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1.
Clin Genet ; 99(2): 219-225, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140411

RESUMO

Patients with PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS, comprising Cowden, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba, and Proteus-like syndromes) are at increased risk of developing cancer due to pathogenic PTEN germline variants. This review summarizes age-, sex-, and type-specific malignant cancer risks for PHTS patients, which is urgently needed for clinical management. A PubMed literature search for Standardized Incidence Ratios or Cumulative Lifetime cancer risks (CLTRs) resulted in nine cohort studies comprising four independent PHTS cohorts, including mainly index cases and prevalent cancer cases. The median age at diagnosis was 36 years. Reported CLTRs for any cancer varied from 81% to 90%. The tumor spectrum included female breast cancer (CLTRs including sex-specific estimates at age 60-70: 67% to 85%), endometrium cancer (19% to 28%), thyroid cancer (6% to 38%), renal cancer (2% to 24%), colorectal cancer (9% to 32%), and melanoma (0% to 6%). Although these estimates provide guidance for clinical care, discrepancies between studies, sample sizes, retrospective designs, strongly ascertained cases, and lack of pediatric research emphasizes that data should be interpreted with great caution. Therefore, more accurate and more personalized age-, sex-, and cancer-specific risk estimates are needed to enable counseling of all PHTS patients irrespective of ascertainment, and improvement of cancer surveillance guidelines.

3.
J Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1/2 mutation carriers are generally exposed to early menopause due to risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) around the age of 40 years. This risk-reducing intervention is based on a 10-40% life-time risk of ovarian cancer in this population. Although effective, premature and acute menopause induces non-cancer related morbidity in both the short and long term. Little is known about the impact of RRSO on the cardiovascular system. METHODS: This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between time since RRSO and signs of subclinical atherosclerosis, as measured by carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), in 165 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. All participants, aged 40 to 63 years, underwent RRSO before the age of 45 years, and at least 5 years ago. Cardiovascular risk factors were assessed by questionnaires and a single screening visit. Data were analyzed using linear regression models. RESULTS: Mean CIMT was 692.7 µm (SD 87.0), and mean central PWV 6.40 m/s (SD 1.42). After adjustment for age and several relevant cardiovascular risk factors, time since RRSO was not associated with CIMT (ß=0.68 µm; 95% CI -4.02, 5.38) and PWV (ß=44 mm/s; 95% CI -32, 120). Compared to women of a reference group from the general population, lower systolic blood pressure [mean difference 12 mmHg; 95% confidence interval (CI) 10, 14] was found in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. CONCLUSIONS: We found that, in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, at 5 to 24 years follow-up, time since RRSO is not related to development of subclinical atherosclerosis. However, the follow-up period in these relatively young women might have been too short.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228212

RESUMO

To discover novel high-penetrant risk loci for hereditary colorectal cancer (hCRC) and polyposis syndromes many whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing (WES/WGS) studies have been performed. Remarkably, these studies resulted in only a few novel high-penetrant risk genes. Given this observation, the possibility and strategy to identify high-penetrant risk genes for hCRC and polyposis needs reconsideration. Therefore, we reviewed the study design of WES/WGS-based hCRC and polyposis gene discovery studies (n = 37) and provide recommendations to optimize discovery and validation strategies. The group of genetically unresolved patients is phenotypically heterogeneous, and likely composed of distinct molecular subtypes. This knowledge advocates for the screening of a homogeneous, stringently preselected discovery cohort and obtaining multi-level evidence for variant pathogenicity. This evidence can be collected by characterizing the molecular landscape of tumors from individuals with the same affected gene or by functional validation in cell-based models. Together, the combined approach of a phenotype-driven, tumor-based candidate gene search might elucidate the potential contribution of novel genetic predispositions in genetically unresolved hCRC and polyposis.

5.
Histopathology ; 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098683

RESUMO

AIMS: RNF43 is suggested to be involved in the serrated pathway towards colorectal cancer and encodes a transmembrane Ring-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that negatively regulates the Wnt pathway. This study aimed to elucidate the role of RNF43 gene variants in serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) and serrated polyps. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three cohorts were tested. The first cohort included germline DNA of 26 SPS patients tested for pathogenic variants in RNF43 by Sanger sequencing all exons. In the second cohort we tested somatic DNA for RNF43 mutations from sporadic serrated lesions: 25 hyperplastic polyps, 35 sessile serrated lesions and 38 traditional serrated adenomas (TSA). In the third cohort we investigated RNF43 mutations in 49 serrated polyps and 60 conventional adenomas from 40 patients with Lynch syndrome. No germline RNF43 pathogenic variants were detected in our SPS cohort. In sporadic colorectal lesions we detected RNF43 deleterious frameshift mutations in three TSA and one SSL. The RNF43 mutations in previously described homopolymeric hot-spots were detected in microsatellite-instable (MSI) polyps and the other RNF43 mutations in microsatellite-stable (MSS) serrated polyps. RNF43 hot-spot mutations were discovered in seven serrated polyps and 12 conventional adenomas from Lynch patients. CONCLUSION: Truncating germline RNF43 mutations are uncommon in SPS patients. Somatic mutations in RNF43 were found in sporadic TSA and SSL and both serrated polyps and adenomas from Lynch syndrome patients, suggesting that they do not develop early in the pathway to CRC and are not specific for serrated polyp subtypes.

6.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(8): e386-e397, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758476

RESUMO

Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome that is characterised by a high prevalence of diffuse gastric cancer and lobular breast cancer. It is largely caused by inactivating germline mutations in the tumour suppressor gene CDH1, although pathogenic variants in CTNNA1 occur in a minority of families with HDGC. In this Policy Review, we present updated clinical practice guidelines for HDGC from the International Gastric Cancer Linkage Consortium (IGCLC), which recognise the emerging evidence of variability in gastric cancer risk between families with HDGC, the growing capability of endoscopic and histological surveillance in HDGC, and increased experience of managing long-term sequelae of total gastrectomy in young patients. To redress the balance between the accessibility, cost, and acceptance of genetic testing and the increased identification of pathogenic variant carriers, the HDGC genetic testing criteria have been relaxed, mainly through less restrictive age limits. Prophylactic total gastrectomy remains the recommended option for gastric cancer risk management in pathogenic CDH1 variant carriers. However, there is increasing confidence from the IGCLC that endoscopic surveillance in expert centres can be safely offered to patients who wish to postpone surgery, or to those whose risk of developing gastric cancer is not well defined.


Assuntos
Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos
7.
Int J Cancer ; 147(8): 2150-2158, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510614

RESUMO

Universal mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR) testing of colorectal cancer (CRC) is promoted as routine diagnostics to prescreen for Lynch syndrome. We evaluated the yield and experience of age-related molecular investigation for heritable and nonheritable causes of dMMR in CRC below age 70 to identify Lynch Syndrome. In a prospective cohort of 3602 newly diagnosed CRCs below age 70 from 19 hospitals, dMMR, MLH1 promoter hypermethylation, germline MMR gene and somatic MMR gene testing was assessed in daily practice. Yield was evaluated using data from the Dutch Pathology Registry (PALGA) and two regional genetic centers. Experiences of clinicians were evaluated through questionnaires. Participating clinicians were overwhelmingly positive about the clinical workflow. Pathologists routinely applied dMMR-testing in 84% CRCs and determined 10% was dMMR, largely due to somatic MLH1 hypermethylation (66%). Of those, 69% with dMMR CRC below age 70 without hypermethylation were referred for genetic testing, of which 55% was due to Lynch syndrome (hereditary) and 43% to somatic biallelic pathogenic MMR (nonhereditary). The prevalence of Lynch syndrome was 18% in CRC < 40, 1.7% in CRC age 40-64 and 0.7% in CRC age 65-69. Age 65-69 represents most cases with dMMR, in which dMMR due to somatic causes (13%) is 20 times more prevalent than Lynch syndrome. In conclusion, up to age 65 routine diagnostics of (non-)heritable causes of dMMR CRCs effectively identifies Lynch syndrome and reduces Lynch-like diagnoses. Above age 64, the effort to detect one Lynch syndrome patient in dMMR CRC is high and germline testing rarely needed.

8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(10): 1387-1393, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533092

RESUMO

PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome is a diverse multi-system disorder predisposing to the development of hamartomatous growths, increasing risk of breast, thyroid, renal cancer, and possibly increasing risk of endometrial cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. There is no international consensus on cancer surveillance in PHTS and all current guidelines are based on expert opinion. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken and guidelines were developed by clinicians with expertise from clinical genetics, gynaecology, endocrinology, dermatology, radiology, gastroenterology and general surgery, together with affected individuals and their representatives. Recommendations were put forward for surveillance for breast, thyroid and renal cancers. Limited recommendations were developed for other sites including endometrial, colon and skin. The proposed cancer surveillance recommendations for PHTS require a coordinated multidisciplinary approach and significant patient commitment. The evidence base for cancer surveillance in this guideline are limited, emphasising the need for prospective evaluation of the effectiveness of surveillance in the PHTS population.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(4): 425, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287552
11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 368-378, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption have been intensively studied in the general population to assess their effects on the risk of breast cancer, but very few studies have examined these effects in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Given the high breast cancer risk for mutation carriers and the importance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in DNA repair, better evidence on the associations of these lifestyle factors with breast cancer risk is essential. METHODS: Using a large international pooled cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, we conducted retrospective (5,707 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 3,525 BRCA2 mutation carriers) and prospective (2,276 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 1,610 BRCA2 mutation carriers) analyses of alcohol and tobacco consumption using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: For both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, none of the smoking-related variables was associated with breast cancer risk, except smoking for more than 5 years before a first full-term pregnancy (FFTP) when compared with parous women who never smoked. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, the HR from retrospective analysis (HRR) was 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.39] and the HR from prospective analysis (HRP) was 1.36 (95% CI, 0.99-1.87). For BRCA2 mutation carriers, smoking for more than 5 years before an FFTP showed an association of a similar magnitude, but the confidence limits were wider (HRR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.01-1.55 and HRP = 1.30; 95% CI, 0.83-2.01). For both carrier groups, alcohol consumption was not associated with breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that smoking during the prereproductive years increases breast cancer risk for mutation carriers warrants further investigation. IMPACT: This is the largest prospective study of BRCA mutation carriers to assess these important risk factors.

12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(3): 277-286, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695176

RESUMO

The colorectal cancer spectrum has changed due to population screening programs, with a shift toward adenomas and early cancers. Whether it would be a feasible option to test these adenomas for detection of Lynch syndrome (LS) patients is unclear. Through meta-analysis and systematic review, risk factors for DNA mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR) and microsatellite instability (MSI) in adenomas were identified in LS and unselected patient cohorts. Data were extracted for patient age and MMR variant together with adenoma type, grade, size, and location. A total of 41 studies were included, and contained more than 519 LS patients and 1698 unselected patients with 1142 and 2213 adenomas respectively. dMMR/MSI was present in 69.5% of conventional adenomas in LS patients, compared with 2.8% in unselected patients. In the LS cohort, dMMR/MSI was more frequently present in patients older than 60 years (82% versus 54%). dMMR/MSI was also more common in villous adenomas (84%), adenomas over 1 cm (81%), and adenomas with high grade dysplasia (88%). No significant differences were observed for dMMR/MSI in relation to MMR variants and location of adenomas. In the context of screening, we conclude that detection of dMMR/MSI in conventional adenomas of unselected patients is uncommon and might be considered as indication for LS testing. Within the LS cohort, 69.5% of LS patients could have been detected through dMMR/MSI screening of their conventional adenomas.

13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(2): 161-169, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with epithelial ovarian cancer (OC) have a higher chance to benefit from poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor (PARPi) therapy if their tumor has a somatic or hereditary BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant. Current guidelines advise BRCA1/2 genetic predisposition testing for all OC patients, though this does not detect somatic variants. We assessed the feasibility of a workflow for universal tumor DNA BRCA1/2 testing of all newly diagnosed OC patients as a prescreen for PARPi treatment and cancer predisposition testing. METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue was obtained from OC patients in seven hospitals immediately after diagnosis or primary surgery. DNA was extracted, and universal tumor BRCA1/2 testing was then performed in a single site. Diagnostic yield, uptake, referral rates for genetic predisposition testing, and experiences of patients and gynecologists were evaluated. RESULTS: Tumor BRCA1/2 testing was performed for 315 (77.6%) of the 406 eligible OC samples, of which 305 (96.8%) were successful. In 51 of these patients, pathogenic variants were detected (16.7%). Most patients (88.2%) went on to have a genetic predisposition test. BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants were shown to be hereditary in 56.8% and somatic in 43.2% of patients. Participating gynecologists and patients were overwhelmingly positive about the workflow. CONCLUSIONS: Universal tumor BRCA1/2 testing in all newly diagnosed OC patients is feasible, effective, and appreciated by patients and gynecologists. Because many variants cannot be detected in DNA from blood, testing tumor DNA as the first step can double the identification rate of patients who stand to benefit most from PARP inhibitors.

14.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1632019 05 31.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This survey explores the degree of consensus amongst healthcare professionals for the support of cancer patients' lifestyle management, based on three questions posed to them: a) what do they know about the relation between lifestyle and cancer?; b) do they consider lifestyle support for cancer patients part of their professional role?; c) does their own lifestyle influence the lifestyle management consultations they may have with cancer patients? Design Survey study. METHOD: A digital questionnaire with questions concerning lifestyle and cancer was sent to 1550 healthcare professionals in and around Nijmegen. The questionnaire was filled out by 562 healthcare professionals (36% response rate), of whom 404 (72%) were involved in cancer patient care. This cohort of responders consisted of 170 medical specialists, 62 general practitioners, and 172 nurses and allied health professionals. RESULTS: Healthcare professionals acknowledge the influence of lifestyle on the development of cancer. Almost all healthcare professionals (98%) agree on the positive effects of a healthy lifestyle on the well-being of cancer patients. Approximately two-thirds of all responders believe that lifestyle support should 'usually' or 'always' form part of cancer care; about fifty percent report to implement this in clinical practice. Healthcare professionals require evidence-based knowledge concerning the relationship between lifestyle and cancer, patient information materials, and additional consultation time to support lifestyle management involving cancer patients. The healthcare professionals' own lifestyle appears to have an influence: in those responders who do not adhere to a healthy lifestyle themselves, lifestyle was also covered less in consultations. CONCLUSION: This explorative survey shows that lifestyle support of cancer patients is deemed an important topic amongst healthcare professionals.

15.
J Med Genet ; 56(9): 581-589, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The currently known breast cancer-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are presently not used to guide clinical management. We explored whether a genetic test that incorporates a SNP-based polygenic risk score (PRS) is clinically meaningful in non-BRCA1/2 high-risk breast cancer families. METHODS: 101 non-BRCA1/2 high-risk breast cancer families were included; 323 cases and 262 unaffected female relatives were genotyped. The 161-SNP PRS was calculated and standardised to 327 population controls (sPRS). Association analysis was performed using a Cox-type random effect regression model adjusted by family history. Updated individualised breast cancer lifetime risk scores were derived by combining the Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm breast cancer lifetime risk with the effect of the sPRS. RESULTS: The mean sPRS for cases and their unaffected relatives was 0.70 (SD=0.9) and 0.53 (SD=0.9), respectively. A significant association was found between sPRS and breast cancer, HR=1.16, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.28, p=0.026. Addition of the sPRS to risk prediction based on family history alone changed screening recommendations in 11.5%, 14.7% and 19.8 % of the women according to breast screening guidelines from the USA (National Comprehensive Cancer Network), UK (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and the Netherlands (Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organisation), respectively. CONCLUSION: Our results support the application of the PRS in risk prediction and clinical management of women from genetically unexplained breast cancer families.

16.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1632019 05 20.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140768

RESUMO

Genetic testing in patients with cancer; new developments About 5% of patients with cancer have a causative germline mutation. When a germline mutation is detected, this may have major implications for treatment and follow-up of the patient, as well as for relatives who are at risk of carrying the mutation. Increasingly, DNA-testing of tumor tissue is being performed to identify potential druggable targets, aiming at personalized medicine. Both germline testing and tissue testing may have consequences for the patient, for treatment and for family members. Currently there is a trend towards mainstreaming of genetic testing, which implies that treating physicians will increasingly be the ones to order DNA tests. This implies that they need to be aware of the (family) consequences and pitfalls of genetic testing. It calls for close collaboration between clinical genetics and regional treating physicians, and adequate referral of patients with abnormal DNA results and those with other clues for a genetic predisposition. The aim being optimal tailored treatment for each patient and adequate cancer prevention for their relatives.

17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 758-766, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929739

RESUMO

By using exome sequencing and a gene matching approach, we identified de novo and inherited pathogenic variants in KDM3B in 14 unrelated individuals and three affected parents with varying degrees of intellectual disability (ID) or developmental delay (DD) and short stature. The individuals share additional phenotypic features that include feeding difficulties in infancy, joint hypermobility, and characteristic facial features such as a wide mouth, a pointed chin, long ears, and a low columella. Notably, two individuals developed cancer, acute myeloid leukemia and Hodgkin lymphoma, in childhood. KDM3B encodes for a histone demethylase and is involved in H3K9 demethylation, a crucial part of chromatin modification required for transcriptional regulation. We identified missense and truncating variants, suggesting that KDM3B haploinsufficiency is the underlying mechanism for this syndrome. By using a hybrid facial-recognition model, we show that individuals with a pathogenic variant in KDM3B have a facial gestalt, and that they show significant facial similarity compared to control individuals with ID. In conclusion, pathogenic variants in KDM3B cause a syndrome characterized by ID, short stature, and facial dysmorphism.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Nanismo/genética , Variação Genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/genética , Estatura , Criança , Exoma , Face , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Haploinsuficiência , Histonas/química , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo
18.
Oncogene ; 38(19): 3743-3755, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670777

RESUMO

PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) is caused by inactivating germline PTEN mutations with subsequent activation of Akt-mTOR signaling, leading to an increased risk of developing thyroid carcinoma (TC). Activation of Akt-mTOR signaling is essential for innate immune cell activation and reprogramming of TC-induced macrophages. Here, we aim to assess the effect of PTEN mutations on innate immune cell function in PHTS patients, especially in the context of TC, using a unique ex vivo model. Monocyte-derived cytokine responses were assessed in 29 PHTS patients and 29 controls. To assess the functional profile of TC-induced-macrophages, a co-culture model with two TC cell lines was performed. Rapamycin, a lactate transport blocker and metformin were used as modulators of the Akt-mTOR pathway and cell metabolism. Monocytes from PHTS patients showed increased production of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8 and MCP-1, and higher lactate production. After co-culture with TC cell lines, TC-induced macrophages showed significantly increased production of cytokines in both patients and controls, especially after co-culture with a PTEN-deficient TC cell line; these effects were abolished after use of rapamycin or a lactate transport blocker. Metformin blocked the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, innate immune cells from PHTS patients have increased lactate production and a more proinflammatory phenotype, especially after co-culture with PTEN-deficient TC. Metformin promotes a proinflammatory phenotype by blocking anti-inflammatory cytokine response, whereas rapamycin reduces production of proinflammatory cytokines. This indicates that PHTS patients may benefit from treatment with mTOR blocking agents to limit the inflammatory response in the tumor microenvironment.


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/metabolismo , Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo/genética , Humanos , Metformina/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/imunologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/imunologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
19.
Int J Cancer ; 145(4): 941-951, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694527

RESUMO

Two percent of patients with Wilms tumors have a positive family history. In many of these cases the genetic cause remains unresolved. By applying germline exome sequencing in two families with two affected individuals with Wilms tumors, we identified truncating mutations in TRIM28. Subsequent mutational screening of germline and tumor DNA of 269 children affected by Wilms tumor was performed, and revealed seven additional individuals with germline truncating mutations, and one individual with a somatic truncating mutation in TRIM28. TRIM28 encodes a complex scaffold protein involved in many different processes, including gene silencing, DNA repair and maintenance of genomic integrity. Expression studies on mRNA and protein level showed reduction of TRIM28, confirming a loss-of-function effect of the mutations identified. The tumors showed an epithelial-type histology that stained negative for TRIM28 by immunohistochemistry. The tumors were bilateral in six patients, and 10/11 tumors are accompanied by perilobar nephrogenic rests. Exome sequencing on eight tumor DNA samples from six individuals showed loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) of the TRIM28-locus by mitotic recombination in seven tumors, suggesting that TRIM28 functions as a tumor suppressor gene in Wilms tumor development. Additionally, the tumors showed very few mutations in known Wilms tumor driver genes, suggesting that loss of TRIM28 is the main driver of tumorigenesis. In conclusion, we identified heterozygous germline truncating mutations in TRIM28 in 11 children with mainly epithelial-type Wilms tumors, which become homozygous in tumor tissue. These data establish TRIM28 as a novel Wilms tumor predisposition gene, acting as a tumor suppressor gene by LOH.


Assuntos
Haploinsuficiência/genética , Proteína 28 com Motivo Tripartido/genética , Tumor de Wilms/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Pré-Escolar , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Feminino , Genes do Tumor de Wilms/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Perda de Heterozigosidade/genética , Masculino , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
20.
Transl Oncol ; 12(2): 361-367, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504085

RESUMO

Carriers of a pathogenic germline mutations in the PTEN gene, a well-known tumor suppressor gene, are at increased risk of multiple benign and malignant tumors, e.g. breast, thyroid, endometrial and colon cancer. This is called PTEN Hamartomous Tumor Syndrome (PHTS). PHTS patients may also have an increased risk of immunological dysregulation, such as autoimmunity and immune deficiencies. The effects of PTEN on the immune system have been studied in murine knockout models demonstrating that loss of PTEN function leads to dysregulation of the immune response. This results in susceptibility to autoimmunity, impaired B cell class switching with subsequent hypogammaglobulinemia. Additionally, a decreased ability of dendritic cells to prime CD8+ T cells was observed, leading to impaired tumor eradication. Immune dysfunction in PHTS patients has not yet been extensively studied but might be a manageable contributing factor to the increased cancer risk in PHTS.

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