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1.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 29: 10760296231169512, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37062946

RESUMO

En-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a growing public health problem. The atherosclerotic cardiovascular complications are the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the ESRD. In this study, we sought to quantify the levels of thrombo-inflammatory biomarkers in an ESRD patients in comparison to healthy controls to determine their relevance in thrombo-inflammation and adverse outcomes. The levels of D-Dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) antigen, functional PAI-1, thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, tissue plasminogen activator, von Willebrand factor, and anti-PF4 IgG and microparticle (MP) activity were quantified by using commercially available ELISA immunoassays for each of the ESRD (n = 73) and control plasma samples (n = 10). The levels of endogenous glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were quantified by utilizing a Heparin Red Probe (Redprobes UG, Germany). The collected data were analyzed to demonstrate the relationship between various parameters. All the tested biomarkers were increased in ESRD patients in comparison to healthy controls (p < 0.05). These biomarkers have shown significant correlations within each other except for anti-PF4 Ig G and MPs. The CRP levels were significantly higher in patients who had coronary artery disease (CAD) (p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in other biomarkers according to the cardiovascular outcomes. In the multivariate analysis, the CRP (odds ratio: 1.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.41; p: 0.03) value was an independent predictor of CAD. In this study, we demonstrated increased levels of 10 different biomarkers in ESRD patients. The CRP levels can be a good predictor of CAD in ESRD patients.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Falência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual , Glicosaminoglicanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa/análise
2.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 29: 10760296231165055, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36941787

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmia worldwide. Inflammation and structural remodeling of the left atrium are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of AF. This study explores collagen remodeling and inflammatory biomarkers in AF patients compared to healthy controls to discern their role in AF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma samples were collected from AF patients undergoing first AF ablation (n = 72) and compared with commercially available human plasma samples from healthy subjects (n = 62). The collagen remodeling biomarkers and inflammatory biomarkers in the AF patients and control population were quantified using sandwich ELISA kits. GraphPad prism was used to perform statistical analyses. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant elevation in all the collagen remodeling biomarkers and inflammatory biomarkers in the AF patients compared to healthy controls. Spearman correlation analysis demonstrated significant correlations between inflammatory and collagen remodeling biomarkers, and among the collagen biomarkers. Of note, CRP was found to be correlated with TIMP-1, ICTP and PIIINP. IL6 and TIMP-1 were also found to be intercorrelated. Furthermore, correlations were noted among the different collagen remodeling peptides, and between TNFα and IL6, two of the inflammatory markers explored in this study. CONCLUSIONS: The elevation of the inflammatory biomarkers and collagen remodeling proteins in AF patients is suggestive of inflammation and increased collagen turnover. The association between inflammatory biomarkers and collagen remodeling proteins may contribute to their regulation and role in the remodeling process.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colágeno/metabolismo , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/metabolismo , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise
3.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 29: 10760296231163251, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36908199

RESUMO

Introduction: Bovine and ovine mucosa represent alternate anticoagulants to porcine mucosa for production of unfractionated heparin (UFH). Standardized heparins from various sources can be blended and potency adjusted, blended heparins exhibit comparable effects as single-sourced porcine UFH. This study evaluated the pharmacologic profile of blended heparin and compared their activities to that of single sourced porcine, ovine, and bovine heparins. Methods: The anticoagulant effects of gravimetric and potency-adjusted heparins were evaluated with aPTT, TT, anti-Xa, anti-IIa, ACT, and TGA studies. Protamine sulfate studies were used for neutralization potential of each of the individual heparins. Results: The potency-adjusted heparins demonstrated comparable aPTT, TT, anti-Xa, anti-IIa, and ACT values at all concentrations (U/mL). However, in gravimetric studies, bovine heparin consistently showed lower values with the exception of thrombin generation inhibition studies. The protamine sulfate neutralization studies demonstrated complete neutralization at all concentrations for the potency-adjusted heparins. However, at gravimetric concentrations, minor differences were noted in the neutralization profile in each of these heparins. Conclusion: These studies support the hypothesis that blended heparin from bovine, ovine, and porcine tissue, when standardized in unit-equivalent proportions, exhibits a comparable anticoagulant profile to the single species derived heparins.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Heparina , Animais , Ovinos , Bovinos , Suínos , Heparina/farmacologia , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/farmacologia , Protaminas
4.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 29: 10760296231162079, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36911974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a heterogeneous disease process with variable presentation and outcomes. The endogenous fibrinolytic system is a complex framework of regulatory pathways that maintains homeostasis by dissolving overabundant thrombi. We sought to investigate phenotypic profiles of the endogenous fibrinolytic system among patients presenting with acute PE and their impact on mortality. METHODS: We enrolled all consecutive patients with acute PE in our institutional Pulmonary Embolism Response Team registry. We collected blood samples at the time of PE diagnosis and analyzed concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), and alpha-2-antiplasmin (A2A). We assessed the association of concentration of fibrinolytic inhibitors and 1-year all-cause mortality and various echocardiographic markers of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. RESULTS: There is significant variability of PAI-1, A2A, and TAFI concentrations across the spectrum of PE risk profiles with high PAI-1, low TAFI, and low A2A (herein referred to as a high-risk biomarker profile) correlating with worse PE severity. High-risk biomarker profile correlated with high-risk echocardiographic features of RV dysfunction, including increased RV/left ventricular (LV) ratio, low tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and low right ventricular outflow tract velocity time integral. Higher-risk biomarker profile was able to discriminate and independently identify patients at high risk of all-cause mortality (Group 2 HR 6 95% CI 1.3-27.8, Group 3 HR 12, 95% CI 1.7-86). CONCLUSIONS: Further studies are needed to assess the exact pathophysiological link between fibrinolytic status and poor outcome after acute PE and to ascertain the impact of anti-inhibitors of the fibrinolytic system on response to therapy and outcomes after acute PE.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos , Embolia Pulmonar , Disfunção Ventricular Direita , Humanos , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Terapia Trombolítica , Fatores de Risco , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores
5.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 29: 10760296231165058, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36941804

RESUMO

Type I and type II diabetes are closely associated with a pro-inflammatory state and to a pro-thrombotic state. The role of glycemic control in pulmonary embolism (PE) is poorly understood and requires additional investigation. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between glycemic control and thrombo-inflammatory biomarkers in a PE patient cohort compared to normal samples. Demographic and clinical information for 86 diabetic patients and 106 non-diabetic patients presenting with acute PE was collected via retrospective chart review. Plasma levels of pro-inflammatory (C-reactive protein [CRP], tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-6 [IL-6]) and pro-thrombotic (d-dimer, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1], tissue plasminogen activator [tPA], thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor [TAFI], von-Willebrand factor [vWF], endogenous glycosaminoglycans [GAGs]) biomarkers were drawn within 24 hours of diagnosis of acute PE. Data was also obtained for a population of healthy adult controls. All the pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic biomarkers were elevated in diabetic PE patients in comparison to healthy controls. None of the biomarkers were elevated in diabetic PE patients when compared to non-diabetic PE patients. There was no difference in the levels of the pro-inflammatory biomarkers according to glycemic control. The plasma level of TAFI was elevated in diabetic patients with poor glycemic control. Diabetic patients were more likely to have a more severe PE. These studies demonstrate that thrombo-inflammatory biomarkers are elevated in diabetic PE patients with associated comorbidities in comparison to normal individuals. However, there is no difference between the PE cohort alone in comparison to PE with diabetes. The role of TAFI within the continuum of diabetic vascular disease warrants additional investigation.


Assuntos
Carboxipeptidase B2 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Embolia Pulmonar , Trombose , Adulto , Humanos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Controle Glicêmico , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Biomarcadores , Trombose/complicações , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio , Fibrinólise
6.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 28: 10760296221144047, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36474353

RESUMO

Endogenous glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) with a similar structure to heparin are widely distributed in various tissues. A fluorescence probe, namely Heparin Red, can detect polyanionic GAGs in plasma samples. The purpose of this study is to measure endogenous GAGs in various plasma samples obtained from different pathologic states in comparison to healthy controls utilizing this method. Plasma samples were obtained from patient groups including atrial fibrillation (AF), end-stage-renal-disease (ESRD), diabetes mellitus (DM), sepsis, cancer, liver disease (LD), and pulmonary embolism (PE). Normal human plasma (NHP) was used as healthy controls. The Heparin Red kit from Red Probes (Münster, Germany) was used for the quantification of endogenous GAGs in each sample before and after heparinase I degradation. All results were compiled as group means ± SD for comparison. NHP was found to have relatively low levels of endogenous GAGs with a mean concentration of 0.06 µg/mL. The AF, ESRD, DM, and sepsis patient samples had a mean endogenous GAG concentration of 0.55, 0.72, 0.92, and 0.94 µg/mL, respectively. The levels of endogenous GAGs were highest in cancer, LD, and PE patient plasma samples with a mean concentration of 1.95, 2.78, and 2.83 µg/mL, respectively. Heparinase I degradation resulted in a decline in GAG levels in plasma samples. These results clearly show that detectable Heparin Red sensitive endogenous GAGs are present in circulating plasma at varying levels in various patient groups. Additional studies are necessary to understand this complex pathophysiology.

7.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 28: 10760296221145181, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36514257

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrythmia in the world. Structural remodeling and fatty acid metabolism dysregulation are believed to play a role in the development of AF. This study explored different biomarkers in the blood of AF patients and a control population to determine if there was a significant difference between the two groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Plasma samples were collected from 73 patients with confirmed diagnosis of AF from Loyola University Clinic. Control group represented commercially available plasma (n = 50). Sandwich ELISA kits were used to quantify the collagen remodeling proteins and liver type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) in the AF population and the control population. Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were measured using an enzymatic colorimetric kit from Wako Diagnostics. Statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism. RESULTS: All the collagen remodeling biomarkers were significantly higher in AF patients compared to the control group. The fatty acid dysregulation biomarkers were elevated in the AF patients. Spearman correlation analyses yielded significant correlations between L-FABP and TIMP-1 (r = 0.47, P < 0.001), NEFA and TIMP-2 (r = 0.41, P = 0.002), NEFA and ICTP (r = 0.41, P =0 .002), and NEFA and PIIINP (r = 0.61, P < 0.0001). SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: The elevation of collagen remodeling biomarkers suggests an upregulation of these biomarkers and their potential role in AF, which may contribute to atrial fibrosis. L-FABP and NEFAs were elevated in AF patients. The correlations between the collagen remodeling and fatty acid dysregulation biomarkers may be due to their involvement in structural remodeling of the atria.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Humanos , Ácidos Graxos , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Biomarcadores , Colágeno/metabolismo , Fibrose , Átrios do Coração/metabolismo , Átrios do Coração/patologia
8.
J Pers Med ; 12(11)2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36573728

RESUMO

Background: Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the etiopathology of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), at least in a subset of patients. It is crucial to first establish which specific inflammatory biomarkers are of clinical utility. Anti-cardiolipin antibody (aCL IgM) is an inflammatory marker that has the potential to be such a candidate but there are insufficient studies to confirm this potential. Objective: To investigate the baseline titer level and the longitudinal progression of plasma titers of aCL IgM in MDD subjects receiving antidepressant therapy in comparison to healthy control (HC) subjects; to determine if changes in aCL IgM plasma titers correlate to changes in depressive symptoms; and, to ascertain if baseline aCL IgM plasma titers could predict treatment response. Methods: Forty-eight medically healthy outpatients diagnosed with MDD were enrolled in one of two groups in two sequentially conducted clinical trials. In Group-E, patients received a 12-week regimen of escitalopram (n = 20). Those in Group-Q received a 12-week regimen of quetiapine (n = 28). The main outcome measure was plasma aCL IgM titers, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A). There were 16 HC subjects. Results: When Group-Q and Group-E participants were grouped together (n = 48), MDD subjects had an elevated baseline aCL IgM (19.9 µg/mL) compared to HC subjects (8.32 µg/mL) (p = 0.006). aCL IgM correlated significantly with HAM-D17 scores at baseline in MDD subjects (p = 0.0185, r = 0.296). Examining the individual groups, Group-Q MDD patients had a significantly elevated baseline aCL IgM (p = 0.008) while Group-E's MDD patients did not. On the other hand, only Group-E MDD patients showed a significant correlation at baseline between aCL IgM and HAM-A score (p = 0.0392, r = 0.4327); they also showed a significant inverse correlation between week 12 HAMD-17 Item #10 (Anxiety, Psychic) and week 12 aCL IgM titer (p = 0.0268, r = -0.5516). Conclusions: MDD patients had significantly higher plasma titers of aCL IgM when compared to HC subjects. Moreover, at baseline, the higher the aCL IgM titer, the higher the depression severity, as measured by HAMD-17 score. However, this study did not demonstrate that aCL IgM titers changed significantly throughout a 12-week course of antidepressant treatment and revealed no correlation between changes in depressive symptoms and changes in aCL IgM titers. Baseline aCL IgM could not predict treatment response. We conclude that, despite lacking predictive ability as regards treatment response, plasma titers of aCL IgM have a diagnostic potential in MDD that necessitates further exploration.

9.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 28: 10760296221138297, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36476125

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The available oral anti-Xa agents are routinely used for the management of thrombotic disorders. A molecularly modified recombinant coagulation FXa, also known as Andexanet Alfa (AA), that has been developed as an antidote to neutralize the bleeding effects of oral FXa inhibitors, such as Apixaban and Rivaroxaban. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study utilized thromboelastography (TEG 5000 Hemostasis System), to investigate the neutralizing effects of AA at different concentrations of oral FXa inhibitors measuring such parameters as R-Time, K-Time, Angle, and Max Amplitude (MA). Apixaban, Betrixaban, Edoxaban, and Rivaroxaban were obtained commercially in powdered form. Each of these drugs was supplemented with freshly drawn whole citrated blood at a concentration of 1 µg/mL. And subsequently mixed with AA at 50 or 100 µg/mL. RESULTS: At a concentration of 1 µg/mL, all FXa inhibitors produced variable anticoagulant effects in the order of Edoxaban > Betrixaban > Rivaroxaban > Apixaban. AA at 100 µg/mL produced a complete neutralization of these inhibitors whereas at 50 µg/mL relatively weaker neutralization as measured by various parameters. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that regardless of the variable anticoagulant effects exhibited by the FXa Inhibitors, AA at FC = 100 µg/mL fully neutralized these agents as measured by the TEG parameters. AA was shown to be more effective in neutralizing Betrixaban and least effective in Apixaban. The neutralization of various FXa inhibitors was dose and donor-dependent warranting dosage adjustment for optimal outcomes.


Assuntos
Rivaroxabana , Humanos , Rivaroxabana/farmacologia
10.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 28: 10760296221104801, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35733366

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In this study, we profiled the levels of blood cellular indices, endogenous glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and inflammatory biomarkers in a cohort comprised of pulmonary embolism (PE) patients, to determine their inter-relationships. Identification of this relationship may provide insight to the complex pathophysiology of PE and the predictive role of blood cellular indices in acute PE patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma samples from PE patients and healthy controls were analyzed for thrombo-inflammatory biomarkers (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, VEGF, IFN-É£, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1ß, MCP-1, EGF, D-dimer, CRP and MMP-9) using biochip array and ELISA methods. The endogenous GAG levels were quantified using a fluorescence quenching method. The data regarding the blood cellular indices were collected through the review of patient medical records and analyzed to demonstrate their relationship. RESULTS: The levels of inflammatory biomarkers and endogenous GAGs were elevated in acute PE patients compared to controls (P < .05). Most of the blood cellular indices have shown significant differences in acute PE patients compared to controls (P < .05). The levels of inflammatory biomarkers, endogenous GAGs and the blood cellular indices have shown significant associations in correlation and multivariable analysis. While NLR, PLR and SII were significantly predicting the 30-day mortality, PNR, ELR and EMR were not sufficient to predict 30-day mortality in acute PE. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the increased thrombo-inflammatory response is associated with the release of GAGs and the changes in blood cellular indices. The predictive role of the blood cellular indices for mortality is dependent on their relationship with the inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Glicosaminoglicanos , Embolia Pulmonar , Doença Aguda , Biomarcadores , Humanos
11.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 28: 10760296221099934, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535398

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Andexanet alfa (andexanet) is an approved antidote used to reverse the bleeding effects of Direct Oral Anticoagulant (Direct-Xa agents) agents because it reverses anti-Xa activity. Unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) exhibit anti-Xa activity. The purpose is to investigate the neutralization of UFH and LMWH by andexanet in activated clotting time (ACT), thrombelastography (TEG), and anti-Xa due to the protamine sulfate shortage. METHODS: UFH and LMWH were studied with andexanet, PS, or saline as potential reversal agents/controls at varying concentrations in ACT, TEG, and anti-Xa and compared to each other. RESULTS: Andexanet partially neutralized both drugs several TEG parameters at high andexanet concentrations, but it was not as effective as protamine sulfate in any of the assays used. Most TEG parameters were correlated with andexanet concentration. In ACT, significant neutralization was demonstrated at many andexanet concentrations for UFH, but not LMWH. UFH was completely neutralized by PS in ACT, while LMWH was partially neutralized by PS in ACT. Andexanet alfa was a less effective neutralization agent than the protamine sulfate as it only partially neutralized UFH in ACT and was ineffective at neutralizing LMWH when tested at the same concentration as PS (10 ug/mL). CONCLUSION: Andexanet partially neutralized UFH and LMWH with variability between assays, necessitating investigation into assay-dependent differences.


Assuntos
Enoxaparina , Heparina , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Enoxaparina/farmacologia , Fator Xa , Heparina/farmacologia , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/farmacologia , Humanos , Protaminas/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes
12.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 28: 10760296221091770, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35360982

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that inflammation may contribute to the interplay of endogenous glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and anti-PF4 antibodies. In this study, we quantified the levels of anti-PF4 antibody isotypes and endogenous GAGs together with inflammatory biomarkers in pulmonary embolism (PE) patients to determine whether there is a relationship in between. Identification of this relationship may provide insight to the complex pathophysiology of PE and HIT and may also be useful for development of potential prognostic, diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma samples from PE patients (n: 210) were analyzed for anti-PF4 antibody isotypes and various thrombo-inflammatory cytokines utilizing commercially available biochip array and ELISA methods. The endogenous GAG levels in PE patients' plasma were quantified using a fluorescence quenching method. The collected data analyzed to demonstrate the relationship between various parameters. RESULTS: The endogenous GAG levels were increased in the PE group (P < .05). The levels of anti-PF4 antibody isotypes were higher in varying levels in comparison to the normal group (P < .05). Inflammatory cytokines have shown varying levels of increase with IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 showing the most pronounced values. Mortality outcome was related to increased GAGs and some of the cytokines. CONCLUSION: In this study, we demonstrated increased levels of anti-PF4 antibody isotypes, endogenous GAGs, and inflammatory biomarkers in a large patient cohort in PE. The levels of the endogenous GAGs and inflammatory biomarkers were associated with PE severity and mortality. More studies are needed to understand this complex pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar , Trombocitopenia , Biomarcadores , Glicosaminoglicanos , Heparina , Humanos , Fator Plaquetário 4 , Trombocitopenia/diagnóstico
13.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 28: 10760296211072820, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) often present with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Conditions of compromised cardiovascular health such as atrial fibrillation (AFIB) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) may alter biomarker levels in a way that reflects worsening ESRD. This study profiled biomarkers and laboratory parameters of endothelium dysfunction in patients with ESRD, categorized by additional AFIB and PAD conditions. METHODS: Citrated blood samples were collected from 95 patients with ESRD. Biomarker levels were measured from plasma samples using sandwich ELISAs, including tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), D-dimer, and nitrotyrosine. Lab parameters, including BUN, calcium, creatinine, parathyroid hormone, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, ferritin, transferrin, and total iron capacity, and patient comorbidities were obtained from patient medical records. The comorbidities were determined through provider notes, and evidence of applicable testing. RESULTS: 14.89% of patients were found to have atrial fibrillation (n = 14), 30.85% of patients were found to have peripheral arterial disease (n = 29), and 6.38% of patients were found to have both peripheral arterial disease and atrial fibrillation (n = 6). When compared to patients with only ESRD, patients with ESRD and PAD showed elevated levels of D-Dimer (p = .0314) and nitrotyrosine (p = .0330). When compared to patients with only ESRD, patients with atrial fibrillation showed elevated levels of D-Dimer (p = .0372), nitrotyrosine (p = .0322), and tPA (p = .0198). CONCLUSION: When compared to patients with just ESRD, patients with concomitant PAD had elevated levels of Nitrotyrosine and D-dimer; while patients with concomitant Afib had elevated levels of nitrotyrosine, D-dimer, as well as tPA.


Assuntos
Síndrome Cardiorrenal/etiologia , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Síndrome Cardiorrenal/sangue , Síndrome Cardiorrenal/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 28: 10760296211064898, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35043658

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The pathophysiology of pulmonary embolism (PE) represents complex, multifactorial processes involving blood cells, vascular endothelium, and the activation of inflammatory pathways. Platelet (P), endothelial (E), and leukocyte (L)-selectin molecules may play an important role in PE pathophysiology. We aimed to profile the biomarkers of inflammation, including selectins in PE patients, and compare them to healthy individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 100 acute PE patients and 50 controls were included in this case control study. ELISA methods were used to quantify levels of selectins, inflammatory, and hemostatic biomarkers. RESULTS: In PE patients, levels of selectin molecules as compared to controls convey increased P-selectin levels (95 ng/mL vs 40 ng/mL, p < .0001) and decreased L-selectin levels (1468 ng/mL vs 1934 ng/mL, p < .0001). Significant correlations were found between selectins and Plasminogen Activating Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), Tumor Necrosis Factor-a (TNFa), and D-dimer. Fold change between selectins and controls is compared to other biomarkers, illustrating degrees of change comparable to TNFa, alpha-2-antiplasmin, and microparticles. L-selectin levels are inversely associated with all-cause-mortality in PE patients, (p = .040). CONCLUSION: These studies suggest that various thrombo-inflammatory biomarkers are elevated in PE patients. Furthermore, L-selectin levels are inversely associated with mortality outcomes.


Assuntos
Hemostasia/fisiologia , Inflamação/sangue , Embolia Pulmonar/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Acupunct Med ; 40(2): 152-159, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856826

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Stable angina is ischemic chest pain on exertion or with emotional stress. Despite guideline-directed therapy, up to 30% of patients have suboptimal pain relief. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine the feasibility and acceptability of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of acupuncture; and (2) evaluate preliminary efficacy of acupuncture with respect to reduction of pain and increased functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). METHODS: Participants with stable angina for ⩾1 month received either a standardized acupuncture protocol, twice per week for 5 weeks, or an attention control protocol. Measures included the McGill Pain Questionnaire (average pain intensity (API), pain now) and the Seattle Angina Questionnaire-7 (functional status, symptoms, and HRQoL). Feasibility was defined as ⩾80% recruitment, ⩾75% retention following enrollment, and ⩾80% completion. Descriptive statistics and mixed-effects linear regression were used for analysis. RESULTS: The sample (n = 24) had a mean age of 59 ± 12 years, was predominantly female (63%), and represented minority groups (8% White, 52% Black, 33% Hispanic, and 8% Other). Feasibility was supported by 79% retention and 89% completion rates. The recruitment rate (68%) was slightly lower than expected. Acceptability scores were 87.9% for the acupuncture group and 51.7% for the control group. Outcomes were significantly better for the acupuncture versus control groups (API, b = -2.1 (1.1), p = 0.047; functional status, b = 27.6 (7.2), p < 0.001; and HRQoL, b = 38.8 (11.9), p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Acupuncture was feasible and acceptable in our diverse sample. We were slightly under the recruitment target of 80%, but participants who started the study had a high likelihood of completing it. Acupuncture shows promise for stable angina, but its effectiveness needs to be confirmed by a larger, adequately powered RCT. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02914834 (ClinicalTrials.gov).


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211050358, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713728

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Thrombo-inflammatory biomarkers play an important role in the pathogenesis of lymphoma. We aimed to characterize the interrelationship of thrombo-inflammatory biomarkers and blood cellular indices in lymphoma patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-eight lymphoma patient samples were collected from Lymphoma Center of Clinic of Hematology, University of Belgrade, Serbia. Normal controls (n = 50) represented plasma from healthy individuals. Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), D-Dimer, factor XIII, C-reactive protein (CRP), microparticles (Mp), Von Willebrand factor (vWF), total protein S, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), tumor necrosis factor (TNFα), ß2-glycoprotein I (ß2GPI), and fibronectin levels were measured utilizing commercially-available ELISA methods. Thrombin generation profile (TGA) was measured using a fluorometric kinetic assay. Platelets, leukocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils were measured in conjunction with the complete blood profile. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were noted in levels of PAI-1, D-Dimer, factor XIII, CRP, microparticles, vWF, uPA, TNFα, ß2GPI, fibronectin, and TGA when compared to normal (all P values < .001). Platelet to leukocyte ratio (PLA) correlated to TNFα and fibronectin (R = -0.31 and -0.53, respectively) and the platelet to neutrophil ratio (PNR) correlated to factor XIII and ß2GPI (R = 0.40 and 0.40, respectively). CONCLUSION: Plasma samples from lymphoma patients demonstrated a significantly altered thrombo-inflammatory biomarker profile that has notable correlations to blood cellular indices.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Linfoma/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211014964, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013785

RESUMO

Pulmonary embolism (PE) patients have an increased prevalence and incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF). Because comorbid AF increases risk of morbidity and mortality, we sought to investigate the role of thrombo-inflammatory biomarkers in risk stratifying patients who experience an acute PE episode. Study participants were enrolled from a Pulmonary Embolism Response Team (PERT) registry between March 2016 and March 2019 at Loyola University Medical Center and Gottlieb Memorial Hospital. This cohort was divided into 3 groups: PE patients with a prior diagnosis of AF (n = 8), PE patients with a subsequent diagnosis of AF (n = 11), and PE patients who do not develop AF (n = 71). D-dimer, CRP, PAI-1, TAFIa, FXIIIa, A2A, MP, and TFPI were profiled using the ELISA method. All biomarkers were significantly different between controls and PE patients (P < 0.05). Furthermore, TFPI was significantly elevated in PE patients who subsequently developed AF compared to PE patients who did not develop AF (157.7 ± 19.0 ng/mL vs. 129.0 ± 9.3 ng/mL, P = 0.0386). This study suggests that thrombo-inflammatory biomarkers may be helpful in indicating an acute PE episode. Also, elevated TFPI levels may be associated with an increased risk of developing AF after a PE.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Inflamação/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Trombose/complicações , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 1076029621987614, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000837

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis is a condition in which joint cartilage and bone degenerate progressively over time. Total joint arthroplasty is a definitive treatment. Cortisol is a hormone that is associated with pain and inflammation. This study aims to investigate the cortisol levels in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty. Plasma samples were collected from 71 total joint arthroplasty (TJA) patients at baseline (pre-surgery), 24 hours post-operation, and 5 days post-operation. Cortisol levels were measured in each sample using a commercially available ELISA kit. All results were compiled as group means ± SD. The plasma cortisol level at baseline were 218.5 ± 12 ng/mL. The 24-hour post-surgical samples showed a marked increase in cortisol levels 240.7 ± 15 ng/mL. The blood samples drawn at the 5th day after surgery showed a downward trend (74 ± 12 ng/mL). At 5 days post-operation, cortisol levels were significantly lower than at baseline or 24 hours post-operation. These results point to the fact that prior to surgery, the patient's emotional stress contributes to increased serum cortisol levels. The higher level of cortisol persists at 24 hours post-operation due to inflammation from the procedure. This data also suggests that at 5 days post-operation, the inflammatory response from the surgery and emotional stress subside, resulting in a near normalization of the cortisol levels. Cortisol is a hormone that plays a major role in the body's response to surgery. The relevance between cortisol and different points in the surgical timeline has the potential to prognosticate and improve recovery measures.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/farmacologia
19.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211013107, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969714

RESUMO

The complex pathophysiology of pulmonary embolism (PE) involves hemostatic activation, inflammatory processes, cellular dysfunction, and hemodynamic derangements. Due to the heterogeneity of this disease, risk stratification and diagnosis remains challenging. Biochip-array technology provides an integrated high throughput method for analyzing blood plasma samples for the simultaneous measurement of multiple biomarkers for potential risk stratification. Using biochip-array method, this study aimed to quantify the inflammatory biomarkers such as interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in 109 clinically confirmed PE patients in comparison to the control group comprised of plasma samples collected from 48 healthy subjects. Cytokines IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ß, and MCP-1 demonstrated varying level of significant increase (P < 0.05) in massive-risk PE patients compared to submassive- and low-risk PE patients. The upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in PE patients observed in this study suggest that inflammation plays an important role in the overall pathophysiology of this disease. The application of biochip-array technology may provide a useful approach to evaluate these biomarkers to understand the pathogenesis and risk stratification of PE patients.


Assuntos
Inflamação/metabolismo , Análise Serial de Proteínas/métodos , Embolia Pulmonar/genética , Citocinas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/patologia , Regulação para Cima
20.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211005544, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926250

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Currently used unfractionated heparins (UFHs) and low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are derived from porcine intestinal mucosa. However, heparins have also been manufactured from tissues of other mammalian species such as cow (Bovine) and sheep (Ovine). Protamine sulphate (PS) is an effective inhibitor of heparin and is used clinically to neutralize both LMWH and UFH. In this study, we determined the PS neutralization profile of these agents in non-human primate model using anti-Xa and anti-IIa methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: UFHs obtained from bovine, ovine and porcine mucosal tissues and their respective depolymerized LMWHs were administered at both, gravimetric (0.5 mg/kg) and potency adjusted (100 U/kg) dosages regimen intravenously to individual groups of primates in cross over studies. PS was administered at a fixed dosage and the relative neutralization of these anticoagulants was measured utilizing amidolytic anti-Xa and anti-IIa methods. RESULTS: These studies have demonstrated that, the equi-gravimetric dosages of BMH, PMH and OMH have comparable PS neutralization profiles. At potency adjusted dosages, all UFHs were completely neutralized by PS. Although comparable, the LMWHs were not fully neutralized by PS in both the anti-Xa and anti-IIa assays. PS was more efficient in neutralizing the anti-IIa effects of LMWHs. CONCLUSION: Heparins of diverse origins showed comparable neutralization profiles by PS in the amidolytic anti-Xa and anti-IIa assays.


Assuntos
Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Animais , Bovinos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/farmacologia , Primatas , Protaminas , Ovinos , Suínos
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