 2.03% to 2.94% in the moving average lag models throughout 0 to 11 days with maximum percent increase of 2.94% (95% CI: 2.20, 3.68) in the 6-day moving average lag model.

3.
Environ Int ; 131: 104941, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although blood pressure decreases in response to high ambient temperature, little is known about whether the ambient temperature can induce clinical hypotension events. Therefore, we conducted a time-series analysis to evaluate the association between hypotension hospital visits and ambient temperature in seven metropolitan cities of Korea. METHODS: We used the National Health Insurance Database, which contains the complete hospital visit data of the entire Korean population. We collected hospital visit data of seven metropolitan cities and linked the number of daily hypotension hospital visits to city-level ambient temperature, relative humidity, and air pollution levels from 2011 to 2015. Time-series analysis using the Poisson generalized additive model was conducted for each metropolitan city and we meta-analyzed the time-series results using the random effect model. RESULTS: There were 132,097 hospital visits for hypotension during our study period. A 1 degree Celsius (°C) increase in ambient temperature was associated with 1.1% increase in hospital visits for hypotension on lag day 0. Effects of ambient temperature lasted for 7 days, showing greater effects in shorter lag days. Subgroup analysis by sex and income groups showed similar results, but effects of ambient temperature on hypotension hospital visits was higher in the younger age group compared to older age group (aged over 65 years old). The results were unchanged when we applied cumulative lags, different case definitions, degrees of freedom per year, and multi-pollutant model adjusting for air pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital visits for hypotension were positively associated with ambient temperature. Increased hypotension events in response to increased ambient temperature might explain the high cardiovascular mortality on hot days.

4.
J Occup Environ Med ; 61(10): e406-e412, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348427

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate how work-life balance (WLB) corresponds to cognitive functions and which mental health conditions play a mediating role in this association among Korean bus drivers. METHODS: The cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ) was administered to 347 bus drivers in Seoul, Korea. The differences in the CFQ and WLB scores were examined by analysis of covariance, and a structural equation model (SEM) was constructed for investigating the mediating role of mental health indices between WLB and CFQ scores. RESULTS: Compared with the highest subjective work-life balance group, the lowest group had significantly higher CFQ scores. In the SEM, anxiety was a mediating variable between subjective work-life balance and CFQ scores. CONCLUSIONS: Work-life balance is associated with cognitive failures among Korean bus drivers, and anxiety was a key mediating mental health indicator.

5.
Genomics ; 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306748

RESUMO

We investigated whether genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) influences lung adenocarcinoma development among never-smokers using TB genome-wide association study (GWAS) results within the Female Lung Cancer Consortium in Asia. Pathway analysis with the adaptive rank truncated product method was used to assess the association between a TB-related gene-set and lung adenocarcinoma using GWAS data from 5512 lung adenocarcinoma cases and 6277 controls. The gene-set consisted of 31 genes containing known/suggestive associations with genetic variants from previous TB-GWAS. Subsequently, we followed-up with Mendelian Randomization to evaluate the association between TB and lung adenocarcinoma using three genome-wide significant variants from previous TB-GWAS in East Asians. The TB-related gene-set was associated with lung adenocarcinoma (p = 0.016). Additionally, the Mendelian Randomization showed an association between TB and lung adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.66, p = 0.027). Our findings support TB as a causal risk factor for lung cancer development among never-smoking Asian women.

6.
Epidemiology ; 30 Suppl 1: S3-S8, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory skin disease. Although mercury has been suggested as a risk factor, the underlying mechanism and the relationship between mercury and atopic dermatitis remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between mercury exposure and the presence of atopic dermatitis in early childhood. METHODS: This study is part of the prospective Mothers and Children's Environmental Health cohort study. A total of 1,751 pregnant women were enrolled in Mothers and Children's Environmental Health. After delivery, children were followed up. Blood samples were collected and mothers were asked about the presence of atopic dermatitis in their children via a questionnaire at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 60 months of age. RESULTS: After excluding participants who did not meet the inclusion criteria, a total of 1,061 mother-children pairs were included in the analysis. The geometric mean of mercury concentrations in cord blood was 5.1 µg/L. In adjusted models, cord blood mercury exposure (odds ratio [OR] = 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 1.2 at 12-24 months) and postnatal mercury exposure (OR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.0, 1.5 at 24-36 months, OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.8 at 48-60 months) were associated with the presence of atopic dermatitis in children. CONCLUSIONS: Postnatal mercury exposure at 24 months of age increases the risk of atopic dermatitis in children.

7.
Epidemiology ; 30 Suppl 1: S48-S56, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous pneumothorax is hypothesized to be associated with air pollution exposure based on pathophysiological mechanisms involving airway inflammation. Therefore, we analyzed the association between daily concentrations of air pollutants [sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5), PM less than 10 µm in diameter (PM10), and coarse PM (PM10-2.5)] and the number of spontaneous pneumothorax-related hospital visits. METHODS: We analyzed a subset of data from the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort, a nationally representative dynamic cohort based on health insurance claims data in Korea. Using time series analysis with the Poisson generalized additive model, we evaluated hospital visit data of over 100,000 male cohort members residing in Seoul from 2007 to 2010. RESULTS: We identified 516 hospital visits due to spontaneous pneumothorax. In a single-pollutant model, an interquartile range increase of PM and CO exposure at lag day 1 was associated with spontaneous pneumothorax hospital visits (relative risk, 95% confidence interval: PM2.5: 1.10 (1.01, 1.21); PM10: 1.09 (1.01, 1.18); PM10-2.5: 1.06 (1.00, 1.12); CO: 1.11 (1.01, 1.23)). For lag day 2, NO2 and PM exposure was associated with pneumothorax hospital visits (NO2: 1.15 (1.01, 1.32); PM10: 1.10 (1.02, 1.18); PM10-2.5: 1.07 (1.02, 1.13)). In a multipollutant model, the association was consistent for PM. CONCLUSION: The number of hospital visits due to spontaneous pneumothorax increased with air pollution exposure, especially with PM. Our finding suggests that air pollution is a possible predisposing factor for spontaneous pneumothorax.

8.
J Occup Health ; 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237053

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that long working hours are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although studies on health inequality caused by income inequality have been performed, income levels of workers have been considered only as an adjusting factor in the relationship between long working hours and CVD. In the present study, we investigated the modifying effects of household income level in the relationship between working hours and estimated risk of CVD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed a total of 11,602 Koreans who were randomly enrolled in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2016) with complete data. Nonparametric associations between weekly working hours and estimated risk of CVD were explored according to quartiles of equalised household income by gender, and the size of linear associations among weekly working hours and estimated CVD risk after stratifying for equalised household income by gender was considered. RESULTS: A 4.1% increased risk of CVD was associated with 10 hours or longer per day weekly working hours among males with the highest household income after adjusting for age, equalised household income, occupation, and shift work, but such was not associated among lower income groups. Negative associations between equalised household income and estimated CVD risk were observed only among low household income males. CONCLUSION: Long working hours and household income level can have differential effects on the risk of CVD by socioeconomic status. This study shows that positive income effect may dominate the potential negative effect of long working hours with respect to the risk of CVD in the low-income group.

9.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0216284, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034511

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This meta-analysis aimed to extensively investigate the association between various measures of vitamin D status and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and its subtypes. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, and the Cochrane Library in February 2018. Two authors independently reviewed and selected articles based on predetermined criteria. RESULTS: A total of 30 studies with 56,458 NHL cases were finally selected, with 24, 9, and 3 studies on sunlight/ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure, dietary intake, and serum/plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, respectively. Significant protective effects of overall sunlight/UVR exposure on NHL and subtypes were observed, with summary relative risks (RRs) ranging from 0.67-0.80 (RR for NHL = 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71-0.90) among subjects with high exposure compared to those with low exposure. The results were consistent with various classifications of sunlight/UVR exposure. In contrast, when exposure measures of dietary vitamin D intake (RR for NHL = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.90-1.19) and serum/plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (RR for NHL = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.82-1.15) were used, risk estimates were inconsistent or non-significant for NHL and the subtypes. CONCLUSION: While risk estimates varied by different measures of vitamin D status, a protective effect of sunlight/UVR exposure on NHL incidence was verified, across most of the tested subtypes as well as exposure categories.

10.
Environ Res ; 172: 358-366, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825686

RESUMO

The Korean CHildren's ENvironmental health Study (Ko-CHENS) is a nationwide prospective birth cohort showing the correlation between the environmental exposures and the health effects to prevent the environmental diseases in children, and it provides the guidelines for the environmental hazardous factors, applying the life-course approach to the environmental-health management system. The Ko-CHENS consists of 5000 Core and 65,000 Main Cohorts. The children in the Core Cohort are followed up at 6 months, every year before their admission into the elementary school, and every 3 years from the first year after this admission. The children in the Cohort will be followed up through the data links (Statistics Korea, National Health Insurance Service [NHIS], and Ministry of Education). The individual biospecimens will be analyzed for 19 substances. The long-term-storage biological samples will be used for the further substance analysis. The Ko-CHENS will investigate whether the environmental variables including the perinatal outdoor and indoor factors and the greenness contribute causally to the health outcomes in the children and adolescents. In addition to the individual surveys, the assessments of the outdoor exposures and health outcomes will use the national air-quality monitoring data and claim data of the NHIS, respectively. The two big-data forms of the Ko-CHENS are as follows: The Ko-CHENS data that can be linked with the nationally registered NHIS health-related database, including the medical utilization and the periodic health screening, and the birth/mortality database in the Statistics; the other is the Big-CHENS dataset that is based on the NHIS mother delivery code, for which the follow-up of almost 97% of the total birth population is expected. The Ko-CHENS is a very cost-effective study that fully exploits the existing national big-data systems with the data linkage.

11.
Environ Res ; 172: 446-453, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pyrethroid pesticides are reported to be the most commonly used residential insecticides worldwide. We aimed to investigate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) concentrations, and growth and adiposity parameters in 4-year-old children. METHOD: We obtained data from 578 children who participated in the prospective Environment and Development of Children (EDC) study at around 4 years of age (45-55 months) between August 2008 and July 2011. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at age 4 years. Prenatal and postnatal urinary 3-PBA concentration was measured in maternal urine samples at around 20 weeks of gestation, and in the 4-year-old children, respectively. RESULT: The detection frequency of urinary 3-PBA (geometric mean concentration) was 98-99% (0.98 µg/g Cr) in maternal urine, and almost 99-100% (1.34 µg/g Cr) in 4-year-old children. Prenatal urinary3-PBA concentration was not associated with height, weight, or body mass index (BMI) z-scores at 4 years of age, regardless of sex. Postnatal urinary3-PBA concentration was not related to height z-scores, but was positively associated with weight z-scores with marginal significance among only girls (p = 0.058). Analyzed by sex, there was a significant relationship between postnatal urinary 3-PBA concentration and BMI z-scores (p = 0.015) among girls, after adjusting for covariates. CONCLUSION: Childhood urinary 3-PBA concentration measured at 4 years of age was positively associated with BMI z-scores in 4-year-old girls, but prenatal urinary 3-PBA concentration at midterm pregnancy exhibited no association.

12.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 22, 2019 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) during pregnancy and a child's neurodevelopment has not been established yet. We explored the association between prenatal exposure to SHS and neurodevelopment at 24 months of age considering genetic polymorphism and breastfeeding in 720 mothers and their offspring enrolled in the Korean multicenter birth cohort study (Mothers and Children Environmental Health, MOCEH). METHODS: We quantified urine cotinine concentrations in mothers once from 12th to 20th gestational weeks and excluded those whose urine cotinine levels exceeded 42.7 ng/ml to represent SHS exposure in early pregnancy. Mental developmental index (MDI) and psychomotor developmental index (PDI) values were measured using the Korean version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (K-BSID-II) at 24 months of age. A general linear model was used to assess the relationship between maternal urinary cotinine level and neurodevelopment. RESULTS: MDI scores were inversely associated with cotinine [ß = - 2.73; 95% confidence interval (CI): - 5.32 to - 0.15] in children whose mothers had early pregnancy urinary cotinine levels >1.90 ng/ml. No association was evident in children whose mothers had cotinine levels ≤1.90 ng/ml. This negative association was more pronounced in children whose mothers had both Glutathione S-transferases mu 1 (GSTM1) and theta 1 (GSTT1) null type [ß = - 5.78; 95% CI: -10.69 to - 0.87], but not in children whose mothers had any present type of GSTM1/GSTT1 [ß = - 1.64; 95% CI: -4.79 to 1.52]. The association was no longer significant when children received breast milk exclusively for up to 6 months [ß = - 0.24; 95% CI: -4.69 to 4.20] compared to others [ß = - 3.75; 95% CI: -7.51 to 0.00]. No significant association was found for PDI. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal exposure to SHS during pregnancy may result in delayed MDI in early childhood. This effect might be modified by genetic polymorphism and breastfeeding behavior.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Exposição Materna , Sistema Nervoso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Cotinina/urina , Saúde Ambiental , Feminino , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez/urina , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
13.
Nutrition ; 62: 186-193, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Koreans experienced unexpected shortages of food and refugee life during the Korean War (1950-1953). In the present study, we used the Korean War as a natural experiment for early life malnutrition with the aim of evaluating the risk for metabolic syndrome in adulthood according to participant exposure status during the Korean War. METHODS: We used data from 25 708 participants from the fourth through seventh Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative database of Korea. By years of birth, we divided the study participants into non-exposed (1959-1963 and 1954-1958), fetal-exposed (1951-1953), early childhood-exposed (1946-1950), late-childhood-exposed (1941-1945), and adolescent-exposed (1936-1940) groups according to participants' ages during the Korean War. We calculated the risk for metabolic syndrome in adult life using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Compared with the non-exposed group, women exposed to the Korean War while in utero and during early childhood were associated with increased risk for abdominal obesity and elevated triacylglycerol levels, whereas men showed low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Fetal and early childhood exposure increased the risk for metabolic syndrome in adults compared with the non-exposed group (fetal-exposed men: odds ratio [OR], 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-1.76; fetal-exposed women: OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.01-1.80; early-childhood-exposed men OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.82-1.90; and early-childhood-exposed women OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 0.97-2.06). CONCLUSIONS: Fetal and early childhood experiences during the Korean War were associated with increased risk for some components of metabolic syndrome. The present study suggested that early life malnutrition due to the Korean War may be associated with metabolic syndrome in later life.

14.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 52(1): 1-13, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742756

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In recent years, serious concerns have been raised regarding the impacts of rising temperatures on health. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between elevated temperatures and kidney disease through a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: In October 2017, 2 researchers independently searched related studies in PubMed and Embase. A meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model, including only studies that presented odds ratios, relative risks, or percentage changes, along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The characteristics of each study were summarized, and the Egger test and funnel plots were used to evaluate publication bias. RESULTS: Eleven studies that met the criteria were included in the final analysis. The pooled results suggest an increase of 30% (95% CI, 20 to 40) in kidney disease morbidity with high temperatures. In a disease-specific subgroup analysis, statistically significant results were observed for both renal colic or kidney stones and other renal diseases. In a study design-specific subgroup analysis, statistically significant results were observed in both time-series analyses and studies with other designs. In a temperature measure-specific subgroup analysis, significant results were likewise found for both studies using mean temperature measurements and studies measuring heat waves or heat stress. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that morbidity due to kidney disease increases at high temperatures. We also found significant results in subgroup analyses. However, further time-series analyses are needed to obtain more generalizable evidence.


Assuntos
Nefropatias/patologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Risco , Temperatura Ambiente
15.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0209254, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608926

RESUMO

The increasing use of personal listening devices (PLDs) has been accompanied by a rise in the prevalence of hearing loss (HL) in younger age groups. However, there have been few reports on the relationship between HL and leisure noise exposure (LNE) in adolescents. The purpose of our study was to investigate the prevalence of HL in students attending general middle and high schools and to identify factors affecting HL prevalence. A total of 2,879 nationally representative adolescents in the first years of middle and high school underwent audiometric testing and otological examinations, and completed questionnaires, from June to December 2016. A speech-frequency hearing loss (SFHL) was considered present when the pure tone averages (PTAs) at 0.5, 1, and 2 kHz were ≥ 15 dB and a high-frequency hearing loss (HFHL) was considered present when the PTAs at 3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz were ≥ 15 dB. About 17% of Korean adolescents exhibited at least slight HL. The prevalence rates of SFHL and HFHL in the poorer ear were 11.6% and 10.3%, respectively, among Korean adolescents. The use of local area network (LAN) gaming centers and an experience of being asked by others to lower earphone volume were associated with both SFHL and HFHL. It is important to avoid excessive LNE to prevent adolescent HL. Additionally, SFHL or HFHL in the poorer ear was associated with lower academic performance.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Limiar Auditivo , Computadores de Mão , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Perda Auditiva de Alta Frequência/epidemiologia , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Música , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Smartphone , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Environ Pollut ; 246: 811-818, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623837

RESUMO

Pyrethroids are a class of man-made insecticides associated with various adverse health outcomes including respiratory problems. However, there were limited evidences on the relation between 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) as a metabolite of pyrethroids and pulmonary function, particularly among elderly population who have declining pulmonary function. Therefore, we collected urine samples and performed pulmonary function test (PFT) repeatedly in a total of 559 Korean elderly living in Seoul as an urban area. After measurement of urinary 3-PBA levels, cross-sectional relations of visit-to-visit variation in 3-PBA level on visit-to-visit variation in PFT parameters were evaluated using linear mixed effect models and generalized additive mixed models after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, education, visit episode, and phthalate metabolite levels. The Korean elderly were highly exposed to pyrethroids with 30.2% of elderly people with 3-PBA level over reference value derived on the 95th percentile of representative samples (2 ng/mL). Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF25-75) as PFT parameters showed significant reductions by an increase of 3-PBA level (FEV1, ß = -1.48, p-value < 0.01; FVC, ß = -1.14, p-value < 0.01; and FEF25-75, ß = -1.11, p-value = 0.03). The negative associations of 3-PBA level with FEV1, FVC, and FEF25-75 were found only for females (FEV1, ß = -1.64, p-value < 0.01; FVC, ß = -1.47, p-value < 0.01; and FEF25-75, ß = -1.06, p-value = 0.07), but not for males. However, the longitudinal effect of 3-PBA level on the trajectory of FEV1, FVC, and FEF25-75 declines in females was not found. Community-level exposure to pyrethroids was associated with pulmonary function reduction in elderly population, indicating that more stringent control of pyrethroids is necessary to protect the elderly who have declining pulmonary function.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/efeitos adversos , Benzoatos/urina , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Idoso Fragilizado , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , População Urbana , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Seul , Capacidade Vital
17.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 58: 25-32, 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is inadequate evidence to determine whether there is an effect of alcohol consumption on lung cancer risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of data from the International Lung Cancer Consortium and the SYNERGY study to investigate this possible association by type of beverage with adjustment for other potential confounders. METHODS: Twenty one case-control studies and one cohort study with alcohol-intake data obtained from questionnaires were included in this pooled analysis (19,149 cases and 362,340 controls). Adjusted odds ratios (OR) or hazard ratios (HR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for each measure of alcohol consumption. Effect estimates were combined using random or fixed-effects models where appropriate. Associations were examined for overall lung cancer and by histological type. RESULTS: We observed an inverse association between overall risk of lung cancer and consumption of alcoholic beverages compared to non-drinkers, but the association was not monotonic. The lowest risk was observed for persons who consumed 10-19.9 g/day ethanol (OR vs. non-drinkers = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.91), where 1 drink is approximately 12-15 g. This J-shaped association was most prominent for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The association with all lung cancer varied little by type of alcoholic beverage, but there were notable differences for SCC. We observed an association with beer intake (OR for ≥20 g/day vs nondrinker = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.90). CONCLUSIONS: Whether the non-monotonic associations we observed or the positive association between beer drinking and squamous cell carcinoma reflect real effects await future analyses and insights about possible biological mechanisms.

18.
Psychiatry Investig ; 15(11): 1071-1078, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We developed easily accessible imagery-based treatment program for patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to workplace accidents and investigated the effects of the program on various PTSD related symptoms. METHODS: The program was based on an online platform and consisted of eight 15-min sessions that included script-guided imagery and supportive music. Thirty-five patients with workplace-related PTSD participated in this program 4 days per week for 4 weeks. Its effects were examined using self-report questionnaires before and after the take-home online treatment sessions. RESULTS: After completing the 4-week treatment program, patients showed significant improvements in depressed mood (t=3.642, p=0.001) based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), anxiety (t=3.198, p=0.003) based on the Generalized Anxiety Disorder seven-item (GAD-7) scale, and PTSD symptoms (t=5.363, p<0.001) based on the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Check List (PCL). In particular, patients with adverse childhood experiences exhibited a greater degree of relief related to anxiety and PTSD symptoms than those without adverse childhood experiences. CONCLUSION: The present. RESULTS: demonstrated that the relatively short online imagery-based treatment program developed for this study had beneficial effects for patients with workplace-related PTSD.

19.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 32(6): 568-583, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer is a rare but leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Established risk factors, accounting for <10% of incidence, have been identified primarily from case-control studies. However, recall, selection and other potential biases impact interpretations particularly, for modest associations. A consortium of pregnancy and birth cohorts (I4C) was established to utilise prospective, pre-diagnostic exposure assessments and biological samples. METHODS: Eligibility criteria, follow-up methods and identification of paediatric cancer cases are described for cohorts currently participating or planning future participation. Also described are exposure assessments, harmonisation methods, biological samples potentially available for I4C research, the role of the I4C data and biospecimen coordinating centres and statistical approaches used in the pooled analyses. RESULTS: Currently, six cohorts recruited over six decades (1950s-2000s) contribute data on 388 120 mother-child pairs. Nine new cohorts from seven countries are anticipated to contribute data on 627 500 additional projected mother-child pairs within 5 years. Harmonised data currently includes over 20 "core" variables, with notable variability in mother/child characteristics within and across cohorts, reflecting in part, secular changes in pregnancy and birth characteristics over the decades. CONCLUSIONS: The I4C is the first cohort consortium to have published findings on paediatric cancer using harmonised variables across six pregnancy/birth cohorts. Projected increases in sample size, expanding sources of exposure data (eg, linkages to environmental and administrative databases), incorporation of biological measures to clarify exposures and underlying molecular mechanisms and forthcoming joint efforts to complement case-control studies offer the potential for breakthroughs in paediatric cancer aetiologic research.

20.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 1): 600-609, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30308471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The air quality management policy was introduced in Seoul and Incheon metropolitan cities in the Republic of Korea, from 2005 to 2014. Despite particulate matter concentrations decreasing after policy implementation, the consequent health benefits have not been evaluated. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of the air quality management policy on cause-specific mortality rates in Seoul and Incheon. METHODS: Using interrupted time series analysis with a generalized Poisson regression model, we compared daily average mortality rates before (baseline, 2004-2005) and after (2006-2007, 2008-2009, 2010-2011, 2012-2013) the policy implementation. To account for the long term mortality trends, we weighted daily mortality rate of Seoul and Incheon with daily mortality rate of Daejeon (another metropolitan city with no air quality management policy implemented during the same period). RESULTS: Decline in the particulate matter concentration was greater in Seoul and Incheon than in Daejeon. After adjusting for potential confounders, there were 8% decrease in cardiovascular disease mortality rates and 10% decrease in cerebrovascular disease mortality rates in Seoul in 2012-2013 compared to the baseline period. In Incheon, an 8% reduction in cerebrovascular disease mortality rates in 2012-2013 was calculated. There was no change in mortality rates due to external causes or respiratory disease after policy implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the air quality management policy was effective in reducing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality rates in Seoul and cerebrovascular mortality rates in Incheon.

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