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2.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 40(4): 251-259, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Berlin Heart EXCOR Pediatric (EXCOR) ventricular assist device (VAD) was introduced in North America nearly 2 decades ago. The EXCOR was approved under Humanitarian Device Exemption status in 2011 and received post-market approval (PMA) in 2017 from Food and Drug Administration. Since the initial approval, the field of pediatric mechanical circulatory support has changed, specifically with regard to available devices, anticoagulation strategies, and the types of patients supported. This report summarizes the outcomes of patients supported with EXCOR from the Advanced Cardiac Therapies Improving Outcomes Network (ACTION) registry. These data were part of the PMA surveillance study (PSS) required by the Food and Drug Administration. METHODS: ACTION is a learning collaborative of over 40 pediatric heart failure programs worldwide, which collects data for all VAD implantations as one of its initiatives. All patients in North America with EXCOR implants reported to ACTION from 2018 to 2020 (n = 72) who had met an outcome were included in the EXCOR PSS group. This was compared with a historical, previously reported Berlin Heart EXCOR study group (Berlin Heart study [BHS] group, n = 320, 2007‒2014). RESULTS: Patients in the PSS group were younger, were smaller in weight/body surface area, were more likely to have congenital heart disease, and were less likely to receive a bi-VAD than those in the BHS group. Patients in the PSS group were less likely to be in Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support Profile 1 and were supported for a longer duration. The primary anticoagulation therapy for 92% of patients in the PSS group was bivalirudin. Success, defined as being transplanted, being weaned for recovery, or being alive on a device at 180 days after implantation, was 86% in the PSS group compared with 76% in the BHS group. Incidence of stroke was reduced by 44% and the frequency of pump exchange by 40% in the PSS group compared with those in the BHS group. Similarly, all other adverse events, including major bleeding, were reduced in the PSS group. CONCLUSIONS: The PSS data, collected through ACTION, highlight the improvement in outcomes for patients supported with EXCOR compared with the outcomes in a historical cohort. These findings may be the result of changes in patient care practices over time and collaborative learning.

4.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The monthly In-House Hands-On Surgical Training (HOST) program was incorporated into the congenital heart surgery(CHS) curriculum for surgical trainees within our institution. This study evaluated whether there was an improvement and retention of technical skills throughout the curriculum via objective assessment methods. METHODS: Twelve 3D-printed surgical heart models were included into the year-long curriculum. The monthly sessions were attended by all trainees and staff surgeons. Proctors demonstrated the operation on a model, which was followed by two attempts by each trainee. Attempts were recorded for objective assessment. On completion of the curriculum trainees repeated four procedures an additional two times following a delay to assess skill retention. RESULTS: Twelve sessions were completed by 7 trainees within the curriculum. Objective assessments were performed in 7 sessions. Eighty-one percent of trainees' scores improved between the two attempts with a mean improvement of 13%(Attempt 1[HOST-CHS:79],Attempt 2[HOST-CHS:89],p=<0.0001). Similarly,91% of procedural times improved by a mean of 25%(Attempt 1,1:22:00[h:mm:ss],Attempt 2,1:01:21[h:mm:ss],p=<0.0001]. During individual procedure analysis, statistical significance remained in 3-of-7 procedures[p=<0.05].Four procedures were assessed for skill retention following a delay(2-14months). Scores decreased by 4% in 47% of trainees during Attempt 3(Attempt 2[HOST-CHS: 94],Attempt 3[HOST-CHS: 91],p=0.34), but improved in 79% during Attempt 4(Attempt 3[HOST-CHS: 91],Attempt 4[HOST-CHS: 99],p=0.004) matching their previous performance. CONCLUSIONS: The monthly HOST course was successfully incorporated into a training curriculum for CHS surgeons using objective assessments to measure technical performance. Trainees demonstrated an improvement across all evaluated procedures and retained their skills when reassessed following a delay highlighting its value in CHS training.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) pressure loading from pulmonary hypertension (PH) and volume loading from pulmonary regurgitation (PR) lead to RV dysfunction, a critical determinant of clinical outcomes, but their impact on regional RV mechanics and fibrosis is poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that regional myocardial mechanics and efficiency in RV pressure and volume loading are associated with RV fibrosis and dysfunction. METHODS: Eight PH, six PR, and five sham-control rats were studied. The PH rat model was induced using Sugen5416, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 inhibitor, combined with chronic hypoxia. PR rats were established by surgical laceration of the pulmonary valve leaflets. Six (n = 4) or 9 (n = 4) weeks after Sugen5416 and hypoxia and 12 weeks after PR surgery, myocardial strain and RV pressure were measured and RV pressure-strain loops generated. We further studied RV regional mechanics in 11 patients with PH. Regional myocardial work was calculated as the pressure-strain loop area (mm Hg ∙ %). Regional myocardial work efficiency was quantified through wasted work (ratio of systolic lengthening to shortening work). The relation of regional myocardial work to RV fibrosis and dysfunction was analyzed. RESULTS: In rats, PH and PR induced similar RV dilatation, but fractional area change (%) was lower in PH than in PR. RV lateral wall work was asymmetrically higher in PH compared with sham, while septal work was similar to sham. In PR, lateral and septal work were symmetrically higher versus sham. Myocardial wasted work ratio was asymmetrically increased in the PH septum versus sham. Fibrosis in the RV lateral wall, but not septum, was higher in PH than PR. RV fibrosis burden was linearly related to regional work and to measures of RV systolic and diastolic function but not to wasted myocardial work ratio. Patients with PH demonstrated similar asymmetric and inefficient regional myocardial mechanics. CONCLUSIONS: Asymmetric RV work and increased wasted septal work in experimental PH are associated with RV fibrosis and dysfunction. Future investigation should examine whether assessment of asymmetric regional RV work and efficiency can predict clinical RV failure and influence patient management.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The hands-on surgical training course utilizes 3-dimensional (3D)-printed heart models to simulate complex congenital heart operations. This study aimed to validate a model and assessment tool in the simulation of 2 techniques of the Norwood operation and investigate whether technical performance improves following rehearsal with or without proctor presence. METHODS: Five 'experienced' and 5 'junior' surgeons performed 2 techniques of the Norwood operation on 3D-printed models of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Performances were retrospectively assessed by 10 raters with varying experience in congenital heart surgery (CHS) (Medical Doctorate versus non-Medical Doctorate). Assessments were made with the procedure-specific Hands-On Surgical Training-CHS tool. Results were analysed for technical performance and rater consistency. Following validation, 30 surgeons (24 with proctor guidance and 6 with training videos and objective feedback only) simulated the Norwood operation twice. RESULTS: Performance scores were consistently higher for experienced surgeons and raters discriminated clearly between the experienced and junior surgeons (P ≤ 0.001). The hands-on surgical training-CHS tool showed high inter-rater (0.86) and intra-rater (0.80) reliability among all raters. Scores for both experienced and junior surgeons were highly consistent across all raters, with no statistically significant difference (P = 0.50). All surgeons successfully performed the Norwood operation. Sixty attempts were scored in total. Eighty-seven percentage (26/30) of surgeons' scores (mean: attempt 1 = 92, attempt 2 = 104) and times [mean: attempt 1 = 1:22:00, attempt 2 = 1:08:00 (h:mm:ss)] improved between the 2 attempts by 9% and 15% respectively (P ≤ 0.001). Total scores of all surgeons in the non-proctored subgroup (6) improved by 15% on average (mean: attempt 1 = 86, attempt 2 = 105, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Procedure-specific assessment tools can be developed to evaluate technical performance for complex CHS simulation and be performed reliably by non-expert raters. Rehearsal both under supervision and independently leads to technical skill improvement further supporting its value in CHS training.

8.
Cardiol Young ; 30(11): 1750-1752, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880253

RESUMO

Symptomatic presentation of ductal arteriosus aneurysm is usually a consequence of associated complications, including thromboembolism, infection, and compression of adjacent structures. In this case report, we present a thrombosed ductal aneurysm that developed antenatally with further postnatal progression of the thrombus and complete occlusion of the left pulmonary artery. Urgent surgical thrombectomy was successful and the post-operative course was uneventful.

9.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 63(6): 843-855, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915674

RESUMO

The potential benefit of heart rate reduction (HRR), independent of ß-blockade, on right ventricular (RV) function in pulmonary hypertension (PH) remains undecided. We studied HRR effects on RV fibrosis and function in PH and RV pressure-loading models. Adult rats were randomized to 1) sham controls, 2) monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PH, 3) SU5416 + hypoxia (SUHX)-induced PH, or 4) pulmonary artery banding (PAB). Ivabradine (IVA) (10 mg/kg/d) was administered from 2 weeks after PH induction or PAB. Exercise tolerance, echocardiography, and pressure-volume hemodynamics were obtained at a terminal experiment 3 weeks later. RV myocardial samples were analyzed for putative mechanisms of HRR effects through fibrosis, profibrotic molecular signaling, and Ca++ handling. The effects of IVA versus carvedilol on human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes beat rate and relaxation properties were evaluated in vitro. Despite unabated severely elevated RV systolic pressures, IVA improved RV systolic and diastolic function, profibrotic signaling, and RV fibrosis in PH/PAB rats. RV systolic-elastance (control, 121 ± 116; MCT, 49 ± 36 vs. MCT+IVA, 120 ± 54; PAB, 70 ± 20 vs. PAB+IVA, 168 ± 76; SUHX, 86 ± 56 vs. SUHX +IVA, 218 ± 111; all P < 0.05), the time constant of RV relaxation, echo indices of RV function, and fibrosis (fibrosis: control, 4.6 ± 1%; MCT, 13.4 ± 6.5 vs. MCT+IVA, 6.7 ± 2.6%; PAB, 11.4 ± 4.5 vs. PAB+IVA, 6.4 ± 5.1%; SUHX, 10 ± 4.6 vs. SUHX+IVA, 3.9 ± 2.2%; all P < 0.001) were improved by IVA versus controls. IVA had a dose-response effect on induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes beat rate by delaying Ca++ loss from the cytoplasm. In experimental PH or RV pressure loading, HRR improves RV fibrosis, function, and exercise endurance independent of ß-blockade. The balance between adverse tachycardia and bradycardia requires further study, but judicious HRR may provide a promising strategy to improve RV function in clinical PH.

10.
Heart ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748799

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although a life-preserving surgery for children with single ventricle physiology, the Fontan palliation is associated with striking morbidity and mortality with advancing age. Our primary objective was to evaluate the impact of non-invasive, external, thoraco-abdominal ventilation on pulmonary blood flow (PBF) and cardiac output (CO) as measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in adult Fontan subjects. METHODS: Adults with a dominant left ventricle post-Fontan palliation (lateral tunnel or extracardiac connections) and healthy controls matched by sex and age were studied. We evaluated vascular flows using phase-contrast CMR imaging during unassisted breathing, negative pressure ventilation (NPV) and biphasic ventilation (BPV). Measurements were made within target vessels (aorta, pulmonary arteries, vena cavae and Fontan circuit) at baseline and during each ventilation mode. RESULTS: Ten Fontan subjects (50% male, 24.5 years (IQR 20.8-34.0)) and 10 matched controls were studied. Changes in PBF and CO, respectively, were greater following BPV as compared with NPV. In subjects during NPV, PBF increased by 8% (Δ0.20 L/min/m2 (0.10-0.53), p=0.011) while CO did not change significantly (Δ0.17 L/min/m2 (-0.11-0.23), p=0.432); during BPV, PBF increased by 25% (Δ0.61 L/min/m2 (0.20-0.84), p=0.002) and CO increased by 16% (Δ0.47 L/min/m2 (0.21-0.71), p=0.010). Following BPV, change in PBF and CO were both significantly higher in subjects versus controls (0.61 L/min/m2 (0.2-0.84) vs -0.27 L/min/m2 (-0.55-0.13), p=0.001; and 0.47 L/min/m2 (0.21-0.71) vs 0.07 L/min/m2 (-0.47-0.33), p=0.034, respectively). CONCLUSION: External ventilation acutely augments PBF and CO in adult Fontan subjects. Confirmation of these findings in larger populations with longer duration of ventilation and extended follow-up will be required to determine sustainability of haemodynamic effects.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727685

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate whether duct stenting is associated with better survival and other clinical outcomes compared with the modified Blalock-Taussig shunt in infants with duct-dependent pulmonary flow. METHODS: A systematic search of the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases was performed by 4 independent reviewers from inception to March 2019. Meta-analysis was performed using the DerSimonian and Laird method with inverse-variance weighting. The quality of evidence was summarized using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework. RESULTS: Six comparative observational studies were included, of which 3 were rated low risk of bias. There was no difference in 30-day mortality between the Blalock-Taussig shunt and duct stenting groups (risk ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.46-2.27; P = .96; I2 = 0%). However, there was benefit in favor of duct stenting for medium-term mortality (risk ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.99; P = .05; I2 = 0%). Duct stenting demonstrated a reduced risk for procedural complications compared with the Blalock-Taussig shunt (risk ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.31-0.81; P = .005; I2 = 0%). However, there was an increased risk for unplanned reintervention for duct stenting (risk ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.39-2.26; P < .00001; I2 = 10%). Duct stenting demonstrated shorter mean intensive care unit length of stay (mean difference, -4.69 days; 95% confidence interval, -7.30 to -2.07; P = .0004; I2 = 80%), as well as shorter hospital length of stay (mean difference, -5.78 days; 95% confidence interval, -9.27 to -2.28; P = .0009, I2 = 75%). The overall quality of evidence was rated low using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework. CONCLUSIONS: Duct stenting demonstrated comparable early mortality, lower medium-term mortality, lower risk of procedural complications, and higher risk of reintervention compared with the Blalock-Taussig shunt.

12.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 129(2): 238-246, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644912

RESUMO

Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction determines mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and RV pressure loading. Experimental models commonly use Sugen hypoxia (SuHx)-induced PAH, monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH, or pulmonary artery banding (PAB). Because PAH models cannot interrogate RV effects or therapies independent of pulmonary vascular effects, we aimed to compare RV function and fibrosis in experimental PAB vs. PAH. Thirty rats were randomized to either sham controls, PAB, SuHx-, or MCT-induced PAH. RV pressures and function were assessed by high-fidelity pressure-tipped catheters and by echocardiography. RV myocyte hypertrophy, fibrosis, and capillary density were quantified from hematoxylin-eosin, picrosirius red-stained, and CD31-immunostained RV sections, respectively. RV pressures and the RV-to-left ventricular pressure ratio were significantly increased in all three groups to a similar degree (PAB 65 ± 17 mmHg, SuHx 72 ± 16 mmHg, and MCT 70 ± 12 mmHg) vs. controls (23 ± 2 mmHg, all P < 0.01). RV dilatation, hypertrophy, and fibrosis were similarly increased, and capillary density decreased, in the three models (RV fibrosis; PAB 13.3 ± 3.6%, SuHx 9.8 ± 3.0% and MCT 10.9 ± 2.4% vs control 5.5 ± 1.1%, all P < 0.05). RV function was similarly decreased in all models vs. controls. We observed comparable RV dilatation, hypertrophy, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, fibrosis, and capillary rarefaction in rat models of PAB, SuHx-, and MCT-induced PAH. These results suggest that PAB, when sufficiently severe, induces features of maladaptive RV remodeling and can be used to investigate RV pathophysiology and therapy effects independent of pulmonary vascular resistance.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Although animal models of pulmonary arterial hypertension and pressure loading are important to study right ventricular (RV) pathophysiology, pulmonary arterial hypertension models cannot interrogate RV responses independent of pulmonary vascular effects. Comparing three commonly used rat models under similar elevated RV pressure, we found that all models resulted in comparable maladaptive RV remodeling and dysfunction. Thus, these findings suggest that the pulmonary artery banding model can be used to investigate mechanisms of RV dysfunction in RV pressure overload and the effect of potential therapies.

13.
J Surg Educ ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646811

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Over the last decade medical students' interest in pursuing surgery as a career has declined. This is more apparent in high-specialized specialities such as congenital heart surgery (CHS). Early hands-on simulation has shown to have a positive impact on medical students' interest in pursuing surgery, however, its incorporation into medical school curricula is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of incorporating medical students as surgical assistants during the Hands On Surgical Training course in CHS. METHODS: Local preclinical medical students were invited to participate as surgical assistants during the 5th annual Hands On Surgical Training course in CHS. Among those who responded to the invitation, students were randomly selected and allocated to assist a congenital heart surgeon. All selected students attended an assistants' session prior to the course to familiarize themselves with assisting and to practice basic surgical skills. At the end of both courses students completed a questionnaire based on Likert 5-point scale to evaluate the courses' usefulness. RESULTS: Fifteen medical students completed the questionnaires. All reported a beginner level of understanding of congenital heart disease. All students were highly satisfied with using 3D-printed models to help their understanding of congenital heart disease (4.80 ± 0.41) and agreed that the sessions improved their assisting skills (4.93 ± 0.26). All expressed a desire to attend similar sessions in the future and agreed that surgical simulation inclusion into medical school curricula would enhance learning (5.00 ± 0.00). Interest in pursuing a career in CHS increased from 33% (5) to 87% (13) by the end of the course. CONCLUSIONS: Integration of preclinical medical students into surgical simulation increases interest in pursuing highly specialised surgical specialities such as CHS. Early exposure and the incorporation of such simulation programs into medical school curricula will likely improve surgical skill acquisition and may enable students to be better informed when selecting future career choices.

14.
3D Print Med ; 6(1): 12, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Hands-On Surgical Training in Congenital Heart Surgery (HOST-CHS) program using 3D printed heart models has received positive feedback from attendees. However, improvements were necessary in the simulator set up to replicate the ergonomics experienced in the operating room. This paper illustrates the development of a dynamic chest wall and operating table simulator to enhance the simulation experience. METHODS: The simulator was designed to address the limitations with the existing set up. This included a suboptimal operating position, unrealistic surgical exposure and limitations in illuminating the operative field and recording procedures. A combination of computer-aided design and various 3D-printing techniques were used to build the components. The simulator's usefulness was evaluated by surgeons who attended the 5th annual HOST course via a questionnaire. RESULTS: The simulator consists of three components; an operating table simulator which allows height adjustment and pitch-and-roll motion; a suture retraction disc, which holds sutures under tension to improve exposure; and a pediatric chest wall cavity to replicate a surgeon's access experience during surgery. Nineteen surgeons completed the questionnaire. All surgeons agreed that the addition of the simulator was acceptable for surgical simulation and that it helped replicate the ergonomics experienced in the operating room. CONCLUSIONS: The inclusion of the HOST-CHS simulator adds value to simulation in congenital heart surgery (CHS) as it replicates the view and exposure a surgeon experiences. Improvements like these will help develop high-fidelity simulation programs in CHS, which could be utilized to train surgeons globally.

15.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 160(6): 1529-1540.e4, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32595030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study we sought to determine whether preoperative superior vena cava (SVC) blood flow measured using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) predicts physiology and clinical outcome after bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt (BCPS). METHODS: The retrospective single-center study included 65 (2012-2017) patients who underwent BCPS. Preoperative CMR imaging, echocardiography, catheterization, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. SVC flow was measured using phase contrast CMR. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression was used for BCPS takedown-free survival and predictor analyses. RESULTS: The absolute and indexed SVC flow was 0.5 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.4-0.7) L/min and 1.7 (IQR, 1.4-2.0) L/min/mm2 respectively, which was comparable with the SVC blood flow volume previously measured. The median age and body weight at BCPS was 6.5 (IQR, 5.5-8.5) months and 6.9 (IQR, 6.0-7.7) kg. After follow-up, at a median of 17.1 (IQR, 7.9-41.3) months, 14 patients (21.5%) underwent the Fontan completion and 40 (61.5%) with BCPS physiology were waiting for the Fontan completion. The 11 remaining patients (16.9%), included those who underwent takedown (n = 7; 10.8%) or died with a BCPS (n = 4; 6.2%). Severe hypoxia was the leading cause of mortality, directly accounting for two-thirds of deaths (66.6%; 6/9). The BCPS takedown-free survival was 96.8% at 6 months, and 79.9% at 3 years. Preoperative SVC blood flow was significantly positively correlated with early post-BCPS arterial saturation (P = .00). The multivariable analysis showed SVC flow was the only factor associated with BCPS failure (hazard ratio, 0.186; P = .04) among the predictors related to the pre-BCPS anatomy and physiology. CONCLUSIONS: SVC blood flow might be as critically important as pulmonary artery anatomic and physiologic parameters in the evaluation of BCPS candidacy in the single-ventricle population.

16.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to identify modifiable factors to improve survival of neonatal biventricular repair by analyzing the cause of death and predictors of mortality and reintervention in the last 2 decades. METHODS: Between 1995 and 2016, 991 consecutive neonates were included. The cohort was divided by era: era I was from 1995 to 1999, era II 2000 to 2007, and era III 2008 to 2016. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate freedom from death and reintervention. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression was applied to assess predictors for mortality or reintervention in the contemporary cohorts (2000-2016). RESULTS: Median age was 8 days (range, 5-13), and median body weight at operation was 3.3 kg (range, 2.9-3.6). The most common diagnosis was transposition with intact ventricular septum (32%), followed by transposition with ventricular septal defect (14.5%), and simple left-to-right shunt lesion (10.9%). There was significant improvement in survival from era I to eras II and III but no difference between eras II and III (1 year: 82.1% vs 89.4% vs 89.6%, respectively; P < .001). The most common cause of death was sudden death in eras I and III and cardiac in era II. Multivariable analysis revealed preoperative (P = .005)/postoperative (P < .001) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and postoperative renal replacement (P < .001) as independent predictors for mortality. The reintervention rates were comparable between eras II and III (P = .53). Atrioventricular septal defects and common atrial trunk were identified as predictors for reintervention. CONCLUSIONS: Survival after neonatal biventricular repair remained unchanged. Preventing sudden death, myocardial protection, and minimizing residual lesions are potential targets to improve outcomes.

17.
Circ J ; 84(4): 533-541, 2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147603

RESUMO

Advances in surgical and medical care of children born with heart defects have led to the emergence of a unique subgroup of young adults known as adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD). Heart failure (HF) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in this subset. Management of HF is challenging in these patients owing to inherent structural variations with their associated physiological consequences. Heart transplantation is of limited utility in this group either because of donor shortage or associated comorbidities that make these patients ineligible for transplantation. Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices have evolved as an alternative treatment modality in supporting the failing myocardium of this population, but are often used less frequently than in those with a structurally normal heart because of the unique anatomical and physiological variations. These variations create a need to gather adequate knowledge on how best to support the hearts of ACHD patients in order to reduce mortality and morbidity. This review presents clinical experience with MCS in ACHD patients.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/instrumentação , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Coração Auxiliar , Balão Intra-Aórtico/instrumentação , Oxigenadores de Membrana , Sobreviventes , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/mortalidade , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/mortalidade , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Balão Intra-Aórtico/efeitos adversos , Balão Intra-Aórtico/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenho de Prótese , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 133: 109971, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Characterize patients with complete tracheal rings and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) and summarize management options. METHODS: A systematic review of patients under 18 years of age with complete tracheal rings and TEF was conducted. Authors were contacted for additional patient information and new cases were added. Patients with iatrogenic TEF and tracheal stenosis due to other causes were excluded. RESULTS: Sixteen patients with a median (IQR) follow-up of 10 months (3-12 months) were identified. All had a distal TEF with complete tracheal rings distal to the TEF. There were 10 (63%) type C esophageal atresia + TEF (EA/TEF), and 1 (6%) type D (5 missing data). Median (IQR) airway diameter was 2 mm (1.5-2.2 mm). Complete tracheal rings were diagnosed prior to TEF repair in 5 (31.3%) patients, after ≥1 failed extubation in 3 (12.5%) patients, and intra-operatively during respiratory distress in 1 patient. Ten patients (62.5%) were intubated with an endotracheal tube and one with a 6 Fr flexible aortic canula (5 missing data). Four patients with an endotracheal tube for TEF repair developed ventilatory problems. Complete tracheal rings were repaired in 9 (56%) patients (8 slide tracheoplasty, 1 pericardial patch) and followed conservatively in 3 (19%). One patient required tracheotomy. Four patients died. CONCLUSIONS: Complete tracheal rings with concurrent TEF is a rare entity that pose challenges for ventilatory management during operative repair. Bronchoscopy prior to TEF repair is critical to allow for proper preoperative planning.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/terapia , Estenose Traqueal/diagnóstico , Estenose Traqueal/terapia , Fístula Traqueoesofágica/diagnóstico , Fístula Traqueoesofágica/terapia , Adolescente , Broncoscopia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Intubação Intratraqueal , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Estenose Traqueal/congênito , Fístula Traqueoesofágica/congênito , Traqueostomia , Traqueotomia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Cardiol Young ; 30(2): 153-161, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019633

RESUMO

Transoesophageal and epicardial echocardiography are indispensible intraoperative imaging modalities to guide paediatric heart disease surgeries and influence surgical decision-making. A less well-described role of intraoperative imaging is its utility in evaluating coronary artery patency and flow. Focused two-dimensional, colour, and spectral Doppler imaging of the coronary arteries should be performed during surgeries involving coronary manipulation or re-implantation, or in cases where there is unexpected ventricular dysfunction or electrographic signs concerning for ischaemia. Intraoperative imaging allows for any anatomical issues to be detected and addressed promptly in the operating room. Imaging of the coronary arteries should identify unobstructed coronary ostia and proximal course without kinking, angulation, narrowing, or significant calibre change to suggest stenosis or extrinsic compression from neighbouring structures. The aim of this review is to highlight the usefulness of transoesophageal and epicardial echocardiography in evaluating coronary artery patency and flow, provide a how-to guide for optimal imaging, and to introduce a practical guideline to achieve best clinical practice.

20.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 160(1): 229-240.e1, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hands-on surgical simulation has been sought to address training limitations within congenital heart surgery (CHS). However, there is a need for objective assessment methods to measure surgeons' performance to justify its global adoption. This study aimed to validate a procedure-specific assessment tool for the simulation of the arterial switch operation on 3D-printed models and to evaluate the consistency of scoring among evaluators with different levels of experience in CHS. METHODS: Five "expert" and 5 "junior" surgeons performed the arterial switch procedure on 3D-printed models with transposition of the great arteries during 2 hands-on surgical training courses. Their performance was retrospectively assessed by 9 evaluators with varying experience in CHS (staff surgeons, resident surgeons, and non-MD raters). Assessments were done using 2 assessment tools: the Hands-On Surgical Training-Congenital Heart Surgery (HOST-CHS) assessment tool and the global rating scale (GRS). RESULTS: The HOST-CHS tool showed a higher interrater and intrarater reliability compared with the GRS. Total scores for expert surgeons were highly consistent across all evaluators. Non-MD raters' total scores for junior surgeons were slightly higher than those of residents and staff evaluators. All grades of evaluator were able to discriminate between junior and expert surgeons. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the development and validation of an objective, procedure-specific assessment tool for the arterial switch operation with consistency among evaluators with different experience. There is now a platform for quantifying and accurately evaluating performance, which will be highly beneficial in training and developing the next generation of congenital heart surgeons.


Assuntos
Transposição das Grandes Artérias/educação , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Cirurgiões/educação , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos/cirurgia , Humanos , Impressão Tridimensional , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
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