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1.
Eur J Med Genet ; : 104103, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189935

RESUMO

CHARGE syndrome (OMIM 214800) is a condition characterized by multisystem involvement with CHD7 pathogenic mutations leading to disease in the majority of patients. Discovery of the molecular cause of CHARGE unmasked a larger phenotypic spectrum than was previously appreciated. Within our interdisciplinary CHARGE syndrome program, we sought to characterize our CHD7-positive CHARGE cohort without coloboma or choanal atresia, highlighting complications and outcomes. We describe 18 individuals with CHD7-confirmed diagnosis from 15 families. The most sensitive finding in the cohort was temporal bone malformations, present in 13/15 individuals. Individuals had an average of 1.6 major features and 3.3 minor features defined by the Blake et al. guidelines. Despite lack of major features or major malformations, the majority of individuals continued to have difficulties with pneumonia, aspiration, secretion management and motility issues that greatly impacted their lives. Our findings illustrate the need for molecular testing and timely recognition given that the major co-morbidities are frequently experienced by patients with the mildest clinical spectrum of CHARGE syndrome.

2.
Pediatrics ; 146(5)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060256

RESUMO

We report a 16-year-old phenotypic female with 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis and metastatic dysgerminoma, unexpectedly discovered through direct-to-consumer (DTC) commercial genetic testing. This case underscores the importance of timely interdisciplinary care, including psychosocial intervention and consideration of gonadectomy, to optimize outcomes for individuals with differences of sex development. Her unique presentation highlights the implications of DTC genetic testing in a new diagnostic era and informs general pediatricians as well as specialists of nongenetic services about the value, capabilities, and limitations of DTC testing.

3.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 184(2): 294-301, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476283

RESUMO

More and more women rely on non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS) to detect fetal sex and risk for aneuploidy. The testing applies massively parallel sequencing or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray to circulating cell-free DNA to determine relative copy number. In addition to trisomies 13, 18, and 21, some labs offer screening for sex chromosome abnormalities as part of their test. In this study, an index neonate screened positive for monosomy X and had discordant postnatal chromosomes indicating an X;autosome translocation. This patient prompted a retrospective chart review for similar cases at a large NIPS testing center. The review found 28 patients with an abnormal NIPS for monosomy X who were eventually diagnosed with additional discrepant structural sex chromosome abnormalities including translocations, isochromosomes, deletions, rings, markers, and uniparental disomy. The majority of these were mosaic with monosomy X, but in seven cases, there was no evidence of mosaicism on confirmatory testing. The identification of multiple sex chromosome aneuploidies in these cases supports the need for additional genetic counseling prior to NIPS testing and following abnormal NIPS results that are positive for monosomy X. This finding broadens our knowledge about the variable outcomes of positive monosomy X NIPS results and emphasizes the importance of confirmatory testing and clinical follow up for these patients.

4.
J Med Genet ; 57(8): 542-551, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fabry disease (α-galactosidase deficiency) is an X-linked genetic disease caused by a variety of pathogenic GLA variants. The phenotypic heterogeneity is considerable, with two major forms, classic and later-onset disease, but adjudication of clinical phenotype is currently lacking for many variants. We aimed to determine consensus phenotypic classification for previously unclassified GLA variants from the GLA-specific fabry-database.org database. METHODS: A Fabry disease genotype-phenotype workgroup developed a five-stage iterative system based on expert clinical assessment, published literature and clinical evidence of pathogenicity using a 2-point scoring system based on clinical hallmarks of classic disease. Kaplan-Meier (KM) analysis of severe clinical event-free survival was used as final validation. Results were compared with those from web-based disease databases and in silico pathogenicity prediction programmes. RESULTS: Final consensus on classifications of 'pathogenic' was achieved for 32 of 33 GLA variants (26 'classic' phenotype, 171 males; 6 'later-onset' phenotype, 57 males). One variant remained of uncertain significance. KM curves were similar for the known fabry-database.org database phenotypes and when workgroup consensus classifications were added, and the curves retained the same separation between 'classic' and 'later-onset' phenotypes. CONCLUSION: The iterative system implemented by a Fabry disease genotype-phenotype workgroup achieved phenotypic classifications for variants that were previously unclassified. Clinical pathogenicity associated with a particular GLA variant defined in affected males appears to have predictive value and also generally correlates with risk for affected females. The newly established classifications can be of benefit to the clinical care of Fabry patients harbouring these variants.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 41(1): 299-315, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595648

RESUMO

We report 281 individuals carrying a pathogenic recurrent NF1 missense variant at p.Met1149, p.Arg1276, or p.Lys1423, representing three nontruncating NF1 hotspots in the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) cohort, together identified in 1.8% of unrelated NF1 individuals. About 25% (95% confidence interval: 20.5-31.2%) of individuals heterozygous for a pathogenic NF1 p.Met1149, p.Arg1276, or p.Lys1423 missense variant had a Noonan-like phenotype, which is significantly more compared with the "classic" NF1-affected cohorts (all p < .0001). Furthermore, p.Arg1276 and p.Lys1423 pathogenic missense variants were associated with a high prevalence of cardiovascular abnormalities, including pulmonic stenosis (all p < .0001), while p.Arg1276 variants had a high prevalence of symptomatic spinal neurofibromas (p < .0001) compared with "classic" NF1-affected cohorts. However, p.Met1149-positive individuals had a mild phenotype, characterized mainly by pigmentary manifestations without externally visible plexiform neurofibromas, symptomatic spinal neurofibromas or symptomatic optic pathway gliomas. As up to 0.4% of unrelated individuals in the UAB cohort carries a p.Met1149 missense variant, this finding will contribute to more accurate stratification of a significant number of NF1 individuals. Although clinically relevant genotype-phenotype correlations are rare in NF1, each affecting only a small percentage of individuals, together they impact counseling and management of a significant number of the NF1 population.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 854-868, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585109

RESUMO

Cadherins constitute a family of transmembrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. The extracellular domain of cadherins consists of extracellular cadherin (EC) domains, separated by calcium binding sites. The EC interacts with other cadherin molecules in cis and in trans to mechanically hold apposing cell surfaces together. CDH2 encodes N-cadherin, whose essential roles in neural development include neuronal migration and axon pathfinding. However, CDH2 has not yet been linked to a Mendelian neurodevelopmental disorder. Here, we report de novo heterozygous pathogenic variants (seven missense, two frameshift) in CDH2 in nine individuals with a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, variable axon pathfinding defects (corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia, mirror movements, Duane anomaly), and ocular, cardiac, and genital anomalies. All seven missense variants (c.1057G>A [p.Asp353Asn]; c.1789G>A [p.Asp597Asn]; c.1789G>T [p.Asp597Tyr]; c.1802A>C [p.Asn601Thr]; c.1839C>G [p.Cys613Trp]; c.1880A>G [p.Asp627Gly]; c.2027A>G [p.Tyr676Cys]) result in substitution of highly conserved residues, and six of seven cluster within EC domains 4 and 5. Four of the substitutions affect the calcium-binding site in the EC4-EC5 interdomain. We show that cells expressing these variants in the EC4-EC5 domains have a defect in cell-cell adhesion; this defect includes impaired binding in trans with N-cadherin-WT expressed on apposing cells. The two frameshift variants (c.2563_2564delCT [p.Leu855Valfs∗4]; c.2564_2567dupTGTT [p.Leu856Phefs∗5]) are predicted to lead to a truncated cytoplasmic domain. Our study demonstrates that de novo heterozygous variants in CDH2 impair the adhesive activity of N-cadherin, resulting in a multisystemic developmental disorder, that could be named ACOG syndrome (agenesis of corpus callosum, axon pathfinding, cardiac, ocular, and genital defects).


Assuntos
Axônios/patologia , Caderinas/genética , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Olho/patologia , Genitália/patologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia
7.
Sci Adv ; 5(9): eaax2166, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579823

RESUMO

RNA binding proteins are key players in posttranscriptional regulation and have been implicated in neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we report a significant burden of heterozygous, likely gene-disrupting variants in CSDE1 (encoding a highly constrained RNA binding protein) among patients with autism and related neurodevelopmental disabilities. Analysis of 17 patients identifies common phenotypes including autism, intellectual disability, language and motor delay, seizures, macrocephaly, and variable ocular abnormalities. HITS-CLIP revealed that Csde1-binding targets are enriched in autism-associated gene sets, especially FMRP targets, and in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity-related pathways. Csde1 knockdown in primary mouse cortical neurons leads to an overgrowth of the neurites and abnormal dendritic spine morphology/synapse formation and impaired synaptic transmission, whereas mutant and knockdown experiments in Drosophila result in defects in synapse growth and synaptic transmission. Our study defines a new autism-related syndrome and highlights the functional role of CSDE1 in synapse development and synaptic transmission.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Neurogênese/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Transmissão Sináptica/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Sinapses/genética , Sinapses/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 606-615, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474318

RESUMO

Cerebellar malformations are diverse congenital anomalies frequently associated with developmental disability. Although genetic and prenatal non-genetic causes have been described, no systematic analysis has been performed. Here, we present a large-exome sequencing study of Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) and cerebellar hypoplasia (CBLH). We performed exome sequencing in 282 individuals from 100 families with DWM or CBLH, and we established a molecular diagnosis in 36 of 100 families, with a significantly higher yield for CBLH (51%) than for DWM (16%). The 41 variants impact 27 neurodevelopmental-disorder-associated genes, thus demonstrating that CBLH and DWM are often features of monogenic neurodevelopmental disorders. Though only seven monogenic causes (19%) were identified in more than one individual, neuroimaging review of 131 additional individuals confirmed cerebellar abnormalities in 23 of 27 genetic disorders (85%). Prenatal risk factors were frequently found among individuals without a genetic diagnosis (30 of 64 individuals [47%]). Single-cell RNA sequencing of prenatal human cerebellar tissue revealed gene enrichment in neuronal and vascular cell types; this suggests that defective vasculogenesis may disrupt cerebellar development. Further, de novo gain-of-function variants in PDGFRB, a tyrosine kinase receptor essential for vascular progenitor signaling, were associated with CBLH, and this discovery links genetic and non-genetic etiologies. Our results suggest that genetic defects impact specific cerebellar cell types and implicate abnormal vascular development as a mechanism for cerebellar malformations. We also confirmed a major contribution for non-genetic prenatal factors in individuals with cerebellar abnormalities, substantially influencing diagnostic evaluation and counseling regarding recurrence risk and prognosis.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/anormalidades , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez
9.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(11): e969, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway is known to play an imperative role in bone, cartilage, and cardiac tissue formation. Truncating, heterozygous variants, and deletions of one of the essential receptors in this pathway, Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type1A (BMPR1A), have been associated with autosomal dominant juvenile polyposis. Heterozygous deletions have also been associated with cardiac and minor skeletal anomalies. Populations with atrioventricular septal defects are enriched for rare missense BMPR1A variants. METHODS: We report on a patient with a homozygous missense variant in BMPR1A causing skeletal abnormalities, growth failure a large atrial septal defect, severe subglottic stenosis, laryngomalacia, facial dysmorphisms, and developmental delays. RESULTS: Functional analysis of this variant shows increased chondrocyte death for cells with the mutated receptor, increased phosphorylated R-Smads1/5/8, and loss of Sox9 expression mediated by decreased phosphorylation of p38. CONCLUSION: This homozygous missense variant in BMPR1A appears to cause a distinct clinical phenotype.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 689-705, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495489

RESUMO

Sphingomyelinases generate ceramide from sphingomyelin as a second messenger in intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis. Children from 12 unrelated families presented with microcephaly, simplified gyral pattern of the cortex, hypomyelination, cerebellar hypoplasia, congenital arthrogryposis, and early fetal/postnatal demise. Genomic analysis revealed bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in SMPD4, coding for the neutral sphingomyelinase-3 (nSMase-3/SMPD4). Overexpression of human Myc-tagged SMPD4 showed localization both to the outer nuclear envelope and the ER and additionally revealed interactions with several nuclear pore complex proteins by proteomics analysis. Fibroblasts from affected individuals showed ER cisternae abnormalities, suspected for increased autophagy, and were more susceptible to apoptosis under stress conditions, while treatment with siSMPD4 caused delayed cell cycle progression. Our data show that SMPD4 links homeostasis of membrane sphingolipids to cell fate by regulating the cross-talk between the ER and the outer nuclear envelope, while its loss reveals a pathogenic mechanism in microcephaly.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Esfingomielina Fosfodiesterase/genética , Artrogripose/patologia , Linhagem da Célula , Criança , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Microcefalia/patologia , Mitose , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Linhagem , Processamento de RNA
11.
Pediatr Radiol ; 49(13): 1843-1847, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384970

RESUMO

Sakoda complex is a rare but distinct combination of birth defects consisting of a basal cephalocele, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and midline cleft lip/palate. It has been reported in association with ophthalmologic abnormalities, cognitive deficits and severe epilepsy. Here we describe both prenatal and postnatal MRI findings of a classic case of Sakoda complex in a child with characteristic findings on fetal MRI; prenatal findings have not been described in the literature. Diagnosis of this entity has important implications for prenatal counseling and perinatal management, as is demonstrated in this case.

12.
J Perinatol ; 39(8): 1072-1077, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213636

RESUMO

Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in prenatal evaluations. OBJECTIVE: Identify common brain malformations on fetal MRI and evaluate perinatal course. METHODS: Fetal consultations from 10/2016 to 12/2017 reviewed. RESULTS: Hundred consultations were requested; 94 were completed. Findings included: posterior fossa malformations (19%), agenesis/dysgenesis of corpus callosum (15%), congenital aqueductal stenosis (CAS) (14%), ventriculomegaly (11%), isolated cortical malformations (8.5%), and holoprosencephaly (6%). Posterior fossa malformations were more likely to be associated with genetic conditions and cardiac malformations. Patients with CAS all required intensive care unit admission. Overall, few patients with congenital brain malformations required feeding or respiratory support at discharge. None had seizures as neonates except two with early epileptic encephalopathy syndromes. CONCLUSIONS: Even though long term neurological prognosis is poor for many conditions including high lifetime risk of epilepsy, most are discharged with no feeding or respiratory support. Seizures are rarely seen in the neonatal period.

13.
Genet Med ; 21(12): 2723-2733, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239556

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in the chromatin organizer CTCF were previously reported in seven individuals with a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD). METHODS: Through international collaboration we collected data from 39 subjects with variants in CTCF. We performed transcriptome analysis on RNA from blood samples and utilized Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the impact of Ctcf dosage alteration on nervous system development and function. RESULTS: The individuals in our cohort carried 2 deletions, 8 likely gene-disruptive, 2 splice-site, and 20 different missense variants, most of them de novo. Two cases were familial. The associated phenotype was of variable severity extending from mild developmental delay or normal IQ to severe intellectual disability. Feeding difficulties and behavioral abnormalities were common, and variable other findings including growth restriction and cardiac defects were observed. RNA-sequencing in five individuals identified 3828 deregulated genes enriched for known NDD genes and biological processes such as transcriptional regulation. Ctcf dosage alteration in Drosophila resulted in impaired gross neurological functioning and learning and memory deficits. CONCLUSION: We significantly broaden the mutational and clinical spectrum ofCTCF-associated NDDs. Our data shed light onto the functional role of CTCF by identifying deregulated genes and show that Ctcf alterations result in nervous system defects in Drosophila.


Assuntos
Fator de Ligação a CCCTC/genética , Fator de Ligação a CCCTC/metabolismo , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Animais , Criança , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Genet Med ; 21(11): 2422-2430, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110330

RESUMO

Historically, medical geneticists and genetic counselors have provided the majority of genetic services. Advances in technology, reduction in testing costs, and increased public awareness have led to a growing demand for genetic services in both clinical and direct-to-consumer spaces. Recent and anticipated changes in the workforce of genetic counselors and medical geneticists require a reexamination of the way we educate health-care providers and the means by which we provide access to genetic services. The time is ripe for rapid growth of genetic and genomic services, but to capitalize on these opportunities, we need to consider a variety of educational mechanisms to reach providers both within and beyond the traditional genetic counseling and medical genetics sectors, including nurses, physician assistants, and nongenetics physicians. This article summarizes the educational efforts underway in each of these professions.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento Genético/métodos , Aconselhamento Genético/tendências , Genética Médica/métodos , Genética Médica/tendências , Conselheiros/educação , Educação Médica/tendências , Serviços em Genética/tendências , Testes Genéticos/tendências , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Médicos/tendências
15.
Exp Neurol ; 320: 112961, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136762

RESUMO

The three nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT) family members synthesize the electron carrier nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and are essential for cellular metabolism. In mammalian axons, NMNAT activity appears to be required for axon survival and is predominantly provided by NMNAT2. NMNAT2 has recently been shown to also function as a chaperone to aid in the refolding of misfolded proteins. Nmnat2 deficiency in mice, or in its ortholog dNmnat in Drosophila, results in axon outgrowth and survival defects. Peripheral nerve axons in NMNAT2-deficient mice fail to extend and innervate targets, and skeletal muscle is severely underdeveloped. In addition, removing NMNAT2 from established axons initiates axon death by Wallerian degeneration. We report here on two stillborn siblings with fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS), severely reduced skeletal muscle mass and hydrops fetalis. Clinical exome sequencing identified compound heterozygous NMNAT2 variant alleles in both cases. Both protein variants are incapable of supporting axon survival in mouse primary neuron cultures when overexpressed. In vitro assays demonstrate altered protein stability and/or defects in NAD+ synthesis and chaperone functions. Thus, both patient NMNAT2 alleles are null or severely hypo-morphic. These data indicate a previously unknown role for NMNAT2 in human neurological development and provide the first direct molecular evidence to support the involvement of Wallerian degeneration in a human axonal disorder. SIGNIFICANCE: Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Adenylyltransferase 2 (NMNAT2) both synthesizes the electron carrier Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) and acts a protein chaperone. NMNAT2 has emerged as a major neuron survival factor. Overexpression of NMNAT2 protects neurons from Wallerian degeneration after injury and declining levels of NMNAT2 have been implicated in neurodegeneration. While the role of NMNAT2 in neurodegeneration has been extensively studied, the role of NMNAT2 in human development remains unclear. In this work, we present the first human variants in NMNAT2 identified in two fetuses with severe skeletal muscle hypoplasia and fetal akinesia. Functional studies in vitro showed that the mutations impair both NMNAT2 NAD+ synthase and chaperone functions. This work identifies the critical role of NMNAT2 in human development.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Neurogênese/genética , Nicotinamida-Nucleotídeo Adenililtransferase/genética , Degeneração Walleriana/genética , Animais , Feto , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação , Natimorto
16.
Mol Genet Metab ; 127(1): 86-94, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fabry disease is a rare, X-linked, lifelong progressive lysosomal storage disorder. Severely deficient α-galactosidase A activity in males is associated with the classic phenotype with early-onset, multisystem manifestations evolving to vital organ complications during adulthood. We assessed the ability of 2 low-dose agalsidase beta regimens to lower skin, plasma, and urine globotriaosylceramide (GL-3) levels, and influence clinical manifestations in male pediatric Fabry patients. METHODS: In this multicenter, open-label, parallel-group, phase 3b study, male patients aged 5-18 years were randomized to receive agalsidase beta at 0.5 mg/kg 2-weekly (n = 16) or 1.0 mg/kg 4-weekly (n = 15) for 5 years. All had plasma/urine GL-3 accumulation but no clinically evident organ involvement. The primary outcome was GL-3 accumulation in superficial skin capillary endothelium (SSCE). RESULTS: The mean age was 11.6 (range: 5-18) years and all but one of the 31 patients had classic GLA mutations. In the overall cohort, shifts from non-0 to 0-scores for SSCE GL-3 were significant at years 1, 3, and 5, but results were variable. Plasma GL-3 normalized and urine GL-3 reduced substantially. Higher anti-agalsidase beta antibody titers were associated with less robust SSCE GL-3 clearance and higher urine GL-3 levels. Renal function remained stable and normal. Most Fabry signs and symptoms tended to stabilize; abdominal pain was significantly reduced (-26.3%; P = .0215). No new clinical major organ complications were observed. GL-3 accumulation and cellular and vascular injury were present in baseline kidney biopsies (n = 7). Treatment effects on podocyte GL-3 content and foot process width were highly variable. Fabry arteriopathy overall increased in severity. Two patients withdrew and 2 had their agalsidase beta dose increased. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings increase the limited amount of available data on long-term effects of enzyme replacement therapy in pediatric, classic Fabry patients. The low-dose regimens studied here over a period of 5 years did not demonstrate a consistent benefit among the patients in terms of controlling symptomatology, urine GL-3 levels, and pathological histology. The current available evidence supports treatment of pediatric, classic male Fabry patients at the approved agalsidase beta dose of 1.0 mg/kg 2-weekly if these patients are considered for enzyme replacement therapy with agalsidase beta.


Assuntos
Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença de Fabry/tratamento farmacológico , Isoenzimas/uso terapêutico , alfa-Galactosidase/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Masculino , Pele/química , Pele/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Triexosilceramidas/análise
17.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 60, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital malformations associated with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 16, upd(16)mat, resemble those observed in newborns with the lethal developmental lung disease, alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV). Interestingly, ACDMPV-causative deletions, involving FOXF1 or its lung-specific upstream enhancer at 16q24.1, arise almost exclusively on the maternally inherited chromosome 16. Given the phenotypic similarities between upd(16)mat and ACDMPV, together with parental allelic bias in ACDMPV, we hypothesized that there may be unknown imprinted loci mapping to chromosome 16 that become functionally unmasked by chromosomal structural variants. RESULTS: To identify parent-of-origin biased DNA methylation, we performed high-resolution bisulfite sequencing of chromosome 16 on peripheral blood and cultured skin fibroblasts from individuals with maternal or paternal upd(16) as well as lung tissue from patients with ACDMPV-causative 16q24.1 deletions and a normal control. We identified 22 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) with ≥ 5 consecutive CpG methylation sites and varying tissue-specificity, including the known DMRs associated with the established imprinted gene ZNF597 and DMRs supporting maternal methylation of PRR25, thought to be paternally expressed in lymphoblastoid cells. Lastly, we found evidence of paternal methylation on 16q24.1 near LINC01082 mapping to the FOXF1 enhancer. CONCLUSIONS: Using high-resolution bisulfite sequencing to evaluate DNA methylation across chromosome 16, we found evidence for novel candidate imprinted loci on chromosome 16 that would not be evident in array-based assays and could contribute to the birth defects observed in patients with upd(16)mat or in ACDMPV.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Dissomia Uniparental/genética , Células Cultivadas , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Feminino , Fibroblastos/química , Fibroblastos/citologia , Impressão Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Pele/química , Pele/citologia
19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(6): 1010-1014, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895720

RESUMO

Orofaciodigital syndrome type I and X-linked recessive Joubert syndrome are known ciliopathic disorders that are caused by pathogenic variants in OFD1 gene. Endocrine system involvement with these conditions is not well described. We present the first report of a newborn male with a novel hemizygous variant in OFD1 gene c.515T>C, (p.Leu172Pro) resulting in X-linked Joubert syndrome and orofaciodigital features with complete pituitary gland aplasia and subsequent severe hypoplasia of peripheral endocrine glands. This clinical report expands the phenotypic spectrum of endocrine system involvement in OFD1-related disorders and suggests that OFD1 gene may be related to pituitary gland development.

20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(4): 542-551, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719864

RESUMO

Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by distinctive facial features and intellectual disability caused by haploinsufficiency of the NSD1 gene. Genotype-phenotype correlations have been observed, with major anomalies seen more frequently in patients with 5q35 deletions than those with point mutations in NSD1. Though endocrine features have rarely been described, transient hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HI) of the neonatal period has been reported as an uncommon presentation of Sotos syndrome. Eight cases of 5q35 deletions and one patient with an intragenic NSD1 mutation with transient HI have been reported. Here, we describe seven individuals with HI caused by NSD1 gene mutations with three having persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. These patients with persistent HI and Sotos syndrome caused by NSD1 mutations, further dispel the hypothesis that HI is due to the deletion of other genes in the deleted 5q35 region. These patients emphasize that NSD1 haploinsufficiency is sufficient to cause HI, and suggest that Sotos syndrome should be considered in patients presenting with neonatal HI. Lastly, these patients help extend the phenotypic spectrum of Sotos syndrome to include HI as a significant feature.


Assuntos
Hiperinsulinismo Congênito/patologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/patologia , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Mutação , Síndrome de Sotos/patologia , Adulto , Hiperinsulinismo Congênito/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Síndrome de Sotos/genética
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