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1.
Chemosphere ; 272: 129619, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465612

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Although an association of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with asthma incidence has been assumed, there is insufficient evidence regarding the effect of long-term exposure to PM2.5 on incident asthma among elderly adults. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate an association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and incident asthma among elderly adults in South Korea. METHODS: Adults ≥65 years of age (n = 1,220,645) who did not visit hospitals for asthma during a washout period (between 2008 and 2010) were followed up until 2016 using data from the National Health Insurance System in South Korea. Incident asthma was defined as the number of patients with a primary diagnostic code of asthma who visited hospitals more than twice. We linked the health data with district-level PM2.5 concentrations and estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident asthma after adjusting for potential confounders in time-varying Cox proportional hazard models. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Over 5,942,256 person-years, 54,522 patients developed asthma, with an incidence of 9.2 cases/1000 person-years. A 10 µg/m3 increase in the 36-month mean PM2.5 concentration was significantly associated with a 9% increase in incident asthma (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.14). This association was found to be robust for different definitions of incident asthma and washout periods. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with the incidence of asthma in elderly adults. This finding provides evidence of an association between PM2.5 and adult-onset asthma.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379204

RESUMO

Although several studies have evaluated the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in children, their results were inconsistent Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the association between short-term exposure to PM2.5 and ALRI hospitalizations in children (0-5 years) living in seven metropolitan cities of Korea. The ALRI hospitalization data of children living in seven metropolitan cities of Korea from 2008 to 2016 was acquired from a customized database constructed based on National Health Insurance data. The time-series data in a generalized additive model were used to evaluate the relationship between ALRI hospitalization and 7-day moving average PM2.5 exposure after adjusting for apparent temperature, day of the week, and time trends. We performed a meta-analysis using a two-stage design method. The estimates for each city were pooled to generate an average estimate of the associations. The average PM2.5 concentration in 7 metropolitan cities was 29.0 µg/m3 and a total of 713,588 ALRI hospitalizations were observed during the 9-year study period. A strong linear association was observed between PM2.5 and ALRI hospitalization. A 10 µg/m3 increase in the 7-day moving average of PM2.5 was associated with a 1.20% (95% CI: 0.71, 1.71) increase in ALRI hospitalization. While we found similar estimates in a stratified analysis by sex, we observed stronger estimates of the association in the warm season (1.71%, 95% CI: 0.94, 2.48) compared to the cold season (0.31%, 95% CI: -0.51, 1.13). In the two-pollutant models, the PM2.5 effect adjusted by SO2 was attenuated more than in the single pollutant model. Our results suggest a positive association between PM2.5 exposure and ALRI hospitalizations in Korean children, particularly in the warm season. The children need to refrain from going out on days when PM2.5 is high.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147845

RESUMO

We investigated whether cellular phone use was associated with increased risk of tumors using a meta-analysis of case-control studies. PubMed and EMBASE were searched from inception to July 2018. The primary outcome was the risk of tumors by cellular phone use, which was measured by pooling each odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI). In a meta-analysis of 46 case-control studies, compared with never or rarely having used a cellular phone, regular use was not associated with tumor risk in the random-effects meta-analysis. However, in the subgroup meta-analysis by research group, there was a statistically significant positive association (harmful effect) in the Hardell et al. studies (OR, 1.15-95% CI, 1.00 to 1.33- n = 10), a statistically significant negative association (beneficial effect) in the INTERPHONE-related studies (case-control studies from 13 countries coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC); (OR, 0.81-95% CI, 0.75 to 0.89-n = 9), and no statistically significant association in other research groups' studies. Further, cellular phone use with cumulative call time more than 1000 h statistically significantly increased the risk of tumors. This comprehensive meta-analysis of case-control studies found evidence that linked cellular phone use to increased tumor risk.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143561, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residential greenness has been reported to be positively associated with health benefits for children, including improved cognitive function. We investigated the association between the intelligence quotient (IQ) of 6-year-old children in Seoul, South Korea and surrounding greenness currently and during the mothers' pregnancy. We also analyzed whether these effects differed by the type of greenness, such as natural or built greenness. METHODS: This study considered 189 mother-child dyads from the Environment and Development of Children Cohort study, who lived in Seoul during the prenatal period and when the child was 6 years old. We defined surrounding greenness using Landsat image data from Korean Arirang satellite images with buffers within 100 m - 2000 m of the radius of each participant's residential address. We separately analyzed two types of greenness, namely natural and built greenness. The children's IQ (total, verbal, and performance IQ) was measured using the Korean Educational Developmental Institute's Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. RESULTS: Prenatal exposure to built greenness in 500 m and 1000 m buffers was associated with children's total IQ in a full model [difference in IQ (95% CI): 3.46(0.68, 6.24) and 3.42 (0.53, 6.31) per interquartile increase in proportion of greenness]. However, postnatal exposure to built greenness in all buffers was associated in children's total IQ. We found a stronger association between children's total IQ and built greenness rather than natural greenness. CONCLUSIONS: We found that 6-year-old children tended to score higher on total IQ if they lived in greener neighborhoods. The results provide further evidence of the health benefits of greenness and provide support for urban planning and public health to build healthy urban cities for children and pregnant women.

5.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to particulate matter <2.5 µm in size (PM2.5) is considered a risk factor for premature death. However, only a few studies have been conducted in areas with moderate PM2.5 concentrations. Moreover, an ageing society may be more susceptible to environmental exposure and future burden of mortality due to PM2.5. METHODS: This study estimates hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality from long-term exposure to moderate PM2.5 concentrations in the elderly populations of seven cities in South Korea. We also projected nationwide elderly mortality caused by long-term exposure to PM2.5, accounting for population ageing until 2045. Mortality in 1 720 230 elderly adults aged ≥65 years in 2008 was monitored across 2009-16 and linked to modelled PM2.5 concentrations. RESULTS: A total of 421 100 deaths occurred in 2009-16, and the mean of annual PM2.5 concentration ranged between 21.1 and 31.9 µg/m3 in most regions. The overall HR for a 10 µg/m3 increase in a 36-month PM2.5 moving average was 1.024 (95% confidence intervals: 1.009, 1.039). We estimated that 11 833 all-cause nationwide elderly deaths were attributable to PM2.5 exposure. Annual death tolls may increase to 17 948 by 2045. However, if PM2.5 is reduced to 5 µg/m3 by 2045, the tolls may show a lower increase to 3646. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to moderately high levels of PM2.5 was associated with increased mortality risk among the elderly. Thus, PM2.5 reduction in response to the projected ageing-associated mortality in South Korea is critical.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pyrethroids are associated with adverse health consequences, even at low-dose exposures. However, there is limited evidence on pyrethroids exposure levels among vulnerable elder population and on their exposure sources. OBJECTIVE: We tried to determine pyrethroids exposure levels among Korean elders and their exposure sources. METHODS: We measured levels of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), a pyrethroids metabolite, in urines repeatedly collected from 1239 Korean rural and urban elders; we also explored exposure sources for pyrethroids using questionnaire data. RESULTS: Our participants had high levels of 3-PBA with 446 (36.0%) of elders with 3-PBA level over 2 ng/mL of 95th percentile of the German representative populations. After adjustment for sex, age, smoking status, visit episode, and surveyed season using linear mixed effect models, household insecticide spray use was significantly associated with 3-PBA level (ß = 0.03 and p = 0.02) and the association was apparent only for females (ß = 0.03 and p = 0.03). In the analyses for nonlinear relationships using generalized additive mixed models, there was a J-shape change in 3-PBA level by insecticide spray use (p < 0.01 both in total population and in females). SIGNIFICANCE: Household insecticide spray was a predominant exposure source for pyrethroids at community level among Korean elders, warning more stringent control for frequently exposed environmental factors for pyrethroids including insecticide spray.

7.
Environ Res ; 191: 109909, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous studies have suggested that mercury exposure and folate levels during pregnancy may influence early childhood neurodevelopment. Rapid catch-up growth in children is associated with an increased risk of pathological nervous system development. We evaluated whether the association between prenatal folate and mercury-related neuropsychological dysfunction was modified by growth velocity during childhood. METHODS: The Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) birth cohort study began in 2006 and by 2010, 1751 women had been enrolled before the second trimester of their pregnancy along with their partners. Participants visited the research center at birth and 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. We measured mercury levels in maternal and cord blood and folate in maternal serum. Questionnaires to evaluate the environment and health of their child were administered and anthropometric factors including body weight and height were measured. Certified investigators used the Bayley test to measure neurobehavioral outcomes. We calculated postnatal growth change as the change in infant weight for-age z-score between birth and 3 years. Multiple linear regression and mixed models were used to examine the association between mercury exposure and children's neurodevelopment as well as the modifying effects of folate and growth velocity. RESULTS: A total of 30.6% of children experienced rapid growth during the first 3 years of life. Median values of mercury in the low folate group were significantly higher in rapid growers (3.41 µg/L in maternal blood and 5.63 µg/L in cord blood) than in average/slow growers (3.05 µg/L in maternal blood and 5.19 µg/L in cord blood). Rapid growers were also significantly associated with decreased psychomotor development scores during the first 3 years of life and with having mothers who had low prenatal folate levels, even after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSION: Prenatal mercury exposure adversely affects infant neurodevelopment and is associated with rapid growth during the first 3 years of life. This effect was limited to children whose mothers had low prenatal folate levels, suggesting a protective effect of folate against developmental neurotoxicity due to mercury exposure and rapid catch-up growth.

8.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924180

RESUMO

Clinical trial results have recently demonstrated that inhibiting inflammation by targeting the interleukin-1ß pathway can offer a significant reduction in lung cancer incidence and mortality, highlighting a pressing and unmet need to understand the benefits of inflammation-focused lung cancer therapies at the genetic level. While numerous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have explored the genetic etiology of lung cancer, there remains a large gap between the type of information that may be gleaned from an association study and the depth of understanding necessary to explain and drive translational findings. Thus, in this study we jointly model and integrate extensive multiomics data sources, utilizing a total of 40 genome-wide functional annotations that augment previously published results from the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) GWAS, to prioritize and characterize single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that increase risk of squamous cell lung cancer through the inflammatory and immune responses. Our work bridges the gap between correlative analysis and translational follow-up research, refining GWAS association measures in an interpretable and systematic manner. In particular, reanalysis of the ILCCO data highlights the impact of highly associated SNPs from nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway genes as well as major histocompatibility complex mediated variation in immune responses. One consequence of prioritizing likely functional SNPs is the pruning of variants that might be selected for follow-up work by over an order of magnitude, from potentially tens of thousands to hundreds. The strategies we introduce provide informative and interpretable approaches for incorporating extensive genome-wide annotation data in analysis of genetic association studies.

9.
Nutr Neurosci ; : 1-9, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurobehavioral disorder in children. There are limited studies for diet or dietary supplement effects on ADHD in preschool children in Asia. This study aimed to determine the association between dietary patterns in 4-year-old children and ADHD symptoms in 6-year-old children. METHODS: We estimated dietary intake in 4-year-old children using a food frequency questionnaire. Using 33 food groups, major dietary patterns were identified in relation to the consumption of sweets, vegetables, meats, and carbohydrates. Parents of 6-year-old children used the Korean version of the ADHD Rating Scale for ADHD symptom assessment. RESULTS: A sweet dietary pattern was associated with a higher risk of attention deficit (AD) (relative risk [RR], 1.34; confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.55), hyperactivity (RR, 1.40; CI, 1.19-1.64), and ADHD symptoms (RR, 1.37; CI, 1.23-1.52). A vegetable dietary pattern was associated with a lower risk of ADHD symptoms (RR, 0.81; CI, 0.72-0.90). Food item analysis of the sweet dietary pattern showed that intake scores for chocolate, chips, and fruit jams positively correlated with AD, hyperactivity, and ADHD symptoms. DISCUSSION: These findings can be useful to further understand the roles of dietary factors in ADHD.

10.
Psychiatry Investig ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to 1) explore the relationships among work-life balance (WLB), burnout, and empathy and 2) investigate the roles of the subtypes of burnout relating to WLB and empathy. METHODS: A total of 105 health care professionals from a general hospital in Seoul were assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy, and a one-sentence-question on subjective WLB. Multiple questions on psychiatric problems, including sleep problems, anxiety, depressive symptom, and alcohol problems, were also included. RESULTS: In the mediation analyses, personal achievement was considered as a potential mediating variable between WLB and empathy. The direct effect (ß=3.93, 95% CI: 1.21-6.64) and the indirect effect (ß=1.95, 95% CI: 0.52-3.76) of WLB on empathy were also significant. CONCLUSION: Interventions encouraging personal achievement may help mitigate burnout of health professionals.

11.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(10)2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750115

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The levels of adrenal androgens are increased through the action of steroidogenic enzymes with morphological changes in the adrenal zona reticularis. OBJECTIVE: We investigated longitudinal changes in androgen levels and steroidogenic enzyme activities during early childhood. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: From a prospective children's cohort, the Environment and Development of Children cohort, 114 boys and 86 girls with available blood samples from ages 2, 4, and 6 years were included. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Serum concentrations of adrenal androgens using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and steroidogenic enzyme activity calculated by the precursor/product ratio. RESULTS: During ages 2 to 4 years, 17,20-lyase and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfotransferase activities increased (P < 0.01 for both in boys). During ages 4 to 6 years, 17,20-lyase activity persistently increased, but 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17ß-HSD activities decreased (P < 0.01 for all). Serum DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S) levels persistently increased from 2, 4, to 6 years, and DHEA, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione levels increased during ages 4 to 6 years (P < 0.01 for all). Serum DHEA-S levels during early childhood were associated with body mass index z-scores (P = 0.001 in only boys). CONCLUSION: This study supports in vivo human evidence of increased 17,20-lyase and DHEA sulfotransferase activities and decreased 3ß-HSD activity during early childhood.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236723, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735626

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tinnitus among adolescents, and the factors known or hypothesized to be associated with tinnitus. Based on random sampling of school types and regions, a nationwide hearing survey of the first-year middle and high school students of South Korea was performed. The subjects underwent an otologic examination followed by pure tone audiometry up to 8 kHz. Questionnaires about the factors associated with hearing and tinnitus were completed by the students and their parents. Among the 1,593 subjects who completed the questionnaire and underwent pure tone audiometry, the prevalence of tinnitus was 46.0% and that of severe tinnitus was 9.1%. Tinnitus was associated with age, female gender, history of ear infection and sinusitis, leisure noise exposure due to karaoke and local-area-network gaming, alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking. Noticeable hearing loss was not detected but participants with tinnitus complained of difficulty with sound localization, hearing in noise, and verbal working memory and were more susceptible to fatigue. The subjects with tinnitus also suffered more physical and mental health problems than did those without tinnitus. Thus, protection of the ears from noise and appropriate counseling should be considered for adolescents with tinnitus.


Assuntos
Zumbido , Adolescente , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Limiar Auditivo , Comorbidade , Feminino , Audição , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Música , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Localização de Som , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zumbido/diagnóstico , Zumbido/epidemiologia , Zumbido/etiologia
13.
Environ Res ; 191: 110060, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested links between exposure to ambient air pollutants and increased risk of congenital heart defects. However, few studies have investigated the association between other congenital diseases and traffic-related air pollution. In this study, we assessed the relationship between prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with congenital diseases in South Korea. METHODS: Patients with one or more congenital diseases and a control group of patients with non-infective gastroenteritis and colitis with a case:control ratio of 1:3 were obtained from the National Health Insurance Service data for 2008-2013 in South Korea. We estimated the associations of PM2.5 and NO2 exposures with congenital diseases using generalized estimation equations after controlling for covariates. RESULTS: Maternal PM2.5 exposure during the first and second trimester showed positive associations with overall congenital diseases, with changes of 14.7% (95% confidence intervals (CI), 9.3%, 20.3%) and 16.2% (95% CI, 11.0%, 21.7%), respectively, per 11.1 µg/m3 and 10.2 µg/m3 increase of PM2.5 interquartile range (IQR). Similarly, NO2 exposure during the first and second trimester was associated with increased numbers of overall congenital anomalies, with 8.2% (95% CI, 4.2%, 12.3%) and 15.6% (95% CI, 9.3%, 22.2%) more cases, respectively, per 10.6 ppb increase of NO2. We found that maternal PM2.5 exposure during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy was significantly associated with increased risk of specific congenital diseases, including subtypes affecting the circulatory, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal system. However, no significant associations were observed during the third trimester. Maternal NO2 exposure across the entire pregnancy was associated with malformations of the musculoskeletal system. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified significant links between in utero exposure to PM2.5 and NO2 and certain congenital diseases, and suggests that stricter controls on PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations are required.

14.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115369, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810816

RESUMO

Long-term air pollution exposure has been suggested to increase the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the association between short-term air pollution exposure and ADHD-related outcomes is still unknown. We investigated the associations between short-term exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), nitrogen oxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hospital admissions with a principal diagnosis of ADHD among adolescents (age 10-19 years) in 16 regions of the Republic of Korea from 2013 to 2015. We estimated the region-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from quasi-Poisson regressions adjusted for potential confounders, considering single-day and moving average lag. Consequently, we performed meta-analyses to pool the region-specific estimates. The risks of ADHD-related hospital admissions were increased in the single-day and moving average lag models for PM10 (largest association for lag 1 in the single-day lag model, RR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.20; lag 0-2 in the moving average lag model, RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.27), NO2 (lag 3, RR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.73; lag 1-3, RR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.38, 2.04), and SO2 (lag 1, RR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.41; lag 1-3, RR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.49). The associations were similar between boys and girls, but they were stronger among adolescents aged 15-19 years than those aged 10-14 years for NO2 and SO2. In conclusion, the results indicate that short-term exposure to PM10, NO2, and SO2 may be a risk factor for the exacerbation of ADHD symptoms, leading to hospitalization.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , República da Coreia , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Environ Int ; 143: 105895, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies evaluating the role of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) development showed inconsistent results and were limited to Western countries. We aimed to determine the association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and COPD development in metropolitan cities in Korea, which have higher PM2.5 levels than those in Western country studies. METHODS: We constructed a retrospective cohort (elderly aged over 65 years who resided in 7 metropolitan cities in 2008) using Korea health insurance data. A total of 687,940 elderlies who had not visited hospitals due to COPD for 3 years (from 2008 to 2010) were followed-up from 2011 to 2016. The first hospital visit due to COPD during the follow-up period was regarded as COPD development. Daily district-level PM2.5 concentrations were estimated by chemical transport model and 60-month moving average PM2.5 were assigned to each subject in time-varying Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: The mean concentration of modelled PM2.5 in 7 metropolitan cities during the study period (from 2006 to 2016) was 28.0 µg/m3 and 259,700 subjects newly visited the hospital due to COPD. COPD hospital visit hazard ratio for a 10 µg/m3 increase in 60-month moving average PM2.5 concentration was 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.11). Risks remained unchanged following different PM2.5 exposure levels (48-month moving average, and average PM2.5 concentrations for 2008 and 2008-2010) and in subgroup analysis by subject characteristics (sex, age, and income groups). DISCUSSION: By following-up 687,940 elderly subjects who resided in metropolitan cities in Korea for 6 years, long-term PM2.5 exposure showed association with COPD development.

16.
Environ Int ; 143: 105925, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that high pre-diagnostic serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) might result in the development of cancers in the general population. However, the association between pre-diagnostic serum POP concentrations and lung cancer risk has not been studied. Here, we evaluated associations between low-dose environmental exposure to POPs and risk of lung cancer using pre-diagnostic serum samples in a case-cohort study based on a population-based prospective cohort. METHODS: We conducted a case-cohort study based on the Korean National Cancer Center Community Cohort, from which we included 118 lung cancer cases and 252 controls. Serum concentrations of POPs were measured by high resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry, and data were analyzed using multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression models. RESULTS: Risk of lung cancer increased per unit increase in the natural log-transformed concentrations of the sum of chlordane congeners, total PCBs, and all PCBs subgrouped by the number of chlorines or ortho- substituted chlorines on the molecules, except for tri/tetrachlorobiphenyls, in all models. Among individual POP analytes with a detection rate >80%, after Bonferroni adjustment, only trans-nonachlor was associated with lung cancer risk. In categorical models, risk of lung cancer was associated with serum concentration of chlordane (4th vs. 1st quartile, hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 8.79 [2.77-27.97]). Dose-dependent relationships were also found between risk of lung cancer and serum concentrations of PCBs regardless of their degree of chlorination, substitution pattern, or binding affinity to receptors (total PCBs, P = 0.002; mid-chlorinated PCBs, P = 0.004; high-chlorinated PCBs, P < 0.001; non- and mono-ortho PCBs, P = 0.031; di-ortho PCBs, P = 0.003; PCBs with dioxin-like activity, P = 0.011; non-dioxin-like non-/mono-ortho PCBs, P = 0.060). CONCLUSIONS: Serum concentrations of chlordane and PCBs are associated with risk of lung cancer in the general population, even decades after the ban on their production and use.

17.
Environ Int ; 143: 105929, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Epigenetic mechanisms have been suggested to play a role in the link between in utero exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and pediatric obesity; however, there is little evidence regarding this mechanism in humans. We obtained data on obesity-associated CpG sites from a previous epigenome-wide association study, and then examined whether methylation at those CpG sites was influenced by prenatal BPA exposure. We then evaluated the relationship between CpG methylation status and body mass index (BMI) in a prospective children's cohort at ages 2, 4, 6, and 8 years. METHODS: Methylation profiles of 59 children were longitudinally analyzed at ages 2 and 6 years using the Infinium Human Methylation BeadChip. A total of 594 CpG sites known to be BMI or obesity-associated sites were tested for an association with prenatal BPA levels, categorized into low and high exposure groups based on the 80th percentile of maternal BPA levels (2.68 µg/g creatinine), followed by an analysis of the association between DNA methylation and BMI from ages 2-8. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the methylation levels of cg19196862 (IGF2R) in the high BPA group at age 2 years (p = 0.00030, false discovery rate corrected p < 0.10) but not at age 6. With one standard deviation increase of methylation at cg19196862 (IGF2R) at age 2 years, the linear mixed model analysis revealed that BMI during ages 2-8 years significantly increased by 0.49 (95% confidence interval; 0.08, 0.90) in girls, but not in boys. The indirect effect of prenatal BPA exposure on early childhood BMI through methylation at cg19196862 (IGF2R) at age 2 years was marginally significant. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to BPA may influence differential methylation of IGF2R at age 2. This result indicates that a possible sensitive period of DNA methylation occurs earlier during development, which may affect BMI until later childhood in a sex-specific manner.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707971

RESUMO

Both domestic emissions and transported pollutants from neighboring countries affect the ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration of Seoul, Korea. Diverse measures to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), such as social distancing and increased telecommuting in Korea and the stringent lockdown measures of China, may reduce domestic emissions and levels of transported pollutants, respectively. In addition, wearing a particulate-filtering respirator may have decreased the absolute PM2.5 exposure level for individuals. Therefore, this study estimated the acute health benefits of PM2.5 reduction and changes in public behavior during the COVID-19 crisis in Seoul, Korea. To calculate the mortality burden attributable to PM2.5, we obtained residents' registration data, mortality data, and air pollution monitoring data for Seoul from publicly available databases. Relative risks were derived from previous time-series studies. We used the attributable fraction to estimate the number of excessive deaths attributable to acute PM2.5 exposure during January to April, yearly, from 2016 to 2020, and the number of mortalities avoided from PM2.5 reduction and respirator use observed in 2020. The average PM2.5 concentration from January to April in 2020 (25.6 µg/m3) was the lowest in the last 5 years. At least -4.1 µg/m3 (95% CI: -7.2, -0.9) change in ambient PM2.5 in Seoul was observed in 2020 compared to the previous 4 years. Overall, 37.6 (95% CI: 32.6, 42.5) non-accidental; 7.0 (95% CI: 5.7, 8.4) cardiovascular; and 4.7 (95% CI: 3.4, 6.1) respiratory mortalities were avoided due to PM2.5 reduction in 2020. By considering the effects of particulate respirator, decreases of 102.5 (95% CI: 89.0, 115.9) non-accidental; 19.1 (95% CI: 15.6, 22.9) cardiovascular; and 12.9 (95% CI: 9.2, 16.5) respiratory mortalities were estimated. We estimated that 37 lives were saved due to the PM2.5 reduction related to COVID-19 in Seoul, Korea. The health benefit may be greater due to the popular use of particulate-filtering respirators during the COVID-19 crisis. Future studies with daily mortality data are needed to verify our study estimates.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Carvão Mineral , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Poeira , Humanos , Pandemias , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Seul/epidemiologia
19.
Environ Res ; 188: 109739, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504851

RESUMO

Previous animal studies have reported that pyrethroids can cause dopamine system abnormalities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) phenotypes. However, epidemiological studies investigating the associations between pyrethroid exposure and ADHD are limited. We aimed to investigate the association between pyrethroid exposure and ADHD-like symptoms among preschool-age children. We used data from 385 children at 4 years of age participating in the Environment and Development of Children (EDC) study. We evaluated pyrethroid exposure through questionnaires and urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) concentrations. We assessed ADHD-like symptoms using the Korean ADHD rating scale (K-ARS). We conducted negative binomial regressions to evaluate the associations between pyrethroid exposure and ADHD-like symptoms. Residential use of insecticide adhesive (ß = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.74) and insecticide spray (ß = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.59) was associated with an increase in log-transformed creatinine-adjusted urinary 3-PBA concentrations. Residential insecticide adhesive use was associated with a 51.6% increase in K-ARS scores (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.3, 116.1) among boys, when compared with non-users. When compared with creatinine-adjusted 3-PBA levels <0.50 µg/g creatinine, creatinine-adjusted 3-PBA levels ≥3.80 µg/g creatinine were associated with a 58% increase in K-ARS scores (95% CI: 0.1, 150.5) among boys. We found associations of residential pyrethroid insecticide use and urinary 3-PBA concentrations with K-ARS scores among preschool-age boys. Since the present study explored cross-sectional associations in preschool-age children, the possibility of reverse causality cannot be dismissed. Further studies implementing a cohort study design are warranted.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Benzoatos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Masculino , Piretrinas/toxicidade
20.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 229: 113571, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure and acute respiratory infection in children are scarce and present inconsistent results. We estimated the association between short-term PM2.5 exposure and acute respiratory infection among children aged 0-4 years using a difference-in-differences approach. METHODS: We used data on the daily PM2.5 concentrations, hospital admissions for acute respiratory infection, and meteorological factors of the 15 regions in the Republic of Korea (2013-2015). To estimate the cumulative effects, we used a difference-in-differences approach generalized to multiple spatial units (regions) and time periods (day) with distributed lag non-linear models. RESULTS: With PM2.5 levels of 20.0 µg/m3 as a reference, PM2.5 levels of 30.0 µg/m3 were positively associated with the risk of acute upper respiratory infection (relative risk (RR) = 1.048, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.028, 1.069) and bronchitis or bronchiolitis (RR = 1.060, 95% CI: 1.038, 1.082) but not with the risk of acute lower respiratory infection and pneumonia. PM2.5 levels of 40.0 µg/m3 were also positively associated with the risk of acute upper respiratory infection (RR = 1.083, 95% CI: 1.046, 1.122) and bronchitis or bronchiolitis (RR = 1.094, 95% CI: 1.054, 1.136). CONCLUSIONS: We found the associations of short-term PM2.5 exposure with acute upper respiratory infection and bronchitis or bronchiolitis among children aged 0-4 years. As causal inference methods can provide more convincing evidence of the effects of PM2.5 levels on respiratory infections, public health policies and guidelines regarding PM2.5 need to be strengthened accordingly.

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