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1.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to develop dose-response relationships for heart failure (HF) following radiation and anthracyclines in breast cancer treatment, and to assess HF associations with trastuzumab and endocrine therapies. METHODS AND RESULTS: A case-control study was performed within a cohort of breast cancer survivors treated during 1980-2009. Cases (n = 102) had HF as first cardiovascular diagnosis and were matched 1:3 on age and date of diagnosis. Individual cardiac radiation doses were estimated, and anthracycline doses and use of trastuzumab and endocrine therapy were abstracted from oncology notes. For HF cases who received radiotherapy, the estimated median mean heart dose (MHD) was 6.8 Gy [interquartile range (IQR) 0.9-13.7]. MHD was not associated with HF risk overall [excess rate ratio (ERR) = 1%/Gy, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2 to 10]. In patients treated with anthracyclines, exposure of ≥20% of the heart to ≥20 Gy was associated with a rate ratio of 5.7 (95% CI 1.7-21.7) compared to <10% exposed to ≥20 Gy. For cases who received radiotherapy, median cumulative anthracycline dose was 247 mg/m2 (IQR 240-319). A dose-dependent increase was observed after anthracycline without trastuzumab (ERR = 1.5% per mg/m2 , 95% CI 0.5-4.1). After anthracycline and trastuzumab, the rate ratio was 34.9 (95% CI 11.1-110.1) compared to no chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: In absence of anthracyclines, breast cancer radiotherapy was not associated with increased HF risk. Strongly elevated HF risks were observed after treatment with anthracyclines and also after treatment with trastuzumab. The benefits of these systemic treatments usually exceed the risks of HF, but our results emphasize the need to support ongoing efforts to evaluate preventative strategies.

2.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(3): 723-733, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In healthy BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy (BRRM) strongly reduces the risk of developing breast cancer (BC); however, no clear survival benefit of BRRM over BC surveillance has been reported yet. METHODS: In this Dutch multicenter cohort study, we used multivariable Cox models with BRRM as a time-dependent covariable to estimate the associations between BRRM and the overall and BC-specific mortality rates, separately for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 10.3 years, 722 out of 1712 BRCA1 (42%) and 406 out of 1145 BRCA2 (35%) mutation carriers underwent BRRM. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, we observed 52 deaths (20 from BC) in the surveillance group, and 10 deaths (one from BC) after BRRM. The hazard ratios were 0.40 (95% CI 0.20-0.90) for overall mortality and 0.06 (95% CI 0.01-0.46) for BC-specific mortality. BC-specific survival at age 65 was 93% for surveillance and 99.7% for BRRM. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, we observed 29 deaths (7 from BC) in the surveillance group, and 4 deaths (no BC) after BRRM. The hazard ratio for overall mortality was 0.45 (95% CI 0.15-1.36). BC-specific survival at age 65 was 98% for surveillance and 100% for BRRM. CONCLUSION: BRRM was associated with lower mortality than surveillance for BRCA1 mutation carriers, but for BRCA2 mutation carriers, BRRM may lead to similar BC-specific survival as surveillance. Our findings support a more individualized counseling based on BRCA mutation type.

3.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(8): 1136-1147, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 15% of all breast cancers occur in women with a family history of breast cancer, but for whom no causative hereditary gene mutation has been found. Screening guidelines for women with familial risk of breast cancer differ between countries. We did a randomised controlled trial (FaMRIsc) to compare MRI screening with mammography in women with familial risk. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, controlled trial done in 12 hospitals in the Netherlands, women were eligible to participate if they were aged 30-55 years and had a cumulative lifetime breast cancer risk of at least 20% because of a familial predisposition, but were BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53 wild-type. Participants who were breast-feeding, pregnant, had a previous breast cancer screen, or had a previous a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ were eligible, but those with a previously diagnosed invasive carcinoma were excluded. Participants were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive either annual MRI and clinical breast examination plus biennial mammography (MRI group) or annual mammography and clinical breast examination (mammography group). Randomisation was done via a web-based system and stratified by centre. Women who did not provide consent for randomisation could give consent for registration if they followed either the mammography group protocol or the MRI group protocol in a joint decision with their physician. Results from the registration group were only used in the analyses stratified by breast density. Primary outcomes were number, size, and nodal status of detected breast cancers. Analyses were done by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register, number NL2661. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 31, 2017, 1355 women provided consent for randomisation and 231 for registration. 675 of 1355 women were randomly allocated to the MRI group and 680 to the mammography group. 218 of 231 women opting to be in a registration group were in the mammography registration group and 13 were in the MRI registration group. The mean number of screening rounds per woman was 4·3 (SD 1·76). More breast cancers were detected in the MRI group than in the mammography group (40 vs 15; p=0·0017). Invasive cancers (24 in the MRI group and eight in the mammography group) were smaller in the MRI group than in the mammography group (median size 9 mm [5-14] vs 17 mm [13-22]; p=0·010) and less frequently node positive (four [17%] of 24 vs five [63%] of eight; p=0·023). Tumour stages of the cancers detected at incident rounds were significantly earlier in the MRI group (12 [48%] of 25 in the MRI group vs one [7%] of 15 in the mammography group were stage T1a and T1b cancers; one (4%) of 25 in the MRI group and two (13%) of 15 in the mammography group were stage T2 or higher; p=0·035) and node-positive tumours were less frequent (two [11%] of 18 in the MRI group vs five [63%] of eight in the mammography group; p=0·014). All seven tumours stage T2 or higher were in the two highest breast density categories (breast imaging reporting and data system categories C and D; p=0·0077) One patient died from breast cancer during follow-up (mammography registration group). INTERPRETATION: MRI screening detected cancers at an earlier stage than mammography. The lower number of late-stage cancers identified in incident rounds might reduce the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and decrease breast cancer-related mortality. However, the advantages of the MRI screening approach might be at the cost of more false-positive results, especially at high breast density. FUNDING: Dutch Government ZonMw, Dutch Cancer Society, A Sister's Hope, Pink Ribbon, Stichting Coolsingel, J&T Rijke Stichting.

4.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 103(3): 595-604, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385276

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous reports suggest that radiation therapy for breast cancer (BC) can cause ischemic heart disease, with the radiation-related risk increasing linearly with mean whole heart dose (MWHD). This study aimed to validate these findings in younger BC patients and to investigate additional risk factors for radiation-related myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of BC survivors treated during 1970 to 2009. Cases were 183 patients with MI as their first heart disease after BC. One control per case was selected and matched on age and BC diagnosis date. Information on treatment and cardiovascular risk factors was abstracted from medical and radiation charts. Cardiac doses were estimated for each woman by reconstructing her regimen using modern 3-dimensional computed tomography planning on a typical patient computed tomography scan. RESULTS: Median age at BC of cases and controls was 50.2 years (interquartile range, 45.7-54.7). Median time to MI was 13.6 years (interquartile range, 9.9-18.1). Median MWHD was 8.9 Gy (range, 0.3-35.2 Gy). MI rate increased linearly with increasing MWHD (excess rate ratio [ERR] per Gy, 6.4%; 95% confidence interval, 1.3%-16.0%). Patients receiving ≥20 Gy MWHD had a 3.4-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.5-7.6) higher MI rate than unirradiated patients. ERRs were higher for younger women, with borderline significance (ERR<45years, 24.2%/Gy; ERR≥50years, 2.5%/Gy; Pinteraction = .054). Whole heart dose-volume parameters did not modify the dose-response relationship significantly. CONCLUSIONS: MI rate after radiation for BC increases linearly with MWHD. Reductions in MWHD are expected to contribute to better cardiovascular health of BC survivors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
5.
Blood ; 133(10): 1130-1139, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573632

RESUMO

Female Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients treated with chest radiotherapy (RT) have a very high risk of breast cancer. The contribution of genetic factors to this risk is unclear. We therefore examined 211 155 germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for gene-radiation interaction on breast cancer risk in a case-only analysis including 327 breast cancer patients after chest RT for HL and 4671 first primary breast cancer patients. Nine SNPs showed statistically significant interaction with RT on breast cancer risk (false discovery rate, <20%), of which 1 SNP in the PVT1 oncogene attained the Bonferroni threshold for statistical significance. A polygenic risk score (PRS) composed of these SNPs (RT-interaction-PRS) and a previously published breast cancer PRS (BC-PRS) derived in the general population were evaluated in a case-control analysis comprising the 327 chest-irradiated HL patients with breast cancer and 491 chest-irradiated HL patients without breast cancer. Patients in the highest tertile of the RT-interaction-PRS had a 1.6-fold higher breast cancer risk than those in the lowest tertile. Remarkably, we observed a fourfold increased RT-induced breast cancer risk in the highest compared with the lowest decile of the BC-PRS. On a continuous scale, breast cancer risk increased 1.4-fold per standard deviation of the BC-PRS, similar to the effect size found in the general population. This study demonstrates that genetic factors influence breast cancer risk after chest RT for HL. Given the high absolute breast cancer risk in radiation-exposed women, these results can have important implications for the management of current HL survivors and future patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doença de Hodgkin/genética , Doença de Hodgkin/radioterapia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Doença de Hodgkin/complicações , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Controle de Qualidade , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Análise de Regressão , Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Breast ; 44: 1-14, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of developing metachronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC) is a recurrent topic at the outpatient clinic. We aimed to provide CBC risk estimates of published patient, pathological, and primary breast cancer (PBC) treatment-related factors. METHODS: PubMed was searched for publications on factors associated with CBC risk. Meta-analyses were performed with grouping of studies by mutation status (i.e., BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2 c.1100delC), familial cohorts, and general population-based cohorts. RESULTS: Sixty-eight papers satisfied our inclusion criteria. Strong associations with CBC were found for carrying a BRCA1 (RR = 3.7; 95%CI:2.8-4.9), BRCA2 (RR = 2.8; 95%CI:1.8-4.3) or CHEK2 c.1100delC (RR = 2.7; 95%CI:2.0-3.7) mutation. In population-based cohorts, PBC family history (RR = 1.8; 95%CI:1.2-2.6), body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 (RR = 1.5; 95%CI:1.3-1.9), lobular PBC (RR = 1.4; 95%CI:1.1-1.8), estrogen receptor-negative PBC (RR = 1.5; 95%CI:1.0-2.3) and treatment with radiotherapy <40 years (RR = 1.4; 95%CI:1.1-1.7) was associated with increased CBC risk. Older age at PBC diagnosis (RR per decade = 0.93; 95%CI:0.88-0.98), and treatment with chemotherapy (RR = 0.7; 95%CI:0.6-0.8) or endocrine therapy (RR = 0.6; 95%CI:0.5-0.7) were associated with decreased CBC risk. CONCLUSIONS: Mutation status, family history, and PBC treatment are key factors for CBC risk. Age at PBC diagnosis, BMI, lobular histology and hormone receptor status have weaker associations and should be considered in combination with key factors to accurately predict CBC risk.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Carga Tumoral
7.
Br J Cancer ; 119(4): 408-418, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30065254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved breast cancer (BC) survival and evidence showing beneficial effects of internal mammary chain (IMC) irradiation underscore the importance of studying late cardiovascular effects of BC treatment. METHODS: We assessed cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence in 14,645 Dutch BC patients aged <62 years, treated during 1970-2009. Analyses included proportional hazards models and general population comparisons. RESULTS: CVD rate-ratio for left-versus-right breast irradiation without IMC was 1.11 (95% CI 0.93-1.32). Compared to right-sided breast irradiation only, IMC irradiation (interquartile range mean heart doses 9-17 Gy) was associated with increases in CVD rate overall, ischaemic heart disease (IHD), heart failure (HF) and valvular heart disease (hazard ratios (HRs): 1.6-2.4). IHD risk remained increased until at least 20 years after treatment. Anthracycline-based chemotherapy was associated with an increased HF rate (HR = 4.18, 95% CI 3.07-5.69), emerging <5 years and remaining increased at least 10-15 years after treatment. IMC irradiation combined with anthracycline-based chemotherapy was associated with substantially increased HF rate (HR = 9.23 95% CI 6.01-14.18), compared to neither IMC irradiation nor anthracycline-based chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Women treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy and IMC irradiation (in an older era) with considerable mean heart dose exposure have substantially increased incidence of several CVDs. Screening may be appropriate for some BC patient groups.


Assuntos
Antraciclinas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Antraciclinas/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Radioterapia/métodos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6574, 2018 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700408

RESUMO

E-cadherin (CDH1) is a putative tumor suppressor gene implicated in breast carcinogenesis. Yet, whether risk factors or survival differ by E-cadherin tumor expression is unclear. We evaluated E-cadherin tumor immunohistochemistry expression using tissue microarrays of 5,933 female invasive breast cancers from 12 studies from the Breast Cancer Consortium. H-scores were calculated and case-case odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. Survival analyses were performed using Cox regression models. All analyses were stratified by estrogen receptor (ER) status and histologic subtype. E-cadherin low cases (N = 1191, 20%) were more frequently of lobular histology, low grade, >2 cm, and HER2-negative. Loss of E-cadherin expression (score < 100) was associated with menopausal hormone use among ER-positive tumors (ever compared to never users, OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.97-1.59), which was stronger when we evaluated complete loss of E-cadherin (i.e. H-score = 0), OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.06-2.33. Breast cancer specific mortality was unrelated to E-cadherin expression in multivariable models. E-cadherin low expression is associated with lobular histology, tumor characteristics and menopausal hormone use, with no evidence of an association with breast cancer specific survival. These data support loss of E-cadherin expression as an important marker of tumor subtypes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Caderinas/genética , Expressão Gênica , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
9.
Int J Cancer ; 143(4): 746-757, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29492969

RESUMO

Limited epidemiological evidence suggests that the etiology of hormone receptor positive (HR+) breast cancer may differ by levels of histologic grade and proliferation. We pooled risk factor and pathology data on 5,905 HR+ breast cancer cases and 26,281 controls from 11 epidemiological studies. Proliferation was determined by centralized automated measures of KI67 in tissue microarrays. Odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and p-values for case-case and case-control comparisons for risk factors in relation to levels of grade and quartiles (Q1-Q4) of KI67 were estimated using polytomous logistic regression models. Case-case comparisons showed associations between nulliparity and high KI67 [OR (95% CI) for Q4 vs. Q1 = 1.54 (1.22, 1.95)]; obesity and high grade [grade 3 vs. 1 = 1.68 (1.31, 2.16)] and current use of combined hormone therapy (HT) and low grade [grade 3 vs. 1 = 0.27 (0.16, 0.44)] tumors. In case-control comparisons, nulliparity was associated with elevated risk of tumors with high but not low levels of proliferation [1.43 (1.14, 1.81) for KI67 Q4 vs. 0.83 (0.60, 1.14) for KI67 Q1]; obesity among women ≥50 years with high but not low grade tumors [1.55 (1.17, 2.06) for grade 3 vs. 0.88 (0.66, 1.16) for grade 1] and HT with low but not high grade tumors [3.07 (2.22, 4.23) for grade 1 vs. 0.85 (0.55, 1.30) for grade 3]. Menarcheal age and family history were similarly associated with HR+ tumors of different grade or KI67 levels. These findings provide insights into the etiologic heterogeneity of HR+ tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais , Feminino , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Obesidade/complicações , Paridade , Fatores de Risco
10.
Eur J Cancer ; 85: 31-38, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28886475

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Women with a strong family history of breast cancer (BC) and without a known gene mutation have an increased risk of developing BC. We aimed to investigate the accuracy of screening using annual mammography with or without magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for these women outside the general population screening program. METHODS: An individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis was conducted using IPD from six prospective screening trials that had included women at increased risk for BC: only women with a strong familial risk for BC and without a known gene mutation were included in this analysis. A generalised linear mixed model was applied to estimate and compare screening accuracy (sensitivity, specificity and predictive values) for annual mammography with or without MRI. RESULTS: There were 2226 women (median age: 41 years, interquartile range 35-47) with 7478 woman-years of follow-up, with a BC rate of 12 (95% confidence interval 9.3-14) in 1000 woman-years. Mammography screening had a sensitivity of 55% (standard error of mean [SE] 7.0) and a specificity of 94% (SE 1.3). Screening with MRI alone had a sensitivity of 89% (SE 4.6) and a specificity of 83% (SE 2.8). Adding MRI to mammography increased sensitivity to 98% (SE 1.8, P < 0.01 compared to mammography alone) but lowered specificity to 79% (SE 2.7, P < 0.01 compared with mammography alone). CONCLUSION: In this population of women with strong familial BC risk but without a known gene mutation, in whom BC incidence was high both before and after age 50, adding MRI to mammography substantially increased screening sensitivity but also decreased its specificity.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Mamografia , Mutação , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
11.
JAMA ; 317(23): 2402-2416, 2017 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28632866

RESUMO

Importance: The clinical management of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers requires accurate, prospective cancer risk estimates. Objectives: To estimate age-specific risks of breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancer for mutation carriers and to evaluate risk modification by family cancer history and mutation location. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study of 6036 BRCA1 and 3820 BRCA2 female carriers (5046 unaffected and 4810 with breast or ovarian cancer or both at baseline) recruited in 1997-2011 through the International BRCA1/2 Carrier Cohort Study, the Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer, with ascertainment through family clinics (94%) and population-based studies (6%). The majority were from large national studies in the United Kingdom (EMBRACE), the Netherlands (HEBON), and France (GENEPSO). Follow-up ended December 2013; median follow-up was 5 years. Exposures: BRCA1/2 mutations, family cancer history, and mutation location. Main Outcomes and Measures: Annual incidences, standardized incidence ratios, and cumulative risks of breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancer. Results: Among 3886 women (median age, 38 years; interquartile range [IQR], 30-46 years) eligible for the breast cancer analysis, 5066 women (median age, 38 years; IQR, 31-47 years) eligible for the ovarian cancer analysis, and 2213 women (median age, 47 years; IQR, 40-55 years) eligible for the contralateral breast cancer analysis, 426 were diagnosed with breast cancer, 109 with ovarian cancer, and 245 with contralateral breast cancer during follow-up. The cumulative breast cancer risk to age 80 years was 72% (95% CI, 65%-79%) for BRCA1 and 69% (95% CI, 61%-77%) for BRCA2 carriers. Breast cancer incidences increased rapidly in early adulthood until ages 30 to 40 years for BRCA1 and until ages 40 to 50 years for BRCA2 carriers, then remained at a similar, constant incidence (20-30 per 1000 person-years) until age 80 years. The cumulative ovarian cancer risk to age 80 years was 44% (95% CI, 36%-53%) for BRCA1 and 17% (95% CI, 11%-25%) for BRCA2 carriers. For contralateral breast cancer, the cumulative risk 20 years after breast cancer diagnosis was 40% (95% CI, 35%-45%) for BRCA1 and 26% (95% CI, 20%-33%) for BRCA2 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] for comparing BRCA2 vs BRCA1, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.47-0.82; P=.001 for difference). Breast cancer risk increased with increasing number of first- and second-degree relatives diagnosed as having breast cancer for both BRCA1 (HR for ≥2 vs 0 affected relatives, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.41-2.82; P<.001 for trend) and BRCA2 carriers (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.08-3.37; P=.02 for trend). Breast cancer risk was higher if mutations were located outside vs within the regions bounded by positions c.2282-c.4071 in BRCA1 (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.11-1.93; P=.007) and c.2831-c.6401 in BRCA2 (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.36-2.74; P<.001). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings provide estimates of cancer risk based on BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carrier status using prospective data collection and demonstrate the potential importance of family history and mutation location in risk assessment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Oncotarget ; 8(11): 18381-18398, 2017 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28179588

RESUMO

TP53 overexpression is indicative of somatic TP53 mutations and associates with aggressive tumors and poor prognosis in breast cancer. We utilized a two-stage SNP association study to detect variants associated with breast cancer survival in a TP53-dependent manner. Initially, a genome-wide study (n = 575 cases) was conducted to discover candidate SNPs for genotyping and validation in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). The SNPs were then tested for interaction with tumor TP53 status (n = 4,610) and anthracycline treatment (n = 17,828). For SNPs interacting with anthracycline treatment, siRNA knockdown experiments were carried out to validate candidate genes.In the test for interaction between SNP genotype and TP53 status, we identified one locus, represented by rs10916264 (p(interaction) = 3.44 × 10-5; FDR-adjusted p = 0.0011) in estrogen receptor (ER) positive cases. The rs10916264 AA genotype associated with worse survival among cases with ER-positive, TP53-positive tumors (hazard ratio [HR] 2.36, 95% confidence interval [C.I] 1.45 - 3.82). This is a cis-eQTL locus for FBXO28 and TP53BP2; expression levels of these genes were associated with patient survival specifically in ER-positive, TP53-mutated tumors. Additionally, the SNP rs798755 was associated with survival in interaction with anthracycline treatment (p(interaction) = 9.57 × 10-5, FDR-adjusted p = 0.0130). RNAi-based depletion of a predicted regulatory target gene, FAM53A, indicated that this gene can modulate doxorubicin sensitivity in breast cancer cell lines.If confirmed in independent data sets, these results may be of clinical relevance in the development of prognostic and predictive marker panels for breast cancer.


Assuntos
Antraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Ligases SKP Culina F-Box/genética , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Breast Cancer Res ; 18(1): 104, 2016 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27756439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The value of KI67 in breast cancer prognostication has been questioned due to concerns on the analytical validity of visual KI67 assessment and methodological limitations of published studies. Here, we investigate the prognostic value of automated KI67 scoring in a large, multicentre study, and compare this with pathologists' visual scores available in a subset of patients. METHODS: We utilised 143 tissue microarrays containing 15,313 tumour tissue cores from 8088 breast cancer patients in 10 collaborating studies. A total of 1401 deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 7.5 years. Centralised KI67 assessment was performed using an automated scoring protocol. The relationship of KI67 levels with 10-year breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) was investigated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusted for known prognostic factors. RESULTS: Patients in the highest quartile of KI67 (>12 % positive KI67 cells) had a worse 10-year BCSS than patients in the lower three quartiles. This association was statistically significant for ER-positive patients (hazard ratio (HR) (95 % CI) at baseline = 1.96 (1.31-2.93); P = 0.001) but not for ER-negative patients (1.23 (0.86-1.77); P = 0.248) (P-heterogeneity = 0.064). In spite of differences in characteristics of the study populations, the estimates of HR were consistent across all studies (P-heterogeneity = 0.941 for ER-positive and P-heterogeneity = 0.866 for ER-negative). Among ER-positive cancers, KI67 was associated with worse prognosis in both node-negative (2.47 (1.16-5.27)) and node-positive (1.74 (1.05-2.86)) tumours (P-heterogeneity = 0.671). Further classification according to ER, PR and HER2 showed statistically significant associations with prognosis among hormone receptor-positive patients regardless of HER2 status (P-heterogeneity = 0.270) and among triple-negative patients (1.70 (1.02-2.84)). Model fit parameters were similar for visual and automated measures of KI67 in a subset of 2440 patients with information from both sources. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this large-scale multicentre analysis with centrally generated automated KI67 scores show strong evidence in support of a prognostic value for automated KI67 scoring in breast cancer. Given the advantages of automated scoring in terms of its potential for standardisation, reproducibility and throughput, automated methods appear to be promising alternatives to visual scoring for KI67 assessment.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Vigilância da População , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Adulto Jovem
14.
Oncotarget ; 7(49): 80140-80163, 2016 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27792995

RESUMO

There are significant inter-individual differences in the levels of gene expression. Through modulation of gene expression, cis-acting variants represent an important source of phenotypic variation. Consequently, cis-regulatory SNPs associated with differential allelic expression are functional candidates for further investigation as disease-causing variants. To investigate whether common variants associated with differential allelic expression were involved in breast cancer susceptibility, a list of genes was established on the basis of their involvement in cancer related pathways and/or mechanisms. Thereafter, using data from a genome-wide map of allelic expression associated SNPs, 313 genetic variants were selected and their association with breast cancer risk was then evaluated in 46,451 breast cancer cases and 42,599 controls of European ancestry ascertained from 41 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. The associations were evaluated with overall breast cancer risk and with estrogen receptor negative and positive disease. One novel breast cancer susceptibility locus on 4q21 (rs11099601) was identified (OR = 1.05, P = 5.6x10-6). rs11099601 lies in a 135 kb linkage disequilibrium block containing several genes, including, HELQ, encoding the protein HEL308 a DNA dependant ATPase and DNA Helicase involved in DNA repair, MRPS18C encoding the Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein S18C and FAM175A (ABRAXAS), encoding a BRCA1 BRCT domain-interacting protein involved in DNA damage response and double-strand break (DSB) repair. Expression QTL analysis in breast cancer tissue showed rs11099601 to be associated with HELQ (P = 8.28x10-14), MRPS18C (P = 1.94x10-27) and FAM175A (P = 3.83x10-3), explaining about 20%, 14% and 1%, respectively of the variance inexpression of these genes in breast carcinomas.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 4 , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Canadá , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Helicases/genética , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
15.
PLoS Med ; 13(8): e1002105, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27551723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or environmental factors. METHODS: We applied Mendelian randomization to evaluate the association between BMI and risk of breast cancer occurrence using data from two large breast cancer consortia. We created a weighted BMI genetic score comprising 84 BMI-associated genetic variants to predicted BMI. We evaluated genetically predicted BMI in association with breast cancer risk using individual-level data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) (cases = 46,325, controls = 42,482). We further evaluated the association between genetically predicted BMI and breast cancer risk using summary statistics from 16,003 cases and 41,335 controls from the Discovery, Biology, and Risk of Inherited Variants in Breast Cancer (DRIVE) Project. Because most studies measured BMI after cancer diagnosis, we could not conduct a parallel analysis to adequately evaluate the association of measured BMI with breast cancer risk prospectively. RESULTS: In the BCAC data, genetically predicted BMI was found to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] = 0.65 per 5 kg/m2 increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56-0.75, p = 3.32 × 10-10). The associations were similar for both premenopausal (OR = 0.44, 95% CI:0.31-0.62, p = 9.91 × 10-8) and postmenopausal breast cancer (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.46-0.71, p = 1.88 × 10-8). This association was replicated in the data from the DRIVE consortium (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.84, p = 1.64 × 10-7). Single marker analyses identified 17 of the 84 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in association with breast cancer risk at p < 0.05; for 16 of them, the allele associated with elevated BMI was associated with reduced breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: BMI predicted by genome-wide association studies (GWAS)-identified variants is inversely associated with the risk of both pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer. The reduced risk of postmenopausal breast cancer associated with genetically predicted BMI observed in this study differs from the positive association reported from studies using measured adult BMI. Understanding the reasons for this discrepancy may reveal insights into the complex relationship of genetic determinants of body weight in the etiology of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Pathol Clin Res ; 2(3): 138-53, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27499923

RESUMO

Automated methods are needed to facilitate high-throughput and reproducible scoring of Ki67 and other markers in breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMAs) in large-scale studies. To address this need, we developed an automated protocol for Ki67 scoring and evaluated its performance in studies from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We utilized 166 TMAs containing 16,953 tumour cores representing 9,059 breast cancer cases, from 13 studies, with information on other clinical and pathological characteristics. TMAs were stained for Ki67 using standard immunohistochemical procedures, and scanned and digitized using the Ariol system. An automated algorithm was developed for the scoring of Ki67, and scores were compared to computer assisted visual (CAV) scores in a subset of 15 TMAs in a training set. We also assessed the correlation between automated Ki67 scores and other clinical and pathological characteristics. Overall, we observed good discriminatory accuracy (AUC = 85%) and good agreement (kappa = 0.64) between the automated and CAV scoring methods in the training set. The performance of the automated method varied by TMA (kappa range= 0.37-0.87) and study (kappa range = 0.39-0.69). The automated method performed better in satisfactory cores (kappa = 0.68) than suboptimal (kappa = 0.51) cores (p-value for comparison = 0.005); and among cores with higher total nuclei counted by the machine (4,000-4,500 cells: kappa = 0.78) than those with lower counts (50-500 cells: kappa = 0.41; p-value = 0.010). Among the 9,059 cases in this study, the correlations between automated Ki67 and clinical and pathological characteristics were found to be in the expected directions. Our findings indicate that automated scoring of Ki67 can be an efficient method to obtain good quality data across large numbers of TMAs from multicentre studies. However, robust algorithm development and rigorous pre- and post-analytical quality control procedures are necessary in order to ensure satisfactory performance.

17.
Sci Rep ; 6: 30026, 2016 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27424772

RESUMO

The HOXB13 p.G84E mutation has been firmly established as a prostate cancer susceptibility allele. Although HOXB13 also plays a role in breast tumor progression, the association of HOXB13 p.G84E with breast cancer risk is less evident. Therefore, we comprehensively interrogated the entire HOXB13 coding sequence for mutations in 1,250 non-BRCA1/2 familial breast cancer cases and 800 controls. We identified two predicted deleterious missense mutations, p.G84E and p.R217C, that were recurrent among breast cancer cases and further evaluated their association with breast cancer risk in a larger study. Taken together, 4,520 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 3,127 controls were genotyped including the cases and controls of the whole gene screen. The concordance rate for the genotyping assays compared with Sanger sequencing was 100%. The prostate cancer risk allele p.G84E was identified in 18 (0.56%) of 3,187 cases and 16 (0.70%) of 2,300 controls (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.41-1.59, P = 0.54). Additionally, p.R217C was identified in 10 (0.31%) of 3,208 cases and 2 (0.087%) of 2,288 controls (OR = 3.57, 95% CI = 0.76-33.57, P = 0.14). These results imply that none of the recurrent HOXB13 mutations in the Dutch population are associated with breast cancer risk, although it may be worthwhile to evaluate p.R217C in a larger study.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Risco
18.
Br J Cancer ; 114(6): 631-7, 2016 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26908327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the additional contribution of mammography to screening accuracy in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers screened with MRI at different ages using individual patient data from six high-risk screening trials. METHODS: Sensitivity and specificity of MRI, mammography and the combination of these tests were compared stratified for BRCA mutation and age using generalised linear mixed models with random effect for studies. Number of screens needed (NSN) for additional mammography-only detected cancer was estimated. RESULTS: In BRCA1/2 mutation carriers of all ages (BRCA1 = 1,219 and BRCA2 = 732), adding mammography to MRI did not significantly increase screening sensitivity (increased by 3.9% in BRCA1 and 12.6% in BRCA2 mutation carriers, P > 0.05). However, in women with BRCA2 mutation younger than 40 years, one-third of breast cancers were detected by mammography only. Number of screens needed for mammography to detect one breast cancer not detected by MRI was much higher for BRCA1 compared with BRCA2 mutation carriers at initial and repeat screening. CONCLUSIONS: Additional screening sensitivity from mammography above that from MRI is limited in BRCA1 mutation carriers, whereas mammography contributes to screening sensitivity in BRCA2 mutation carriers, especially those ⩽ 40 years. The evidence from our work highlights that a differential screening schedule by BRCA status is worth considering.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Mamografia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
J Clin Oncol ; 34(5): 409-18, 2016 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26700119

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine prospectively overall and age-specific estimates of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk for young patients with breast cancer with or without BRCA1/2 mutations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cohort of 6,294 patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed under 50 years of age and treated between 1970 and 2003 in 10 Dutch centers was tested for the most prevalent BRCA1/2 mutations. We report absolute risks and hazard ratios within the cohort from competing risk analyses. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 12.5 years, 578 CBCs were observed in our study population. CBC risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers was two to three times higher than for noncarriers (hazard ratios, 3.31 [95% CI, 2.41 to 4.55; P < .001] and 2.17 [95% CI,1.22 to 3.85; P = .01], respectively). Ten-year cumulative CBC risks were 21.1% (95% CI, 15.4 to 27.4) for BRCA1, 10.8% (95% CI, 4.7 to 19.6) for BRCA2 mutation carriers and 5.1% (95% CI, 4.5 to 5.7) for noncarriers. Age at diagnosis of the first breast cancer was a significant predictor of CBC risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers only; those diagnosed before age 41 years had a 10-year cumulative CBC risk of 23.9% (BRCA1: 25.5%; BRCA2: 17.2%) compared with 12.6% (BRCA1: 15.6%; BRCA2: 7.2%) for those 41 to 49 years of age (P = .02); our review of published studies showed ranges of 24% to 31% before age 40 years (BRCA1: 24% to 32%; BRCA2:17% to 29%) and 8% to 21% after 40 years (BRCA1: 11% to 52%; BRCA2: 7% to 18%), respectively. CONCLUSION: Age at first breast cancer is a strong risk factor for cumulative CBC risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Considering the available evidence, age-specific risk estimates should be included in counseling.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação/genética , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Seguimentos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
20.
BMC Cancer ; 15: 978, 2015 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26674097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Personalized therapy considering clinical and genetic patient characteristics will further improve breast cancer survival. Two widely used treatments, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, can induce oxidative DNA damage and, if not repaired, cell death. Since base excision repair (BER) activity is specific for oxidative DNA damage, we hypothesized that germline genetic variation in this pathway will affect breast cancer-specific survival depending on treatment. METHODS: We assessed in 1,408 postmenopausal breast cancer patients from the German MARIE study whether cancer specific survival after adjuvant chemotherapy, anthracycline chemotherapy, and radiotherapy is modulated by 127 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in 21 BER genes. For SNPs with interaction terms showing p<0.1 (likelihood ratio test) using multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses, replication in 6,392 patients from nine studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) was performed. RESULTS: rs878156 in PARP2 showed a differential effect by chemotherapy (p=0.093) and was replicated in BCAC studies (p=0.009; combined analysis p=0.002). Compared to non-carriers, carriers of the variant G allele (minor allele frequency=0.07) showed better survival after chemotherapy (combined allelic hazard ratio (HR)=0.75, 95% 0.53-1.07) and poorer survival when not treated with chemotherapy (HR=1.42, 95% 1.08-1.85). A similar effect modification by rs878156 was observed for anthracycline-based chemotherapy in both MARIE and BCAC, with improved survival in carriers (combined allelic HR=0.73, 95% CI 0.40-1.32). None of the SNPs showed significant differential effects by radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest for the first time that a SNP in PARP2, rs878156, may together with other genetic variants modulate cancer specific survival in breast cancer patients depending on chemotherapy. These germline SNPs could contribute towards the design of predictive tests for breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/genética , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pós-Menopausa , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Radioterapia
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