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1.
J Adolesc Health ; 66(2): 181-188, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630924

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Disordered eating behaviors are prevalent among adolescents. Understanding how these behaviors link to body mass index (BMI) across different stages of development and over an extended period may provide insight for designing interventions around eating and weight. This study had two objectives: (1) to assess the distribution of disordered eating behaviors and develop a global score of disordered eating behaviors among adolescents and (2) to examine the association between the number of disordered eating behaviors in adolescence and BMI trajectory over 15 years. METHODS: Project Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults (EAT), a longitudinal study of weight-related health and behavior comprising four waves (EAT-I to EAT-IV), measured seven disordered eating behaviors (importance of weight and shape, frequent dieting, extreme unhealthy weight control behaviors, overeating, distress about overeating, loss of control while overeating, and frequency of overeating and loss of control) at baseline (N = 1,230, ages 11 to 18 years, 1998-1999). These behaviors were summed to create a disordered eating behavior score. BMI was self-reported at all four waves (up to age 27-33 years at EAT-IV). Repeated measures with random slope and intercept examined the association between disordered eating behaviors and BMI trajectories over 15 years. RESULTS: At baseline, 50.7% and 33.7% of females and males endorsed disordered eating behaviors. Throughout 15 years of follow-up, sociodemographic-adjusted BMI was higher among adolescents who engaged in disordered eating behaviors. The association remained significant after further adjustment for baseline BMI (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Among adolescents, regardless of the type of disordered eating behaviors, engagement in disordered eating behavior predicted higher BMI in a dose-response fashion.

2.
Soc Sci Med ; 233: 64-70, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181470

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs) often predict future substance use, resulting in a comorbidity that predicts later health consequences. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to examine whether weight stigma and its associated harms magnify or attenuate the effect of UWCBs at baseline on substance use at 10-year follow-up among girls and to elucidate factors related to the perceived harms of weight stigma. METHODS: Data from 1147 adolescent girls from Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) were analyzed at baseline and 10-year follow-up. Participants were split into three groups at baseline: no weight stigma; weight stigma only (being teased by peers or parents); and weight stigma with perceived harms (e.g., being bothered by teasing). Moderation and stratified regression analyses examined the role of weight stigma and its perceived harms on the relationship between UWCBs and substance use. ANOVA models aimed to elucidate factors related to the perceived harms of weight stigma. RESULTS: Moderation analyses revealed marginally significant effects of group membership on the effect of UWCB on substance use (p = .08). Stratified regression results indicated that UWCBs at baseline predicted substance use at 10-year follow-up among girls in the weight stigma with perceived harms group (p = .005), but not in the no weight stigma or weight stigma only groups. Girls in the weight stigma with perceived harms group reported higher weight concern, depressive symptoms and BMIs than girls who report no weight stigma or weight stigma only. CONCLUSIONS: Health initiatives should seek to reduce weight stigma and its associated harms to prevent substance use in girls and women. Clinicians working with adolescent girls with UWCB should inquire about experiences with weight stigma with its harms to assess substance use risk. Due to the marginally significant moderation, results should be interpreted with caution. CONCLUSIONS: Health initiatives should seek to reduce weight stigma and its associated harms to prevent substance use in girls and women. Clinicians working with adolescent girls with UWCB should inquire about experiences with weight stigma with its harms to assess substance use risk. Due to the marginally significant moderation, results should be interpreted with caution.

3.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206822, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458001

RESUMO

Nearly half the world's population burns solid fuel for cooking, heating, and lighting. The incomplete combustion of these fuels is associated with detrimental health and environmental effects. The design and distribution of improved cookstoves that increase combustion efficiency and reduce indoor air pollution are a global priority. However, promoting exclusive and sustainable use of the improved stoves has proved challenging. In 2012, we conducted a survey in a community in rural Senegal to describe stove ownership and preferences for different stove technologies. This report aims to describe local stove and fuel use, to identify household preferences related to stove features and function, and to elicit the community perceptions of cleaner-burning stove alternatives with a focus on liquid propane gas. Similar to many resource-limited settings, biomass fuel use was ubiquitous and multiple stoves were used, even when cleaner burning alternatives were available; less than 1% of households that owned a liquid propane stove used it as the primary cooking device. Despite nearly universal use of the traditional open fire (92% of households), women did not prefer this stove when presented with other options. Propane gas, solar, and improved cookstoves were all viewed as more desirable when compared to the traditional open fire, however first-hand experience and knowledge of these stoves was limited. The stove features of greatest value were, in order: large cooking capacity, minimal smoke production, and rapid heating. Despite the low desirability and smoke emisions from the traditional open fire, its pervasive use, even in the presence of alternative stove options, may be related to its ability to satisfy the practical needs of the surveyed cooks, namely large cooking capacity and rapid, intense heat generation. Our data suggest women in this community want alternative stove options that reduce smoke exposure, however currently available stoves, including liquid propane gas, do not address all of the cooks' preferences.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Culinária/instrumentação , Utensílios Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Culinária/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Feminino , Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Combustíveis Fósseis/efeitos adversos , Combustíveis Fósseis/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Senegal , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fumaça/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 15(Suppl 2): S64-S68, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29676646

RESUMO

Air pollution is associated with a diversity of health effects, and evidence for a causal relationship with specific diseases exists. Exposure to air pollution is ubiquitous and typically beyond the control of the individual; the resulting health burden for the population can be high. Disproportionate effects are seen in individuals who have increased susceptibility to air pollution owing to individual- or community-level characteristics. As studies grow increasingly sophisticated, the understanding of who comprises the susceptible population continuously expands. Characteristics of susceptibility include genetic predisposition; socioeconomic factors; life stage; the presence of preexisting diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis; and the unique population of lung transplant recipients. This review explores how select populations, namely individuals with preexisting pulmonary disease and those living in communities of low socioeconomic status, have an increased susceptibility to the health effects of ambient air pollution. Genetic susceptibility, though a fundamental determinant of risk, is beyond the scope of this review and is not discussed. Strategies designed to mitigate air pollution-related health effects are discussed using a framework that addresses pollution exposure at multiple levels-government, state, community, and the individual. Emission reduction strategies remain the basis for public health protection; however, ancillary harm reduction measures are explored that can be adopted by susceptible communities and individuals.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Pneumopatias/induzido quimicamente , Pneumopatias/terapia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
Environ Health Perspect ; 126(2): 027005, 2018 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29410384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited evidence links air pollution exposure to chronic cough and sputum production. Few reports have investigated the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and classically defined chronic bronchitis. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to estimate the association between long-term exposure to particulate matter (diameter <10 µm, PM10; <2.5µm, PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and both incident and prevalent chronic bronchitis. METHODS: We estimated annual average PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 concentrations using a national land-use regression model with spatial smoothing at home addresses of participants in a prospective nationwide U.S. cohort study of sisters of women with breast cancer. Incident chronic bronchitis and prevalent chronic bronchitis, cough and phlegm, were assessed by questionnaires. RESULTS: Among 47,357 individuals with complete data, 1,383 had prevalent chronic bronchitis at baseline, and 647 incident cases occurred over 5.7-y average follow-up. No associations with incident chronic bronchitis were observed. Prevalent chronic bronchitis was associated with PM10 [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) per interquartile range (IQR) difference (5.8 µg/m3)=1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.13]. In never-smokers, PM2.5 was associated with prevalent chronic bronchitis (aOR=1.18 per IQR difference; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.34), and NO2 was associated with prevalent chronic bronchitis (aOR=1.10; 95% CI=1.01, 1.20), cough (aOR=1.10; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.16), and phlegm (aOR=1.07; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.14); interaction p-values (nonsmokers vs. smokers) <0.05. CONCLUSIONS: PM10 exposure was related to chronic bronchitis prevalence. Among never-smokers, PM2.5 and NO2 exposure was associated with chronic bronchitis and component symptoms. Results may have policy ramifications for PM10 regulation by providing evidence for respiratory health effects related to long-term PM10 exposure. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2199.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Bronquite Crônica/etiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Bronquite Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 196(8): 1031-1039, 2017 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28753039

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The impact of a broad range of occupational exposures on subclinical interstitial lung disease (ILD) has not been studied. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether occupational exposures to vapors, gas, dust, and fumes (VGDF) are associated with high-attenuation areas (HAA) and interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA), which are quantitative and qualitative computed tomography (CT)-based measurements of subclinical ILD, respectively. METHODS: We performed analyses of participants enrolled in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), a population-based cohort aged 45-84 years at recruitment. HAA was measured at baseline and on serial cardiac CT scans in 5,702 participants. ILA was ascertained in a subset of 2,312 participants who underwent full-lung CT scanning at 10-year follow-up. Occupational exposures were assessed by self-reported VGDF exposure and by job-exposure matrix (JEM). Linear mixed models and logistic regression were used to determine whether occupational exposures were associated with log-transformed HAA and ILA. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, employment status, tobacco use, and scanner technology. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Each JEM score increment in VGDF exposure was associated with 2.64% greater HAA (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-4.19%). Self-reported vapors/gas exposure was associated with an increased odds of ILA among those currently employed (1.76-fold; 95% CI, 1.09-2.84) and those less than 65 years old (1.97-fold; 95% CI, 1.16-3.35). There was no consistent evidence that occupational exposures were associated with progression of HAA over the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: JEM-assigned and self-reported exposures to VGDF were associated with measurements of subclinical ILD in community-dwelling adults.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
7.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 52(3): 303-309, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27551858

RESUMO

RATIONALE: In Senegal, the prevalence of childhood asthma and utilization of appropriate asthma therapies is unknown. METHODOLOGY: We used the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) survey instrument to assess childhood respiratory health in rural Senegal. We interviewed the caregivers of children aged 5 through 8 years of age in the four largest Niakhar villages in August 2012. RESULTS: We interviewed 1,103 primary caregivers for 1,513 children, representing 91% of all age-eligible children in the study area. Overall, 206 (14%) children had wheeze at any time in the past, 130 (9%) had wheeze within the past year, and only 41 (3%) reported a clinical diagnosis of asthma. Among children with wheeze within the past year, 81 (62%) had symptoms of severe asthma. Nocturnal cough was reported in 186 (14%) children who denied any history of wheezing illness. Only four (3%) children with wheeze in the past year had ever received bronchodilator therapy. Children with wheeze in the past year were significantly more likely to seek medical care for respiratory symptoms and to be perceived as less healthy than their peers. Children of lower socioeconomic status were significantly more likely to have wheeze. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly one in ten children in Niakhar, Senegal had symptoms suggestive of asthma; however, few children have a diagnosis of asthma or use appropriate therapies. This study highlights an opportunity to raise community awareness of asthma in rural Senegal and to increase access to appropriate medical therapies. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:303-309. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tosse/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Prevalência , Sons Respiratórios , População Rural , Senegal/epidemiologia
8.
Crit Care Med ; 42(11): 2325-32, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25148596

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Influenza is the most common vaccine-preventable disease in the United States; however, little is known about the burden of critical illness due to influenza virus infection. Our primary objective was to estimate the proportion of all critical illness hospitalizations that are attributable to seasonal influenza. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Arizona, California, and Washington from January 2003 to March 2009. PATIENTS: All adults hospitalized with critical illness, defined by International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification diagnosis and procedure codes for acute respiratory failure, severe sepsis, or in-hospital death. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We combined the complete hospitalization discharge databases for three U.S. states, regional influenza virus surveillance, and state census data. Using negative binomial regression models, we estimated the incidence rates of adult influenza-associated critical illness hospitalizations and compared them with all-cause event rates. We also compared modeled outcomes to International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification-coded influenza hospitalizations to assess potential underrecognition of severe influenza disease. During the study period, we estimated that 26,760 influenza-associated critical illness hospitalizations (95% CI, 14,541, 47,464) occurred. The population-based incidence estimate for influenza-associated critical illness was 12.0 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI, 6.6, 21.6) or 1.3% of all critical illness hospitalizations (95% CI, 0.7%, 2.3%). During the influenza season, 3.4% of all critical illness hospitalizations (95% CI, 1.9%, 5.8%) were attributable to influenza. There were only 2,612 critical illness hospitalizations with International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification-coded influenza diagnoses, suggesting influenza is either undiagnosed or undercoded in a substantial proportion of critical illness. CONCLUSIONS: Extrapolating our data to the 2010 U.S. population, we estimate that about 28,000 adults are hospitalized for influenza-associated critical illness annually. Influenza in many of these critically ill patients may be undiagnosed. Critical care physicians should have a high index of suspicion for influenza in the ICU, particularly when influenza is known to be circulating in their communities.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/terapia , Adulto , Arizona/epidemiologia , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
J Neuroimmunol ; 272(1-2): 42-50, 2014 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24864013

RESUMO

The coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), JHM strain induces a biphasic disease in BALB/c mice that consists of an acute retinitis followed by progression to a chronic retinal degeneration with autoimmune reactivity. Retinal degeneration resistant CD-1 mice do not develop either the late phase or autoimmune reactivity. A mouse RPE/choroid DNA expression library was screened using sera from virus infected BALB/c mice. Two clones were identified, villin-2 protein and α-fodrin protein. α-Fodrin protein was used for further analysis and western blot reactivity was seen only in sera from virus infected BALB/c mice. CD4 T cells were shown to specifically react with MHV antigens and with α-fodrin protein. These studies clearly identified both antibody and CD4 T cell reactivities to α-fodrin in sera from virus infected, retinal degenerative susceptible BALB/c mice.


Assuntos
Autoantígenos/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Degeneração Retiniana/etiologia , Degeneração Retiniana/virologia , Animais , Antígenos CD4/metabolismo , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Biblioteca Gênica , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fito-Hemaglutininas/farmacologia , Retina/metabolismo , Retina/patologia , Degeneração Retiniana/patologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Cornea ; 32 Suppl 1: S3-12, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24104930

RESUMO

In herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK), herpes simplex virus type-1 DNA fragments and herpes simplex virus-immunoglobulin G immune complexes are present in corneas long after the infective virus has disappeared. These viral components are highly immunogenic and potentiate the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines via Toll-like receptors expressed on corneal cells and macrophages. In addition, angiogenic factors, such as the vascular endothelium growth factor and the tissue-damaging enzyme, matrix metalloproteinase 9, are induced by corneal cells and macrophages through the recognition of these viral components in the pathogenesis of HSK. Upon neovascularization, robust infiltration of leukocytes via leaky new vessels is elicited. Activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) secrete hydrogen peroxide and myeloperoxidase, which inhibit viral growth. PMNs also produce tumor necrosis factor, monokine-induced by interferon-γ (CXCL9), and nitric oxide. These factors provide a local environment that can induce the differentiation of peripheral CD4* T cells to induce Th1-predominant immunopathology. Thus, strategies developed to alter these pathways should lead to new preventative and therapeutic measures for the treatment of HSK.


Assuntos
Ceratite Herpética , Simplexvirus/fisiologia , Citocinas/imunologia , DNA Viral/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Ceratite Herpética/imunologia , Ceratite Herpética/terapia , Ceratite Herpética/virologia , Neovascularização Patológica/imunologia , Simplexvirus/genética , Simplexvirus/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Latência Viral/fisiologia
12.
Arch Virol ; 157(7): 1377-81, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22527863

RESUMO

The role of PMNs (neutrophils) in corneal herpes was studied using an in vitro system. Human corneal cells (HCE) and macrophages (THP-1) infected with HSV-1 or treated with virus components (DNA or virus immune complexes) released chemokines, which attracted PMNs. Highly reactive oxygen species were detected in PMNs. PMNs inhibited HSV when overlaid onto infected HCE cells (50:1). PMNs incubated with the supernatants of HCE cells treated with virus components released H(2)O(2) and myeloperoxidase. These inhibited virus growth. PMNs released NO and MIG, which may differentiate CD4 T cells to Th1. PMNs participate in innate immune responses, limit virus growth, and initiate immunopathology.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Epitélio Anterior/citologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Quimiotaxia , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/fisiologia , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Vaccine ; 29(19): 3617-22, 2011 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21296117

RESUMO

Over 1200 cases of 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 (pH1N1) have been identified in Kenya since the first case in June 2009. In April 2010 the Kenyan government launched a program to immunize high-risk groups and healthcare workers (HCWs) with pH1N1 vaccines donated by the World Health Organization. To characterize HCWs' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding pH1N1 vaccination, we conducted a quantitative and qualitative survey in 20 healthcare facilities across Kenya between January 11 and 26, 2010. Of 659 HCWs interviewed, 55% thought there was a vaccine against pH1N1, and 89% indicated that they would receive pH1N1 vaccine if it became available. In focus group discussions, many HCWs said that pH1N1 virus infection did not cause severe disease in Kenyans and questioned the need for vaccination. However, most were willing to accept vaccination if they had adequate information on safety and efficacy. In order for the influenza vaccination campaign to be successful, HCWs must understand that pH1N1 can cause severe disease in Kenyans, that pH1N1 vaccination can prevent HCWs from transmitting influenza to their patients, and that the vaccine has been widely used globally with few recognized adverse events.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Quênia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Cornea ; 30(2): 204-7, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20847652

RESUMO

PURPOSE: : The purpose of this study was to determine the association of human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) and/or other human herpesviruses in corneal inflammation using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS: : We collected tear films, conjunctival smears, and a corneal button of inflamed cornea, and the presence of HHV-6 and other herpesviruses in these samples were assessed by a nested PCR. RESULTS: : In tear films collected from 3 of 9 patients with dendritic keratitis, HHV-6 DNA was positive twice, together with herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella zoster virus DNA most often, during the acute phase of the disease. Two other patients in this group were either positive for HSV-1 and varicella zoster virus or for HSV-1 and Epstein-Barr virus DNA but negative for HHV-6. When another 12 patients' smear samples from corneal ulcer or keratouveitis were examined, 9 were positive for HHV-6 DNA. Of these, 4 were positive for HSV-1 simultaneously, whereas the remaining 5 patients were negative for HSV-1. One patient's smear was positive for HSV-1 but not for HHV-6. In the corneal button, both HSV and HHV-6 DNAs were positive by nested PCR. HHV-6 was also positive by nested PCR in the conjunctival swab obtained from the contralateral inflamed eye of the patient. CONCLUSIONS: : In 22 patients with corneal inflammation, HHV-6 was positive in 14 of 22 patients and HSV-1 was found in 9 of those patients. These data indicated that the association of HHV-6 with disease was more frequent than with other herpesviruses and that HHV-6 may be another sole causative agent for corneal inflammation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesvirus Humano 6 , Ceratite/virologia , Infecções por Roseolovirus , Adulto , Idoso , Túnica Conjuntiva/virologia , Córnea/virologia , Úlcera da Córnea/virologia , DNA Viral/análise , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Feminino , Herpes Simples , Herpes Zoster , Herpesviridae/genética , Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 1/isolamento & purificação , Herpesvirus Humano 3/isolamento & purificação , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Herpesvirus Humano 6/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 6/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Infecções por Roseolovirus/genética , Lágrimas/virologia , Uveíte/virologia
15.
Nutr Res ; 30(3): 163-70, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20417876

RESUMO

Population-based studies suggest that repetitive cycling of weight loss and regain may be associated with future weight gain. Therefore, to better define the relationship between weight cycling, energy homeostasis, and future weight gain, we examined associations between frequent intentional weight loss and hormonal profiles in postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relationship between a history of frequent weight loss and biomarkers, including serum glucose, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin, as well as sex steroid hormones. We hypothesized that frequent intentional weight loss would be associated with changes in normal appetite and body weight regulatory hormones, favoring increased appetite and weight gain. One hundred fifty-nine healthy, weight stable, sedentary, overweight, postmenopausal women who had been recruited for an exercise intervention participated in this study. History of intentional weight loss (frequency and magnitude) was assessed by questionnaire. Hormonal assays were performed by radioimmunoassay (insulin, leptin, ghrelin, estrogens, androgens, and dehydroepiandrosterone), chemiluminescence immunoassay (insulin-like growth factor-1), and immunometric assay (sex hormone binding globulin). Analysis of variance and regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship between weight loss history and metabolic hormones. A higher degree of weight cycling, characterized by the frequency of intentionally losing more than 10 lb, was associated with an appetite-stimulating hormonal profile, including higher concentrations of ghrelin (P trend = .04), lower glucose (P trend = .047), and to some extent, lower insulin (P trend = .08). Frequent weight loss was also associated with lower androgen concentrations, including androstenedione (P trend = .02), testosterone (P trend = .04), and free testosterone (P trend = .01). No independent associations between the concentrations of leptin or estrogens and weight cycling were observed. This study suggests that frequent intentional weight loss may affect hormones involved in energy regulation.


Assuntos
Androgênios/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Grelina/sangue , Pós-Menopausa , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Idoso , Apetite/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Metabolismo Energético , Estrogênios/sangue , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testosterona/sangue , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
16.
Arch Virol ; 154(2): 219-26, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19115032

RESUMO

Angiogenesis and inflammatory mediators are critical pathogenic factors in herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK). Since disease progresses without infectious virus, HSV-DNA and HSV-IgG complexes (HSV-IC) may contribute to HSK by triggering these factors. Production of VEGF and MMP-9 was studied in vitro using corneal epithelial cells (HCE), fibroblasts (HCRF) and macrophages (THP-1). VEGF was elevated in HCRF and THP-1 following treatment with HSV-DNA and HSV-IC. MMP-9 was elevated in THP-1 but not in corneal cells. When anti-HSV-IgG(Fab')2 complexes stimulated THP-1, MMP-9 was reduced to control levels. Pretreatment of THP-1 with anti-TLR-2 and -3 inhibited MMP-9 production. Thus, HSV-IC may stimulate THP-1 through the Fc receptor and TLRs. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1b, IL-6, and TNF-alpha) increased VEGF and MMP-9 in corneal cells and macrophages. These studies indicate that the continued presence of HSV-DNA and HSV-IC contribute to angiogenesis and inflammation in HSK. Thus, cytokines and TLRs may be potential targets for intervention.


Assuntos
Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/imunologia , Neovascularização da Córnea/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Ceratite Herpética/imunologia , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/biossíntese , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/biossíntese , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Córnea/imunologia , Córnea/virologia , Neovascularização da Córnea/virologia , Citocinas/farmacologia , DNA Viral/imunologia , DNA Viral/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Ceratite Herpética/complicações , Ceratite Herpética/virologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/virologia , Testes de Neutralização
17.
Blood ; 112(9): 3807-17, 2008 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18599795

RESUMO

Bcl-2 family proteins play a critical role in the regulation of apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, their association with established prognostic markers is unknown. In this study, we analyzed the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, and Mcl-1 in 185 CLL patients and evaluated their relationship with other prognostic markers, in vitro sensitivity to fludarabine, and clinical outcome. Mcl-1 expression was significantly correlated with stage of disease (P < .001), lymphocyte doubling time (P = .01), V(H) gene mutation status (P < .001), CD38 expression (P < .001), and ZAP-70 expression (P = .003). In addition, Mcl-1 and Mcl-1/Bax ratios showed strong correlations with in vitro resistance to fludarabine (P = .005 and P < .001, respectively). Furthermore, elevated Mcl-1 expression and Mcl-1/Bax ratios were predictive of time to first treatment in the whole cohort (P < .001 and P < .001, respectively) and in stage A patients only (P = .002 and P = .001, respectively). Taken together, our data show that Mcl-1 is a key controller of in vitro drug resistance and is an important regulator of disease progression and outcome in CLL. It therefore represents a promising therapeutic target in this incurable condition. The close correlation between Mcl-1 expression and V(H) gene mutation status, CD38 expression, and ZAP-70 expression offers a biologic explanation for their association with adverse prognosis.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/sangue , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/sangue , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/sangue , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Técnicas In Vitro , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/mortalidade , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/sangue , Mutação , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Vidarabina/farmacologia , Proteína-Tirosina Quinase ZAP-70/sangue
18.
Semin Ophthalmol ; 23(4): 229-34, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18584560

RESUMO

In the herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK), HSV DNA fragments and HSV-IgG immune complexes (HSV-IC) are present in most of the corneas long after infective virus has disappeared. These viral components are highly immunogenic and potentiate production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed on the corneal cells and macrophages. In addition angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) and the tissue damaging enzyme matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) deeply involved in the pathogenesis of HSK, are also induced by corneal cells and macrophages through the recognition of these viral components. These processes elicited by residual viral DNA and HSV-IC are likely one of the sustained driving force in the development of HSK. Hence, strategies developed to alter these pathways should lead to new preventative and therapeutic measures.


Assuntos
Substância Própria/virologia , Ceratite Herpética/etiologia , Simplexvirus/genética , Simplexvirus/imunologia , Animais , DNA Viral/genética , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/fisiologia
19.
J Immunol ; 180(6): 3789-96, 2008 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18322185

RESUMO

The retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell is a potent regulatory cell that facilitates normal physiologic processes and plays a critical role in a variety of retinal diseases. We evaluated IFN-beta production in human RPE cells through TLR signaling and investigated the effects of IFN-beta on RPE cells. RPE cells treated with poly(I:C) or infected with an RNA virus produce IFN-beta. Kinetic studies revealed that IFN-beta levels continue to increase over a 48-h period and this was associated with the up-regulation of IRF-7 gene expression, a known positive feedback molecule for IFN-beta production. Microarray analysis revealed that in IFN-beta treated cells, 480 genes of 22,283 genes were up or down-regulated by >2-fold. We hypothesize that IFN-beta induction during TLR signaling in the retina is an immunosuppressive factor produced to limit immunopathologic damage. Cytokine activation of RPE cells results in the production of the chemokines, CXCL9 and CXCL10, and the adhesion molecule, ICAM-1. Pretreatment of RPE cells with IFN-beta resulted in inhibition of ICAM-1 production and elimination of CXCL9 production. This treatment did not alter CXCL10 production. Anti-IFN-beta Ab blocked the inhibitory action of IFN-beta. Real time PCR analysis revealed that IFN-beta treatment inhibited gene expression of sICAM-1 and CXCL9. The results indicate a critical role for RPE cell derived IFN-beta in the down-regulation of CXCL9 and ICAM-1 expression in the retina and suggest that the inhibition of CXCL9 is an immuno-suppressive mechanism that protects the retina from excessive inflammation.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL9/antagonistas & inibidores , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Interferon beta/fisiologia , Epitélio Pigmentado Ocular/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocina CXCL10/biossíntese , Quimiocina CXCL9/biossíntese , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/fisiologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/biossíntese , Interferon beta/biossíntese , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Cinética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Epitélio Pigmentado Ocular/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado Ocular/patologia , Epitélio Pigmentado Ocular/virologia , Retinite/imunologia , Retinite/patologia , Retinite/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Indiana/imunologia
20.
J Neuroimmunol ; 193(1-2): 28-37, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18037505

RESUMO

Mouse hepatitis virus induces a biphasic disease in BALB/c mice that consists of an acute retinitis followed by progression to a chronic retinal degeneration with autoimmune reactivity. Retinal degeneration resistant CD-1 mice do not develop the late phase. What host factors contribute to the distinct responses to the virus are unknown. Herein, we show that IFN-alpha, IFN-beta and IFN-gamma act in concert as part of the innate immune response to the retinal infection. At day 2, high serum levels of IFN-gamma, CXCL9 and CXCL10, were detected in BALB/c mice. Moreover, elevated levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10 gene expression were detected in retinal tissue. Although IFN-gamma and the chemokines were detected in CD-1 mice, they were at significantly lower levels compared to BALB/c mice. These augmented innate responses observed correlated with the development of autoimmune reactivity and retinal degeneration and thus may contribute to the pathogenic processes.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL10/biossíntese , Quimiocina CXCL9/biossíntese , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interferons/biossíntese , Vírus da Hepatite Murina , Degeneração Retiniana/etiologia , Animais , Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL10/genética , Quimiocina CXCL9/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL9/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Imunidade Inata , Interferons/sangue , Interferons/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Degeneração Retiniana/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia
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