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Proc Biol Sci ; 290(1992): 20221062, 2023 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36722085


Mammalian omnivores are a broad group of species that are often treated uniformly in ecological studies. Here, we incorporate omnivorous dietary differences to investigate previously found mammalian macroevolutionary and macroecological trends. We investigate the frequency with which vertebrate prey, invertebrate prey, fibrous plant material and non-fibrous plant material co-occur in the diets of terrestrial mammals. We quantify the body size distributions and phylogenetic signal of different omnivorous diets and use multistate reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to assess the transition rates between diets on the mammalian phylogenetic tree. We find omnivores that consume all four food types are relatively rare, as most omnivores consume only invertebrate prey and non-fibrous plants. In addition, omnivores that only consume invertebrate prey, many of which are from Rodentia, are on average smaller than omnivores that incorporate vertebrate prey. Our transition models have high rates from invertivorous omnivory to herbivory, and from vertivory to prey mixing and ultimately invertivory. We suggest prey type is an important aspect of omnivore macroevolution and macroecology, as it is correlated with body mass, evolutionary history and diet-related evolutionary transition rates. Future work should avoid lumping omnivores into one category given the ecological variety of omnivore diets and their strong evolutionary influence.

Dieta , Mamíferos , Animais , Filogenia , Resolução de Problemas , Tamanho Corporal
Trends Ecol Evol ; 32(3): 211-226, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28196688


Topographically complex regions on land and in the oceans feature hotspots of biodiversity that reflect geological influences on ecological and evolutionary processes. Over geologic time, topographic diversity gradients wax and wane over millions of years, tracking tectonic or climatic history. Topographic diversity gradients from the present day and the past can result from the generation of species by vicariance or from the accumulation of species from dispersal into a region with strong environmental gradients. Biological and geological approaches must be integrated to test alternative models of diversification along topographic gradients. Reciprocal illumination among phylogenetic, phylogeographic, ecological, paleontological, tectonic, and climatic perspectives is an emerging frontier of biogeographic research.

Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Animais , Clima , Ecologia , Filogenia , Filogeografia
PLoS One ; 11(8): e0160793, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27483016


[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146221.].

PLoS One ; 11(2): e0146221, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26840633


Individual elements of many extinct and extant North American rhinocerotids display osteopathologies, particularly exostoses, abnormal textures, and joint margin porosity, that are commonly associated with localized bone trauma. When we evaluated six extinct rhinocerotid species spanning 50 million years (Ma), we found the incidence of osteopathology increases from 28% of all elements of Eocene Hyrachyus eximius to 65-80% of all elements in more derived species. The only extant species in this study, Diceros bicornis, displayed less osteopathologies (50%) than the more derived extinct taxa. To get a finer-grained picture, we scored each fossil for seven pathological indicators on a scale of 1-4. We estimated the average mass of each taxon using M1-3 length and compared mass to average pathological score for each category. We found that with increasing mass, osteopathology also significantly increases. We then ran a phylogenetically-controlled regression analysis using a time-calibrated phylogeny of our study taxa. Mass estimates were found to significantly covary with abnormal foramen shape and abnormal bone textures. This pattern in osteopathological expression may reflect a part of the complex system of adaptations in the Rhinocerotidae over millions of years, where increased mass, cursoriality, and/or increased life span are selected for, to the detriment of long-term bone health. This work has important implications for the future health of hoofed animals and humans alike.

Osso e Ossos/patologia , Fósseis/patologia , Perissodáctilos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Extinção Biológica , História Antiga , Perissodáctilos/classificação
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 109(18): 7008-12, 2012 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22509033


Mammals are characterized by the complex adaptations of their dentition, which are an indication that diet has played a critical role in their evolutionary history. Although much attention has focused on diet and the adaptations of specific taxa, the role of diet in large-scale diversification patterns remains unresolved. Contradictory hypotheses have been proposed, making prediction of the expected relationship difficult. We show that net diversification rate (the cumulative effect of speciation and extinction), differs significantly among living mammals, depending upon trophic strategy. Herbivores diversify fastest, carnivores are intermediate, and omnivores are slowest. The tempo of transitions between the trophic strategies is also highly biased: the fastest rates occur into omnivory from herbivory and carnivory and the lowest transition rates are between herbivory and carnivory. Extant herbivore and carnivore diversity arose primarily through diversification within lineages, whereas omnivore diversity evolved by transitions into the strategy. The ability to specialize and subdivide the trophic niche allowed herbivores and carnivores to evolve greater diversity than omnivores.

Evolução Biológica , Dieta , Mamíferos/classificação , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Biodiversidade , Carnivoridade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Ecossistema , Extinção Biológica , Herbivoria , Humanos , Filogenia
Proc Biol Sci ; 272(1573): 1705-13, 2005 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16087426


Ceratogaulus, a member of the extinct fossorial rodent clade Mylagaulidae, is the only known rodent with horns and the smallest known horned mammal. The function of the large, dorsally projecting nasal horns on this burrowing animal has been the subject of wide speculation among palaeontologists; suggested uses range from sexual combat to burrowing. Mammals have evolved adaptations for digging repeatedly; horns and other cranial appendages have also evolved numerous times. These two adaptations co-occur in mammals extremely rarely: only two fossil genera (Ceratogaulus and the xenarthran Peltephilus) and no extant mammals are both horned and fossorial. Tracing the evolution of fossoriality in aplodontoid rodents (the larger clade to which Ceratogaulus belongs) reveals that Ceratogaulus descended from ancestors who dug by head-lifting. Whereas this suggests an obvious explanation for the horns of this rodent, evidence from functional morphology, anatomy, phylogeny and geologic context indicates that the horns in Ceratogaulus were used for defence, rather than digging, and evolved to offset increased predation costs associated with spending more time foraging above ground as body size increased.

Adaptação Biológica , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Fósseis , Cornos/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Roedores/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Roedores/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia