Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 151
Filtrar
2.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 34(12): 2563-2569, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty is a condition of decreased physiologic reserve and increased vulnerability to stressors. Frailty in combination with inflammation has been associated with increased mortality risk in adults with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to investigate prevalence and outcomes associated with a frailty-inflammation phenotype, or "fragility," in children with CKD. METHODS: We analyzed 557 children (age 6-19 years, eGFR 30-90 ml/min/1.73 m2) from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) study. Based on adult models, the CKiD fragility model included four indicators: (1) suboptimal growth/weight gain (BMI < 5th percentile-for-height-age, deceleration ≥ 10 BMI-for-height-age percentiles/1 year, height-for-age percentile < 3rd or deceleration ≥ 10 height percentiles/1 year); (2) low muscle mass (mid-upper-arm circumference < 5th percentile or deceleration ≥ 10 percentiles/1 year); (3) fatigue (parent/child report); (4) inflammation (CRP > 3 mg/l). Logistic regression was used to evaluate association of fragility indicators with three adverse outcomes: frequent infection (> 1 per year/3 years), hospitalization (any), and rapid CKD progression (decline in eGFR > 30% or initiation of renal replacement therapy within 3 years). RESULTS: Prevalence of fragility indicators 1 year after study entry were 39% (suboptimal growth/weight gain), 62% (low muscle mass), 29% (fatigue), and 18% (inflammation). Prevalence of adverse outcomes during the subsequent 3 years were 13% (frequent infection), 22% (hospitalization), and 17% (rapid CKD progression). Children with ≥ 3 fragility indicators had 3.16-fold odds of frequent infection and 2.81-fold odds of hospitalization, but did not have rapid CKD progression. CONCLUSIONS: A fragility phenotype, characterized by the presence of ≥ 3 indicators, is associated with adverse outcomes, including infection and hospitalization in children with CKD.

3.
Prim Dent J ; 8(2): 40-48, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431205

RESUMO

This paper examines recent changes in relation to the legal and regulatory requirements around the consent process in the UK and how to protect patients' rights to make decisions about their treatment. In addition to the implications of the Montgomery case on UK law of consent, key governmental and professional body regulatory guidance on the subject of consent are taken into account and discussed to facilitate a robust and valid consent process in the dental care environment.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Direitos do Paciente , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos
4.
Clin Genet ; 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448412

RESUMO

While genomic sequencing (ES/GS) has the potential to diagnose children with difficult to diagnose phenotypes, the goal should be not only a diagnosis, but also to empower parents to seek next steps for their children and to emotionally manage the outcome, whether or not a diagnosis is secured. To help achieve this goal, objective measures are needed to assess the process of parental empowerment related to genome sequencing. We present the validity and reliability of the Genome Empowerment Scale (GEmS), developed using a healthcare empowerment theoretical model. To evaluate its psychometric properties, 158 parents of 117 children with an undiagnosed condition undergoing genomic sequencing completed the GEmS, measures for criterion validity and for depression and anxiety. Factor analysis resulted in a four factor solution: (a) meaning of a diagnosis; (b) emotional management of the process; (c) seeking information and support and (d) implications and planning. Reliability and validity analyses show that the GEmS has good psychometric properties. The inter-relationships among the factors revealed a profile that may identify parents at risk for a poorer outcome who may benefit from targeted genetic counseling. The GEmS, an objective measure of parental genomic empowerment, can be utilized for future research and translational applications.

5.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 34(11): 2371-2379, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental lead exposure is associated with cognitive impairment in healthy children, with deficits seen in intelligence quotient (IQ), attention, and behavior. Neurocognitive dysfunction is also a well-described complication among children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objective was to evaluate the association between blood lead levels (BLL) and performance on neurocognitive assessments in a cohort of children with CKD. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of children with mild to moderate CKD from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) multicenter prospective cohort study. The primary exposure was BLL. The primary outcome was performance on age-specific neurocognitive assessments evaluating IQ, executive functioning, attention, hyperactivity, and behavior. Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate the association between BLL and neurocognitive performance, adjusted for key sociodemographic and clinical variables. RESULTS: A total of 412 subjects were included with median age 15.4 years, median estimated GFR 39 mL/min/1.732, median BLL 1.2 mcg/dL, and median IQ score 99. In multivariable linear regression, higher BLL was associated with significantly lower IQ score (- 2.1 IQ points for every 1-mcg/dL increase in BLL, p = 0.029). Higher BLL was associated with worse scores on the Conners' Continuous Performance Test II Variability T-Score, a measure of inattention (+ 1.8 T-Score points for every 1-mcg/dL increase in BLL, p = 0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Low-level lead exposure is associated with significantly lower IQ and more inattention in children with CKD, a population already at high risk for neurocognitive dysfunction. Universal screening for elevated BLL should be considered for all children with CKD at age 12-24 months.

6.
Hypertension ; 74(3): 590-596, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327264

RESUMO

Hypertension is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), a risk factor for cardiovascular events. Since cardiovascular events in youth are rare, hypertension has historically been defined by the 95th percentile of the normal blood pressure (BP) distribution in healthy children. The optimal BP percentile associated with LVH in youth is unknown. We aimed to determine the association of systolic BP (SBP) percentile, independent of obesity, on left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and to estimate which SBP percentile best predicts LVH in youth. We evaluated SBP, anthropometrics, and echocardiogram in 303 adolescents (mean age 15.6 years, 63% white, 55% male) classified by SBP as low-risk (L=141, <80th percentile), mid-risk (M=71, 80-<90th percentile), or high-risk (H=91, ≥90th percentile) using the mean of 6 measurements at 2 visits according to the 2017 guidelines. Logistic regression was used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of various SBP percentiles associated with LVH. Results: BP groups did not differ by age or demographics but differed slightly by body mass index. Mean BP, LVMI, and prevalence of LVH increased across groups (BP: L=111/75, M=125/82, and H=133/92 mm Hg; LVMI: L=31.2, M=34.2, and H=34.9 g/m2.7; LVH: L=13%, M=21%, H=27%, all P<0.03). SBP percentile remained a significant determinant of LVMI after adjusting for covariates. The 90th percentile for SBP resulted in the best balance between sensitivity and specificity for predicting LVH (LVMI≥38.6 g/m2.7). Abnormalities in cardiac structure in youth can be found at BP levels below those used to define hypertension.

7.
Epigenetics ; 14(8): 751-765, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062658

RESUMO

This study evaluated the hypothesis that prenatal maternal socioeconomic status (SES) adversity is associated with DNA methylation in the placenta. SES adversity was defined by the presence of, as well as a summative count of, four factors: less than college education, single marital status, food and nutritional service assistance, and public health insurance. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation was assessed using the Illumina EPIC array in 426 placentas from a sample of infants born < 28 weeks of gestation from the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn cohort. Associations between SES adversity and DNA methylation were assessed with robust linear regressions adjusted for covariates and controlled the false discovery rate at < 10%. We also examined whether such associations were sex specific. Indicators of SES adversity were associated with differential methylation at 33 CpG sites. Of the 33 identified CpG sites, 19 (57.6%) displayed increased methylation, and 14 (42.4%) displayed decreased methylation in association with at least one of the SES adversity factors. Sex differences were observed in DNA methylation associated with summative SES score; in which placentas derived from female pregnancies showed more robust differential CpG methylation than placentas from male pregnancies. Maternal SES adversity was associated with differential methylation of genes with key role in gene transcription and placental function, potentially altering immunity and stress response. Further investigation is needed to evaluate the role of epigenetic differences in mediating the association between maternal socioeconomic status during pregnancy and later life health outcomes in children.

8.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 34(9): 1575-1582, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression affects 7-35% of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and in adults with CKD, the presence of depression links to poorer medical outcomes, social functioning difficulties, and neurocognitive impairments. The relationship between depression and neurocognitive function in youth with CKD is unclear. We sought to identify factors associated with depression in youth with CKD and to determine whether depression affects neurocognitive performance. METHODS: We conducted cross-sectional analyses in 71 CKD and 64 control participants aged 8 to 25 years who completed depression inventories and neurocognitive assessments as part of the Neurocognitive Assessment and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis of Children and Young Adults with CKD Study. In the CKD group, multivariable logistic regression analysis determined associations between clinical and demographic factors and depression. In the full study cohort, multivariable linear regression analyses, including an interaction term between CKD status and depression evaluated the effect of depression on 11 neurocognitive outcome domains. RESULTS: Obesity significantly associated with depression in the CKD group (OR 10.25, P = 0.01). In adjusted analyses, depressed youth with CKD scored worse than non-depressed CKD participants by 0.6-1.0 standard deviations in 5 neurocognitive domains: attention, visual memory, visual-spatial, visual working memory, and problem solving. CONCLUSIONS: CKD youth with obesity are more likely to be depressed, and those who are depressed exhibit worse neurocognitive performance. Depression may represent a therapeutic target to improve neurocognitive performance in youth with CKD.

9.
Child Maltreat ; 24(4): 374-388, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935216

RESUMO

Neurocognitive and brain structural differences are associated with adolescent onset alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Maltreatment histories may contribute to current results. To examine these issues, healthy adolescents (n = 31), adolescents without maltreatment and AUD (AUD - MAL, n = 28), and adolescents with AUDs with maltreatment (AUD + MAL, n = 17) underwent comprehensive neurocognitive assessments and MRI structural scans. Controls performed significantly better than the two AUD groups in math and language. The AUD + MAL group performed significantly lower in sustained attention compared to the AUD - MAL and control groups and lower in reading compared to controls. The AUD + MAL group had larger left pars triangularis, a region of the inferior frontal gyrus, compared to the AUD-MAL and control groups, and smaller anterior corpus callosum volumes versus the AUD - MAL group. There were no group differences in other prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampal volumes. The AUD + MAL group showed an inverse correlation between hippocampal volumes and age. AUD variables were associated with lower performance in fine-motor and executive function. Cannabis use variables were associated with lower performance in fine-motor, language, visual-spatial, memory, and executive function. Parahippocampal volumes positively correlated with abstinence. The preliminary results suggest adolescent AUD studies should consider examinations of maltreatment history, comorbid substance use disorders, and recovery during abstinence in their analyses.

10.
Pediatr Res ; 2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To identify modifiable antecedents during pre-pregnancy and pregnancy windows associated with a positive child health at 10 years of age. METHODS: Data on 889 children enrolled in the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn (ELGAN) study in 2002-2004 were analyzed for associations between potentially modifiable maternal antecedents during pre-pregnancy and pregnancy time windows and a previously described positive child health index (PCHI) score at 10 years of age. Stratification by race was also investigated for associations with investigated antecedents. RESULTS: Factors associated with higher PCHI (more positive health) included greater gestational age, birth weight, multiple gestation, and medical interventions, including assisted reproduction and cervical cerclage. Factors associated with lower PCHI included correlates of lower socioeconomic status, pre-pregnancy chronic medical disorders in the mother such as pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), and maternal asthma. When stratified by race, variation in significant results was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Among children born extremely preterm, medical interventions and higher socioeconomic status were associated with improved PCHI, while chronic illness and high BMI in the mother is associated with lower PCHI at 10 years of age. Knowledge of such antecedent factors could inform efforts to develop interventions that promote positive child health outcomes in future pregnancies.

11.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 181(1): 91-99, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741475

RESUMO

Individuals with Turner syndrome (TS) often exhibit specific deficits in visual-spatial functions, arithmetical abilities, social cognition, and executive functions with preserved general intelligence and preserved or enhanced verbal skills. This unique pattern of cognitive strengths and weaknesses is accompanied by a well-described neuroanatomical phenotype characterized by decreased gray matter volumes in premotor, somatosensory, and parietal-occipital cortex, and increased volumes of the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex. Why the absence of the second sex chromosome should produce these effects remains poorly understood. In this article, we propose that the TS research community leverage recent advances in neuroimaging, large-scale data-rich biology (omics), and patient-powered research registries to build a comprehensive neurodevelopmental model of TS.

12.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 285: 47-50, 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30743074

RESUMO

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22qDS) is a neurogenetic disorder resulting in cognitive deficits and hypogyrification, but relationships between these processes have not been established. 22qDS youth and healthy controls (HC) were administered a battery of cognitive tasks. Gyrification measurements were extracted from structural T1 scans using Freesurfer, contrasted between groups, and correlated to cognition. Data was adjusted for age, sex, socio-economic status and intracranial volume. 22qDS displayed significant hypogyrification which was associated with poorer executive functioning and verbal learning in orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex. Our preliminary findings identified neurodevelopmental deficits in 22qDS shown by hypogyria, which relate to cognitive impairments.

13.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 2018 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data to describe academic achievement outcomes for children with mild to moderate pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of low academic achievement in patients with mild to moderate CKD. METHODS: Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Second Edition, Abbreviated (WIAT-II-A) data were collected at entry into the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) study. Achievement in basic reading, spelling, mathematics, and total achievement was evaluated with a focus on the effects of comorbid CKD-related variables, neurocognitive, and school-based characteristics on academic achievement. RESULTS: WIAT-II-A data were available for 319 children in the CKiD cohort. Low total academic achievement was present in 34% percent of the sample. There was no significant effect of CKD-related medical variables on academic achievement. Mathematics had the lowest distribution of achievement scores. In univariate models, low achievement was significantly related to days of missed school (p = 0.006) and presence of individualized education plan (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Low academic achievement was seen in over one-third of children with CKD, with the most difficulty observed in the domain of mathematics. Providers and educators should monitor for academic difficulties in this population in order to facilitate early educational assistance and promote positive educational outcomes.

14.
Pediatr Neurol ; 85: 16-20, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343688

RESUMO

Limited information is available on health outcomes related to Zika virus infection acquired during childhood. Zika virus can cause severe central nervous system malformations in congenitally exposed fetuses and neonates. In vitro studies show the capacity of Zika virus to infect neural progenitor cells, induce central and peripheral neuronal cell deaths, and target different brain cells over the course of brain development. Studies of postnatally infected mice and nonhuman primates have detected degradation of neural cells and morphologic brain cell changes consistent with a broad neuroinflammatory response. In addition, case reports of central nervous system disease in adults and in adolescents secondary to Zika virus infection suggest that Zika virus may have a broader impact on neurological health beyond that observed in congenitally exposed newborns. Long-term neurological complications have been observed with other acquired flaviviral infections, with clinical symptoms manifesting for years after primary infection. The extent to which postnatal Zika virus infection in humans negatively affects the central and peripheral nervous systems and causes long-term neurological damage or cognitive effects is currently unknown. To better understand the potential for neurological sequelae associated with acquired Zika virus infection in children, we reviewed the biological, clinical, and epidemiologic literature and summarized the evidence for this link. First, we review biological mechanisms for neurological manifestations of Zika virus infection in experimental studies. Second, we review observational studies of congenital Zika virus infection and case studies and surveillance reports of neurological sequelae of Zika virus infection in adults and in children. Lastly, we discuss the challenges of conducting Zika virus-neurological sequela studies and future directions for pediatric Zika virus research.

15.
J Pediatr ; 203: 361-370.e1, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201183

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the roles of key individual, family, and illness characteristics on the levels of and gains in longitudinal healthcare transition (HCT) readiness in the pediatric setting and/or self-management skills (SMS) in the adult-focused setting, we used a large dataset with longitudinal measurements from 2006 to 2015. STUDY DESIGN: This longitudinal observational study followed 566 adolescents and young adults with chronic conditions at University of North Carolina Hospitals. TRxANSITION Index measurements, which represent learning outcomes rather than health outcomes, were collected multiple times per patient and analyzed using a novel application of an education-based approach. RESULTS: Levels of and gains in HCT/SMS scores increased with age (P < .001) with smaller increases at older ages. Mastery of skills varied by age with self-management achieved after 20 years of age. Scores varied positively by father's education and negatively by mother's education and duration of diagnosis. Gains in scores further varied positively with private insurance and negatively with mother's education and duration of diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: We found diminishing positive increases in HCT/SMS scores as patients become older and smaller levels of and gains in readiness among younger patients with more educated mothers. Risk factors for absolute level of HCT/SMS readiness and inadequate longitudinal gains are not always the same, which motivates a deeper understanding of this dynamic process through additional research. This information can guide providers to focus HCT/SMS preparation efforts on skills mastered at particular ages and to identify patients at risk for inadequate development of HCT/SMS skills.

16.
J Pediatr ; 202: 44-49.e4, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30078720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the development of a Positive Child Health Index (PCHI) based on 11 adverse outcomes and evaluate the association of PCHI with quality of life (QoL) scores in a preterm cohort. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 889 children enrolled in the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn (ELGAN) study in 2002-2004 were followed up at 10 years of age. A parent/caregiver completed questionnaires for child QoL, asthma, visual or hearing impairment, gross motor function impairment, epilepsy, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, and depression. The child was assessed for cognitive impairment, autism, and obesity. PCHI scores were computed and linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between QoL categories (psychosocial, physical, emotional, social, school, and total) and the PCHI (dichotomized and coded as a multilevel categorical predictor) and to assess sex differences. RESULTS: Among ELGAN children, higher PCHI scores were associated with higher reported QoL scores for all QoL categories. Children with no disorders and a PCHI of 100% had Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory total scores that were 11 points higher than children with 1 or more adverse outcomes (PCHI of <100%). Boys had lower QoL scores for the total, psychosocial, social, and school categories. CONCLUSIONS: Positive child health assessed using a quantitative PCHI was associated with QoL across the ELGAN cohort at school age. In the current study, the PCHI encompassed 11 outcomes assessed in ELGANs. Future research could include an enhanced panel of child health outcomes to support the use of PCHI as an indicator of positive child health.

17.
Schizophr Res ; 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093352

RESUMO

Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) are at substantially heightened risk for psychosis. Thus, prevention and early intervention strategies that target the antecedents of psychosis in this high-risk group are a clinical priority. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in children with 22q11.2DS, particularly the inattentive subtype. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that ADHD inattention symptoms predict later psychotic symptoms and/or psychotic disorder in those with 22q11.2DS. 250 children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS without psychotic symptoms at baseline took part in a longitudinal study. Assessments were performed using well-validated structured diagnostic instruments at two time points (T1 (mean age = 11.2, SD = 3.1) and T2 (mean age = 14.3, SD = 3.6)). Inattention symptoms at T1 were associated with development of psychotic symptoms at T2 (OR:1.2, p = 0.01) but weak associations were found with development of psychotic disorder (OR:1.2, p = 0.15). ADHD diagnosis at T1 was strongly associated with development of psychotic symptoms at T2 (OR:4.5, p < 0.001) and psychotic disorder (OR:5.9, p = 0.02). Our findings that inattention symptoms and the diagnosis of ADHD are associated with subsequent psychotic outcomes in 22q11.2DS have important clinical implications. Future studies examining the effects of stimulant and other ADHD treatments on individuals with 22q11.2DS are warranted.

18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 652, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of undiagnosed diseases manifest with objective findings that warrant further investigation. The Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN) receives applications from patients whose symptoms and signs have been intractable to diagnosis; however, many UDN applicants are affected primarily by subjective symptoms such as pain and fatigue. We sought to characterize presenting symptoms, referral sources, and demographic factors of applicants to the UDN to identify factors that may determine application outcome and potentially differentiate between those with undiagnosed diseases (with more objective findings) and those who are less likely to have an undiagnosed disease (more subjective symptoms). METHODS: We used a systematic retrospective review of 151 consecutive Not Accepted and 50 randomly selected Accepted UDN applications. The primary outcome was whether an applicant was Accepted, or Not Accepted, and, if accepted, whether or not a diagnosis was made. Objective and subjective symptoms and information on prior specialty consultations were collected from provider referral letters. Demographic data and decision data on network acceptance were gathered from the UDN online portal. RESULTS: Fewer objective findings and more subjective symptoms were found in the Not Accepted applications. Not Accepted referrals also were from older individuals, reported a shorter period of illness, and were referred to the UDN by their primary care physicians. All of these differences reached statistical significance in comparison with Accepted applications. The frequency of subspecialty consults for diagnostic purposes prior to UDN application was similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The preponderance of subjective and lack of objective findings in the Not Accepted applications distinguish these from applicants that are accepted for evaluation and diagnostic efforts through the UDN. Not Accepted applicants are referred primarily by their primary care providers after multiple specialist consultations fail to yield answers. Distinguishing between patients with undiagnosed diseases with objective findings and those with primarily subjective findings can delineate patients who would benefit from further diagnostic processes from those who may have functional disorders and need alternative pathways for management of their symptoms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT02450851 , posted May 21st 2015.

20.
Hypertension ; 72(3): 625-631, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987102

RESUMO

Although hypertension is identifiable in children and adolescents, there are many knowledge gaps on how to best define and manage high blood pressure in the young. SHIP-AHOY (Study of High Blood Pressure in Pediatrics: Adult Hypertension Onset in Youth) is being conducted to address these knowledge gaps. Five hundred adolescents will be recruited and will undergo ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, echocardiographic, vascular, and cognitive assessments, as well as epigenetic studies to identify mechanisms that underlie the development of hypertensive target organ damage. Details of the design and methods that will be utilized in SHIP-AHOY are presented here, as well as baseline characteristics of the first 264 study participants. The primary aim of the study is to develop a risk-based definition of hypertension in the young that will result in better understanding of the transition from blood pressure in youth to adult cardiovascular disease.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA