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1.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(1): e24414, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1/2 mutation carriers are recommended to undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) at 35 to 45 years of age. RRSO substantially decreases ovarian cancer risk, but at the cost of immediate menopause. Knowledge about the potential adverse effects of premenopausal RRSO, such as increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cognitive dysfunction, and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL), is limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the long-term health effects of premenopausal RRSO on cardiovascular disease, bone health, cognitive functioning, urological complaints, sexual functioning, and HRQoL in women with high familial risk of breast or ovarian cancer. METHODS: We will conduct a multicenter cross-sectional study with prospective follow-up, nested in a nationwide cohort of women at high familial risk of breast or ovarian cancer. A total of 500 women who have undergone RRSO before 45 years of age, with a follow-up period of at least 10 years, will be compared with 250 women (frequency matched on current age) who have not undergone RRSO or who have undergone RRSO at over 55 years of age. Participants will complete an online questionnaire on lifestyle, medical history, cardiovascular risk factors, osteoporosis, cognitive function, urological complaints, and HRQoL. A full cardiovascular assessment and assessment of bone mineral density will be performed. Blood samples will be obtained for marker analysis. Cognitive functioning will be assessed objectively with an online neuropsychological test battery. RESULTS: This study was approved by the institutional review board in July 2018. In February 2019, we included our first participant. As of November 2020, we had enrolled 364 participants in our study. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge from this study will contribute to counseling women with a high familial risk of breast/ovarian cancer about the long-term health effects of premenopausal RRSO. The results can also be used to offer health recommendations after RRSO. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03835793; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03835793. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/24414.

2.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6(1): 60, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298933

RESUMO

We aimed to assess contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) compared with invasive breast cancer (BC). Women diagnosed with DCIS (N = 28,003) or stage I-III BC (N = 275,836) between 1989 and 2017 were identified from the nationwide Netherlands Cancer Registry. Cumulative incidences were estimated, accounting for competing risks, and hazard ratios (HRs) for metachronous invasive CBC. To evaluate effects of adjuvant systemic therapy and screening, separate analyses were performed for stage I BC without adjuvant systemic therapy and by mode of first BC detection. Multivariable models including clinico-pathological and treatment data were created to assess CBC risk prediction performance in DCIS patients. The 10-year cumulative incidence of invasive CBC was 4.8% for DCIS patients (CBC = 1334). Invasive CBC risk was higher in DCIS patients compared with invasive BC overall (HR = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.17), and lower compared with stage I BC without adjuvant systemic therapy (HR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.82-0.92). In patients diagnosed ≥2011, the HR for invasive CBC was 1.38 (95% CI = 1.35-1.68) after screen-detected DCIS compared with screen-detected invasive BC, and was 2.14 (95% CI = 1.46-3.13) when not screen-detected. The C-index was 0.52 (95% CI = 0.50-0.54) for invasive CBC prediction in DCIS patients. In conclusion, CBC risks are low overall. DCIS patients had a slightly higher risk of invasive CBC compared with invasive BC, likely explained by the risk-reducing effect of (neo)adjuvant systemic therapy among BC patients. For support of clinical decision making more information is needed to differentiate CBC risks among DCIS patients.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(5): 837-848, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022221

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can be used to stratify women according to their risk of developing primary invasive breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the association between a recently validated PRS of 313 germline variants (PRS313) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. We included 56,068 women of European ancestry diagnosed with first invasive breast cancer from 1990 onward with follow-up from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Metachronous CBC risk (N = 1,027) according to the distribution of PRS313 was quantified using Cox regression analyses. We assessed PRS313 interaction with age at first diagnosis, family history, morphology, ER status, PR status, and HER2 status, and (neo)adjuvant therapy. In studies of Asian women, with limited follow-up, CBC risk associated with PRS313 was assessed using logistic regression for 340 women with CBC compared with 12,133 women with unilateral breast cancer. Higher PRS313 was associated with increased CBC risk: hazard ratio per standard deviation (SD) = 1.25 (95%CI = 1.18-1.33) for Europeans, and an OR per SD = 1.15 (95%CI = 1.02-1.29) for Asians. The absolute lifetime risks of CBC, accounting for death as competing risk, were 12.4% for European women at the 10th percentile and 20.5% at the 90th percentile of PRS313. We found no evidence of confounding by or interaction with individual characteristics, characteristics of the primary tumor, or treatment. The C-index for the PRS313 alone was 0.563 (95%CI = 0.547-0.586). In conclusion, PRS313 is an independent factor associated with CBC risk and can be incorporated into CBC risk prediction models to help improve stratification and optimize surveillance and treatment strategies.

4.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964118

RESUMO

Germline genetic variation has been suggested to influence the survival of breast cancer patients independently of tumor pathology. We have studied survival associations of genetic variants in two etiologically unique groups of breast cancer patients, the carriers of germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. We found that rs57025206 was significantly associated with the overall survival, predicting higher mortality of BRCA1 carrier patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, with a hazard ratio 4.37 (95% confidence interval 3.03-6.30, P = 3.1 × 10-9). Multivariable analysis adjusted for tumor characteristics suggested that rs57025206 was an independent survival marker. In addition, our exploratory analyses suggest that the associations between genetic variants and breast cancer patient survival may depend on tumor biological subgroup and clinical patient characteristics.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964358

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Anthracyclines and trastuzumab can increase the risk of heart failure (HF), but long-term cardiotoxicity data in breast cancer (BC) patients treated at younger ages are limited. Furthermore, it is unknown whether aromatase inhibitors are associated with HF risk. METHODS: HF risk was studied in a multicenter cohort of BC survivors treated during 2000-2009, at age < 61 years. Information on treatment and cardiovascular disease incidence was collected through medical records, general practitioners and cardiologists. Analyses included multivariable Cox regression and cumulative incidence curves. RESULTS: In total, 10,209 women with a median age at BC diagnosis of 50.3 years and a median follow-up of 8.9 years were enrolled in the study. Anthracycline-based chemotherapy was associated with HF (hazard ratio [HR] 2.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-3.39) and risk increased with increasing cumulative anthracycline dose. For trastuzumab, HF risk was highest within the first 2 years after treatment (HR0-2 years: 13.06, 95% CI 5.70-29.92) and decreased thereafter (HR2-4 years: 4.84, 95% CI 1.99-11.75 and HR≥4 years: 0.64, 95% CI 0.23-1.81). The 10-year cumulative incidence of HF was 4.8% (95% CI 3.2-6.8) among patients treated with anthracyclines and trastuzumab. One-third of patients who developed HF after trastuzumab had long-term impaired cardiac function. Patients treated with aromatase inhibitors alone also had higher HF risk (HR 2.18, 95% CI 1.24-3.82) compared to patients not receiving endocrine therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results stress the importance of considering anthracycline-free regimens in BC patients who need trastuzumab-containing treatment. The association between aromatase inhibitors and HF needs confirmation.

7.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aetiology of male breast cancer (MBC) is poorly understood. In particular, the extent to which the genetic basis of MBC differs from female breast cancer (FBC) is unknown. A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of MBC identified two predisposition loci for the disease, both of which were also associated with risk of FBC. METHODS: We performed genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of European ancestry MBC case subjects and controls, in three stages. Associations between directly genotyped and imputed SNPs with MBC were assessed using fixed-effects meta-analysis of 1,380 cases and 3,620 controls. Replication genotyping of 810 cases and 1,026 controls was used to validate variants with P-values < 1 x 10-06. Genetic correlation with FBC was evaluated using LD score regression, by comprehensively examining the associations of published FBC risk loci with risk of MBC and by assessing associations between a FBC polygenic risk score (PRS) and MBC. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The GWAS identified three novel MBC susceptibility loci that attained genome-wide significance (P < 5 x 10-08). Genetic correlation analysis revealed a strong shared genetic basis with estrogen-receptor (ER) positive FBC. Males in the top quintile of genetic risk had a four-fold increased risk of breast cancer relative to those in the bottom quintile (odds ratio = 3.86, 95% confidence interval = 3.07 to 4.87, P = 2.08 x 10-30). CONCLUSIONS: These findings advance our understanding of the genetic basis of MBC, providing support for an overlapping genetic aetiology with FBC and identifying a four-fold high risk group of susceptible men.

8.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(9): 1381-1389, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729887

RESUMO

Importance: For women with a 20% or more familial risk of breast cancer without a known BRCA1/2 (BRCA1, OMIM 113705; and BRCA2, OMIM 114480) or TP53 (OMIM 151623) variant, screening guidelines vary substantially, and cost-effectiveness analyses are scarce. Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening strategies for women with a 20% or more familial risk for breast cancer without a known BRCA1/2 or TP53 variant. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this economic evaluation, conducted from February 1, 2019, to May 25, 2020, microsimulation modeling was used to estimate costs and effectiveness on a lifetime horizon from age 25 years until death of MRI screening among a cohort of 10 million Dutch women with a 20% or more familial risk for breast cancer without a known BRCA1/2 or TP53 variant. A Dutch screening setting was modeled. Most data were obtained from the randomized Familial MRI Screening (FaMRIsc) trial, which included Dutch women aged 30 to 55 years. A health care payer perspective was applied. Interventions: Several screening protocols with varying ages and intervals including those of the randomized FaMRIsc trial, consisting of the mammography (Mx) protocol (annual mammography and clinical breast examination) and the MRI protocol (annual MRI and clinical breast examination plus biennial mammography). Main Outcomes and Measures: Costs, life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated and discounted by 3%. A threshold of €22 000 (US $24 795.87) per QALY was applied. Results: This economic evaluation modeling study estimated that, on a lifetime horizon per 1000 women with the Mx protocol of the FaMRIsc trial, 346 breast cancers would be detected, and 49 women were estimated to die from breast cancer, resulting in 22 885 QALYs and total costs of €7 084 767 (US $7 985 134.61). The MRI protocol resulted in 79 additional QALYs and additional €2 657 266 (US $2 994 964.65). Magnetic resonance imaging performed only every 18 months between the ages of 35 and 60 years followed by the national screening program was considered optimal, with an ICER of €21 380 (US $24 097.08) compared with the previous nondominated strategy in the ranking, when applying the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence threshold. Annual screening alternating MRI and mammography between the ages of 35 and 60 years, followed by the national screening program, gave similar outcomes. Higher thresholds would favor annual MRI screening. The ICER was most sensitive to the unit cost of MRI and the utility value for ductal carcinoma in situ and localized breast cancer. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that MRI screening every 18 months between the ages of 35 and 60 years for women with a family history of breast cancer is cost-effective within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence threshold for all densities. Higher thresholds would favor annual MRI screening. These outcomes support a change of current screening guidelines for this specific risk group and support MRI screening.

9.
Breast ; 52: 102-109, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497987

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hormone replacement therapy can diminish hormone depletion-related complaints in postmenopausal women, but is contraindicated for postmenopausal breast cancer (BC) patients. Recovery of menstruation after chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea in young hormone receptor-negative BC patients however, is accepted. To determine the safety of this strategy, we investigated the effect of recovery of menstruation on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in young hormone receptor-negative BC patients treated with (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: We selected 636 patients from a single-center cohort with early stage hormone receptor-negative BC and under the age of 50 years when treated with chemotherapy. Sufficient data on course of menstruation in medical records was retrospectively found for 397 patients, of whom 299 patients (75%) had a recovery of menstruation after chemotherapy. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for the effect of recovery of menstruation on DFS and OS. RESULTS: Patients with recovery of menstruation after chemotherapy less frequently had lymph node involvement at diagnosis (45% vs 66%, p = 0.001). After a median follow-up of 6.7 years, the adjusted hazard ratios were 1.45 (95% CI: 0.83-2.54) for DFS and 1.19 (95% CI: 0.71-1.98) for OS. CONCLUSION: No significantly increased recurrence risk was found for hormone receptor-negative BC patients with recovery of menstruation after chemotherapy. However, the outcome of the multivariable model is not reassuring and a potentially increased recurrence risk cannot be excluded. The results need to be validated in a larger prospective study for a more definitive answer.

10.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(3): 581-588, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333294

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BRCA2 mutation carriers are offered annual breast screening with MRI and mammography. The aim of this study was to investigate the supplemental value of mammographic screening over MRI screening alone. METHODS: In this multicenter study, proven BRCA2 mutation carriers, who developed breast cancer during screening using both digital mammography and state-of-art breast MRI, were identified. Clinical data were reviewed to classify cases in screen-detected and interval cancers. Imaging was reviewed to assess the diagnostic value of mammography and MRI, using the Breast Imaging and Data System (BI-RADS) classification allocated at the time of diagnosis. RESULTS: From January 2003 till March 2019, 62 invasive breast cancers and 23 ductal carcinomas in situ were diagnosed in 83 BRCA2 mutation carriers under surveillance. Overall screening sensitivity was 95.2% (81/85). Four interval cancers occurred (4.7% (4/85)). MRI detected 73 of 85 breast cancers (sensitivity 85.8%) and 42 mammography (sensitivity 49.9%) (p < 0.001). Eight mammography-only lesions occurred. In 1 of 17 women younger than 40 years, a 6-mm grade 3 DCIS, retrospectively visible on MRI, was detected with mammography only in a 38-year-old woman. The other 7 mammography-only breast cancers were diagnosed in women aged 50 years and older, increasing sensitivity in this subgroup from 79.5% (35/44) to 95.5% (42/44) (p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In BRCA2 mutation carriers younger than 40 years, the benefit of mammographic screening over MRI was very small. In carriers of 50 years and older, mammographic screening contributed significantly. Hence, we propose to postpone mammographic screening in BRCA2 mutation carriers to at least age 40.

11.
Radiother Oncol ; 146: 110-117, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy are at increased risk of subsequent acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We aimed to study if radiotherapy also influences the prognosis of these ACS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included all 398 patients diagnosed with ACS following radiotherapy from our hospital-based cohort of early breast cancer patients aged <71 years, treated 1970-2009. Cardiovascular disease incidence and cause of death were acquired through questionnaires to general practitioners and cardiologists. Internal mammary chain (IMC) irradiation delivers the highest heart doses in breast cancer radiotherapy. Hence, we compared ACS prognosis between patients treated with/without IMC-irradiation. ACS prognosis was assessed through cardiac death, death due to ACS and cardiovascular disease incidence, using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models and by estimating cumulative incidence. RESULTS: In total, 62% of patients with ACS had received IMC-irradiation and 38% did not (median age at ACS diagnosis, 67 years). Median time between breast cancer and ACS was 15 years. After ACS, ten-year cumulative risk of cardiac death was 35% for patients who had IMC-irradiation (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 29-41) compared to 24% (95%CI 17-31) for patients without IMC-irradiation (p = 0.04). After correction for confounders, IMC-irradiation remained associated with a less favourable prognosis of ACS compared to no IMC-irradiation (hazard ratio cardiac death = 1.7, 95%CI 1.1-2.5). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that radiotherapy, in case of substantial heart doses,may worsen ACS prognosis. This is an important, novel finding that may impact upon the risk-based care for breast cancer survivors with ACS.

12.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(5): 403-416, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130573

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The risk of being diagnosed with contralateral breast cancer (CBC) is an important health issue among breast cancer survivors. There is an increasing interest in the effect of lifestyle and reproductive factors on CBC risk, since these factors may partly be modifiable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis and aimed to evaluate the impact of lifestyle and reproductive factors on CBC risk in population-based breast cancer studies. METHODS: The PubMed electronic database was searched up to 2nd November 2019, for relevant publications. Of the included studies, a meta-analysis per lifestyle or reproductive factor was performed. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 784 publications were used for the meta-analysis. Body mass index (≥ 25 vs. < 25 kg/m2; RR = 1.22; 95% CI 1.01-1.47) was associated with increased CBC risk. The estimates for alcohol use (ever vs. never; RR = 1.15; 95% CI 1.02-1.31) and age at primiparity (≥ 25 vs. < 25 years; RR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.02-1.10) also showed an association with increased CBC risk. For parity (≥ 4 vs. nulliparous; RR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.42-0.76) and age at menopause (< 45 vs ≥ 45 years; RR = 0.79; 95% CI 0.67-0.93), results from two studies suggested a decreased CBC risk. We observed no association between CBC and smoking, age at menarche, oral contraceptive use, gravidity, breastfeeding, or menopausal status. Overall, the number of studies per risk factor was limited (n = 2-5). CONCLUSIONS: BMI is a modifiable risk factor for CBC. Data on the effect of other modifiable lifestyle and reproductive factors are limited. For better counseling of patients on lifestyle effects, more studies are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Estilo de Vida , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade , Gravidez , História Reprodutiva , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 8, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) on breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers is uncertain. Retrospective analyses have suggested a protective effect but may be substantially biased. Prospective studies have had limited power, particularly for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Further, previous studies have not considered the effect of RRSO in the context of natural menopause. METHODS: A multi-centre prospective cohort of 2272 BRCA1 and 1605 BRCA2 mutation carriers was followed for a mean of 5.4 and 4.9 years, respectively; 426 women developed incident breast cancer. RRSO was modelled as a time-dependent covariate in Cox regression, and its effect assessed in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. RESULTS: There was no association between RRSO and breast cancer for BRCA1 (HR = 1.23; 95% CI 0.94-1.61) or BRCA2 (HR = 0.88; 95% CI 0.62-1.24) mutation carriers. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, HRs were 0.68 (95% CI 0.40-1.15) and 1.07 (95% CI 0.69-1.64) for RRSO carried out before or after age 45 years, respectively. The HR for BRCA2 mutation carriers decreased with increasing time since RRSO (HR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.99 for 5 years or longer after RRSO). Estimates for premenopausal women were similar. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that RRSO reduces breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. A potentially beneficial effect for BRCA2 mutation carriers was observed, particularly after 5 years following RRSO. These results may inform counselling and management of carriers with respect to RRSO.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Mutação , Salpingo-Ooforectomia/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Agências Internacionais , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
15.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(4): 528-534, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999296

RESUMO

Importance: Trials of adjuvant high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) have failed to show a survival benefit in unselected patients with breast cancer, but long-term follow-up is lacking. Objective: To determine 20-year efficacy and safety outcomes of a large trial of adjuvant HDCT vs conventional-dose chemotherapy (CDCT) for patients with stage III breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis used data from a randomized phase 3 multicenter clinical trial of 885 women younger than 56 years with breast cancer and 4 or more involved axillary lymph nodes conducted from August 1, 1993, to July 31, 1999. Additional follow-up data were collected between June 1, 2016, and December 31, 2017, from medical records, general practitioners, the Dutch national statistical office, and nationwide cancer registries. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Statistical analysis was performed from February 1, 2018, to October 14, 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive 5 cycles of CDCT consisting of fluorouracil, 500 mg/m2, epirubicin, 90 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide, 500 mg/m2, or HDCT in which the first 4 cycles were identical to CDCT and the fifth cycle was replaced by cyclophosphamide, 6000 mg/m2, thiotepa, 480 mg/m2, and carboplatin, 1600 mg/m2, followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Main Outcomes and Measures: Main end points were overall survival and safety and cumulative incidence risk of a second malignant neoplasm or cardiovascular events. Results: Of the 885 women in the study (mean [SD] age, 44.5 [6.6] years), 442 were randomized to receive HDCT, and 443 were randomized to receive CDCT. With 20.4 years median follow-up (interquartile range, 19.2-22.0 years), the 20-year overall survival was 45.3% with HDCT and 41.5% with CDCT (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.75-1.06). The absolute improvement in 20-year overall survival was 14.6% (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.54-0.95) for patients with 10 or more invoved axillary lymph nodes and 15.4% (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.42-1.05) for patients with triple-negative breast cancer. The cumulative incidence risk of a second malignant neoplasm at 20 years or major cardiovascular events was similar in both treatment groups (20-year cumulative incidence risk for second malignant neoplasm was 12.1% in the HDCT group vs 16.2% in the CDCT group, P = .10), although patients in the HDCT group more often had hypertension (21.7% vs 14.3%, P = .02), hypercholesterolemia (15.7% vs 10.6%, P = .04), and dysrhythmias (8.6% vs 4.6%, P = .005). Conclusions and Relevance: High-dose chemotherapy provided no long-term survival benefit in unselected patients with stage III breast cancer but did provide improved overall survival in very high-risk patients (ie, with ≥10 involved axillary lymph nodes). High-dose chemotherapy did not affect long-term risk of a second malignant neoplasm or major cardiovascular events. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03087409.

16.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(2): 366-374, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to develop dose-response relationships for heart failure (HF) following radiation and anthracyclines in breast cancer treatment, and to assess HF associations with trastuzumab and endocrine therapies. METHODS AND RESULTS: A case-control study was performed within a cohort of breast cancer survivors treated during 1980-2009. Cases (n = 102) had HF as first cardiovascular diagnosis and were matched 1:3 on age and date of diagnosis. Individual cardiac radiation doses were estimated, and anthracycline doses and use of trastuzumab and endocrine therapy were abstracted from oncology notes. For HF cases who received radiotherapy, the estimated median mean heart dose (MHD) was 6.8 Gy [interquartile range (IQR) 0.9-13.7]. MHD was not associated with HF risk overall [excess rate ratio (ERR) = 1%/Gy, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2 to 10]. In patients treated with anthracyclines, exposure of ≥20% of the heart to ≥20 Gy was associated with a rate ratio of 5.7 (95% CI 1.7-21.7) compared to <10% exposed to ≥20 Gy. For cases who received radiotherapy, median cumulative anthracycline dose was 247 mg/m2 (IQR 240-319). A dose-dependent increase was observed after anthracycline without trastuzumab (ERR = 1.5% per mg/m2 , 95% CI 0.5-4.1). After anthracycline and trastuzumab, the rate ratio was 34.9 (95% CI 11.1-110.1) compared to no chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: In absence of anthracyclines, breast cancer radiotherapy was not associated with increased HF risk. Strongly elevated HF risks were observed after treatment with anthracyclines and also after treatment with trastuzumab. The benefits of these systemic treatments usually exceed the risks of HF, but our results emphasize the need to support ongoing efforts to evaluate preventative strategies.

17.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(3): 723-733, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In healthy BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy (BRRM) strongly reduces the risk of developing breast cancer (BC); however, no clear survival benefit of BRRM over BC surveillance has been reported yet. METHODS: In this Dutch multicenter cohort study, we used multivariable Cox models with BRRM as a time-dependent covariable to estimate the associations between BRRM and the overall and BC-specific mortality rates, separately for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 10.3 years, 722 out of 1712 BRCA1 (42%) and 406 out of 1145 BRCA2 (35%) mutation carriers underwent BRRM. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, we observed 52 deaths (20 from BC) in the surveillance group, and 10 deaths (one from BC) after BRRM. The hazard ratios were 0.40 (95% CI 0.20-0.90) for overall mortality and 0.06 (95% CI 0.01-0.46) for BC-specific mortality. BC-specific survival at age 65 was 93% for surveillance and 99.7% for BRRM. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, we observed 29 deaths (7 from BC) in the surveillance group, and 4 deaths (no BC) after BRRM. The hazard ratio for overall mortality was 0.45 (95% CI 0.15-1.36). BC-specific survival at age 65 was 98% for surveillance and 100% for BRRM. CONCLUSION: BRRM was associated with lower mortality than surveillance for BRCA1 mutation carriers, but for BRCA2 mutation carriers, BRRM may lead to similar BC-specific survival as surveillance. Our findings support a more individualized counseling based on BRCA mutation type.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Mastectomia Profilática , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Mortalidade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Mastectomia Profilática/métodos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
18.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(8): 1136-1147, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 15% of all breast cancers occur in women with a family history of breast cancer, but for whom no causative hereditary gene mutation has been found. Screening guidelines for women with familial risk of breast cancer differ between countries. We did a randomised controlled trial (FaMRIsc) to compare MRI screening with mammography in women with familial risk. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, controlled trial done in 12 hospitals in the Netherlands, women were eligible to participate if they were aged 30-55 years and had a cumulative lifetime breast cancer risk of at least 20% because of a familial predisposition, but were BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53 wild-type. Participants who were breast-feeding, pregnant, had a previous breast cancer screen, or had a previous a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ were eligible, but those with a previously diagnosed invasive carcinoma were excluded. Participants were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive either annual MRI and clinical breast examination plus biennial mammography (MRI group) or annual mammography and clinical breast examination (mammography group). Randomisation was done via a web-based system and stratified by centre. Women who did not provide consent for randomisation could give consent for registration if they followed either the mammography group protocol or the MRI group protocol in a joint decision with their physician. Results from the registration group were only used in the analyses stratified by breast density. Primary outcomes were number, size, and nodal status of detected breast cancers. Analyses were done by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register, number NL2661. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 31, 2017, 1355 women provided consent for randomisation and 231 for registration. 675 of 1355 women were randomly allocated to the MRI group and 680 to the mammography group. 218 of 231 women opting to be in a registration group were in the mammography registration group and 13 were in the MRI registration group. The mean number of screening rounds per woman was 4·3 (SD 1·76). More breast cancers were detected in the MRI group than in the mammography group (40 vs 15; p=0·0017). Invasive cancers (24 in the MRI group and eight in the mammography group) were smaller in the MRI group than in the mammography group (median size 9 mm [5-14] vs 17 mm [13-22]; p=0·010) and less frequently node positive (four [17%] of 24 vs five [63%] of eight; p=0·023). Tumour stages of the cancers detected at incident rounds were significantly earlier in the MRI group (12 [48%] of 25 in the MRI group vs one [7%] of 15 in the mammography group were stage T1a and T1b cancers; one (4%) of 25 in the MRI group and two (13%) of 15 in the mammography group were stage T2 or higher; p=0·035) and node-positive tumours were less frequent (two [11%] of 18 in the MRI group vs five [63%] of eight in the mammography group; p=0·014). All seven tumours stage T2 or higher were in the two highest breast density categories (breast imaging reporting and data system categories C and D; p=0·0077) One patient died from breast cancer during follow-up (mammography registration group). INTERPRETATION: MRI screening detected cancers at an earlier stage than mammography. The lower number of late-stage cancers identified in incident rounds might reduce the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and decrease breast cancer-related mortality. However, the advantages of the MRI screening approach might be at the cost of more false-positive results, especially at high breast density. FUNDING: Dutch Government ZonMw, Dutch Cancer Society, A Sister's Hope, Pink Ribbon, Stichting Coolsingel, J&T Rijke Stichting.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Mamografia/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 103(3): 595-604, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385276

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous reports suggest that radiation therapy for breast cancer (BC) can cause ischemic heart disease, with the radiation-related risk increasing linearly with mean whole heart dose (MWHD). This study aimed to validate these findings in younger BC patients and to investigate additional risk factors for radiation-related myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of BC survivors treated during 1970 to 2009. Cases were 183 patients with MI as their first heart disease after BC. One control per case was selected and matched on age and BC diagnosis date. Information on treatment and cardiovascular risk factors was abstracted from medical and radiation charts. Cardiac doses were estimated for each woman by reconstructing her regimen using modern 3-dimensional computed tomography planning on a typical patient computed tomography scan. RESULTS: Median age at BC of cases and controls was 50.2 years (interquartile range, 45.7-54.7). Median time to MI was 13.6 years (interquartile range, 9.9-18.1). Median MWHD was 8.9 Gy (range, 0.3-35.2 Gy). MI rate increased linearly with increasing MWHD (excess rate ratio [ERR] per Gy, 6.4%; 95% confidence interval, 1.3%-16.0%). Patients receiving ≥20 Gy MWHD had a 3.4-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.5-7.6) higher MI rate than unirradiated patients. ERRs were higher for younger women, with borderline significance (ERR<45years, 24.2%/Gy; ERR≥50years, 2.5%/Gy; Pinteraction = .054). Whole heart dose-volume parameters did not modify the dose-response relationship significantly. CONCLUSIONS: MI rate after radiation for BC increases linearly with MWHD. Reductions in MWHD are expected to contribute to better cardiovascular health of BC survivors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Blood ; 133(10): 1130-1139, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573632

RESUMO

Female Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients treated with chest radiotherapy (RT) have a very high risk of breast cancer. The contribution of genetic factors to this risk is unclear. We therefore examined 211 155 germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for gene-radiation interaction on breast cancer risk in a case-only analysis including 327 breast cancer patients after chest RT for HL and 4671 first primary breast cancer patients. Nine SNPs showed statistically significant interaction with RT on breast cancer risk (false discovery rate, <20%), of which 1 SNP in the PVT1 oncogene attained the Bonferroni threshold for statistical significance. A polygenic risk score (PRS) composed of these SNPs (RT-interaction-PRS) and a previously published breast cancer PRS (BC-PRS) derived in the general population were evaluated in a case-control analysis comprising the 327 chest-irradiated HL patients with breast cancer and 491 chest-irradiated HL patients without breast cancer. Patients in the highest tertile of the RT-interaction-PRS had a 1.6-fold higher breast cancer risk than those in the lowest tertile. Remarkably, we observed a fourfold increased RT-induced breast cancer risk in the highest compared with the lowest decile of the BC-PRS. On a continuous scale, breast cancer risk increased 1.4-fold per standard deviation of the BC-PRS, similar to the effect size found in the general population. This study demonstrates that genetic factors influence breast cancer risk after chest RT for HL. Given the high absolute breast cancer risk in radiation-exposed women, these results can have important implications for the management of current HL survivors and future patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doença de Hodgkin/genética , Doença de Hodgkin/radioterapia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Doença de Hodgkin/complicações , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Controle de Qualidade , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Análise de Regressão , Risco , Adulto Jovem
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