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1.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 104, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With technological advances, there has been increasing interest in developing contactless and/or non-invasive wearable technologies that continuously monitor vital signs in the clinical setting, and in particular in the deteriorating patient. These devices as of yet have not been well validated in the clinical setting in the clinical ranges observed in a critically unwell patient. We will perform a systematic review of all novel wearable and contactless devices in the clinical setting with focus on degree of novelty and the range of vital signs captured. METHODS: Ovid MEDLINE including Epub Ahead of Print and In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) database (Ovid), CINAHL with Full Text, searches of the grey literature, cited references of eligible studies through Web of Science, and reference lists of eligible studies will be searched. Outcomes of interest will include the quality of studies in relation to reporting guidelines, limitations of non-invasive technology, and application in different clinical populations. We will perform a qualitative assessment of the novelty of the device and discuss its validation in deteriorating patients. DISCUSSION: While novel monitoring devices are often proposed as a solution to problems with infection, discomfort, and frequency of monitoring in the clinical setting it has not yet been established which devices have been validated in clinical settings in the pathological ranges of vital signs that reflect patient deterioration. It is equally unclear what additional value these devices might provide. This systematic review will synthesize published data regarding devices that have been tested and validated in patients AND in a clinical setting AND in reference ranges that reflect severe illness. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019130091.

3.
Intern Med J ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We identified variation in delivery of guideline recommended care at our institution, and undertook a project to design a HF model of care. AIM: To maximize time patients with HF spend well in the community by delivering best practice guidelines to reduce variation in care improving overall outcomes. METHOD: This quality improvement project focused on reducing variation in process measures of care. The HF model of care included electronic HF care bundles, a patient education pack with staff training on delivering HF patient education, referral of all HF patients to the Hospital Admissions Risk Program for phone call within 72 h, and a nurse-pharmacist early follow-up clinic. Outcomes were assessed using interrupted time series analyses. RESULTS: The pre-intervention group comprised 1585 patients, and post-intervention 1720 patients with a primary diagnosis of HF admitted under general cardiology and general medicine. Interrupted Time Series analysis indicated 30-day readmissions did not change in overall trend (-0.2% per month, p = 0.479) but with significant step-down of 7.8% (p = 0.018). For 90-day readmissions, a significant trend reduction over the time period was seen (-0.6% per month, p = 0.017) with a significant immediate step-down (-9.4%, p = 0.001). Emergency department re-presentations, in-patient mortality and length of stay did not change significantly. Improvements in process measures were seen at audit. CONCLUSION: This model of care resulted in overall trends of reductions in 30 and 90 day readmissions, without increasing ED representations, mortality and length of stay. This model will be adapted to the electronic medical record at our institution. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
J Card Fail ; 26(2): 166-179, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutraceuticals are pharmacologically active substances extracted from vegetable or animal food and administered to produce health benefits. We recently reviewed the current evidence for nutraceuticals in patients diagnosed with heart failure as part of the writing of the Australian Guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis, and management of heart failure. METHODS: A systematic search for studies that compared nutraceuticals to standard care in adult patients with heart failure was performed. Studies were included if >50 patients were enrolled, with ≥6 months follow-up. If no studies met criteria then studies <50 patients and <6 months follow-up were included. The primary outcomes included mortality/survival, hospitalization, quality of life, and/or exercise tolerance. Iron was not included in this review as its role in heart failure is already well established. RESULTS: Forty studies met the inclusion criteria. The strongest evidence came from studies of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which modestly decreased mortality and cardiovascular hospitalizations in patients with mostly New York Heart Association class II and III heart failure across a range of left ventricular ejection fraction. Coenzyme Q10 may decrease mortality and hospitalization, but definite conclusions cannot be drawn. Studies that examined nitrate-rich beetroot juice, micronutrient supplementation, hawthorn extract, magnesium, thiamine, vitamin E, vitamin D, L-arginine, L-carnosine, and L-carnitine were too small or underpowered to properly appraise clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: Only one nutraceutical, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, received a positive recommendation in the Australian heart failure guidelines. Although occasionally showing some promise, all other nutraceuticals are inadequately studied to allow any conclusion on efficacy. Clinicians should favor other treatments that have been clearly shown to decrease mortality.

5.
Hypertension ; 75(1): 23-32, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786973

RESUMO

Current cardiovascular pharmacotherapy targets maladaptive overactivation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which occurs throughout the continuum of cardiovascular disease spanning from hypertension to heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Over the past 16 years, 4 prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials using candesartan, perindopril, irbesartan, and spironolactone in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) failed to demonstrate increased efficacy of RAAS blockade added to guideline-directed medical therapy. We reappraise these trials and their weaknesses, which precluded statistically significant findings. Recently, dual-acting RAAS blockade with sacubitril-valsartan relative to stand-alone valsartan failed to improve outcome in the PARAGON-HF trial (Efficacy and Safety of LCZ696 Compared with Valsartan, on Morbidity and Mortality in Heart Failure Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction). The majority of patients with HFpEF experience hypertension, frequently with subclinical left ventricular dysfunction, contributed to by comorbidities such as coronary disease, diabetes mellitus, overweight, and atrial fibrillation. Contrasting the findings in HFpEF, trials evaluating RAAS blockade on either side of HFpEF on the cardiovascular continuum in patients with high-risk hypertension and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, respectively, showed positive outcomes. We do not have a biologically plausible explanation for such divergent efficacy of RAAS blockade. Based on considerations of well-established clinical efficacy in hypertension and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and the shortcomings of aforementioned clinical trials in HFpEF, we argue that RAAS blockers including MRAs (mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists; aldosterone antagonists) should be used in the treatment of patients with HFpEF.

6.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792761

RESUMO

Respiratory rate (RR) is one of the most sensitive markers of a deteriorating patient. Despite this, there is significant inter-observer discrepancy when measured by clinical staff, and modalities used in clinical practice such as ECG bioimpedance are prone to error. This study utilized infrared thermography (IRT) to measure RR in a critically ill population in the Intensive Care Unit. This study was carried out in a Single Hospital Centre. Respiratory rate in 27 extubated ICU patients was counted by two observers and compared to ECG Bioimpedance and IRT-derived RR at distances of 0.4-0.6 m and > 1 m respectively. IRT-derived RR using two separate computer vision algorithms outperformed ECG derived RR at distances of 0.4-0.6 m. Using an Autocorrelation estimator, mean bias was - 0.667 breaths/min. Using a Fast Fourier Transform estimator, mean bias was - 1.000 breaths/min. At distances greater than 1 m no statistically significant signal could be obtained. Over all frequencies, there was a significant relationship between the RR estimated using IRT and via manual counting, with Pearson correlation coefficients between 0.796 and 0.943 (p < 0.001). Correlation between counting and ECG-derived RR demonstrated significance only at > 19 bpm (r = 0.562, p = 0.029). Overall agreement between IRT-derived RR at distances of 0.4-0.6 m and gold standard counting was satisfactory, and outperformed ECG derived bioimpedance. Contactless IRT derived RR may be feasible as a routine monitoring modality in wards and subacute inpatient settings.

7.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 7(8): e2348, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592377

RESUMO

Breast device registries monitor devices encompassing breast implants, tissue expanders and dermal matrices, and the quality of care and patient outcomes for breast device surgery. Defining a standard set of quality indicators and risk adjustment factors will enable consistency and adjustment for case-mix in benchmarking quality of care across breast implant registries. This study aimed to develop a set of quality indicators to enable assessment and reporting of quality of care for breast device surgery which can be applied globally. Methods: A scoping literature review was undertaken, and potential quality indicators were identified. Consensus on the final list of quality indicators was obtained using a modified Delphi approach. This process involved a series of online surveys, and teleconferences over 6 months. The Delphi panel included participants from various countries and representation from surgical specialty groups including breast and general surgeons, plastic and reconstructive surgeons, cosmetic surgeons, a breast-care nurse, a consumer, a devices regulator (Therapeutic Goods Administration), and a biostatistician. A total of 12 candidate indicators were proposed: Intraoperative antibiotic wash, intraoperative antiseptic wash, preoperative antibiotics, nipple shields, surgical plane, volume of implant, funnels, immediate versus delayed reconstruction, time to revision, reoperation due to complications, patient satisfaction, and volume of activity. Results: Three of the 12 proposed indicators were endorsed by the panel: preoperative intravenous antibiotics, reoperation due to complication, and patient reported outcome measures. Conclusion: The 3 endorsed quality indicator measures will enable breast device registries to standardize benchmarking of care internationally for patients undergoing breast device surgery.

8.
J Patient Rep Outcomes ; 3(1): 63, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the acceptability of a Patient Reported Outcome Measure (PROM) that assesses perceptions and experiences of implants for breast reconstruction or augmentation, and the feasibility of implementing it in the Australian Breast Device Registry (ABDR). METHODS: The BREAST-Q Implant Surveillance (BREAST-Q IS) is a 5-question PROM derived from the BREAST-Q questionnaire. It assesses perceptions of breast appearance and sensation, and experiences of pain. Breast implant recipients (recruited via community networks, social media and notices in surgeons' rooms) and surgeons contributing to the ABDR were invited to review the BREAST-Q-IS. Participation was by individual semi-structured interviews by telephone or email, or by completion of a paper questionnaire. Transcripts of audio recordings and emailed text were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Twenty one breast implant recipients (10 after reconstruction and 11 augmentation), 8 surgeons (five plastic, three breast) and 2 medical professionals performing cosmetic surgeries were interviewed. Six themes were identified: Overall impression, Emotional response to the BREAST-Q IS, Method of follow-up, Suggested improvements, Group variation, and Potential Clinical utility. Overall, breast implant recipients and surgeons found the BREAST-Q IS to be acceptable and unlikely to provoke strong emotional reactions. Email was the preferred mode of contact. Most suggested improvements were to add questions. Surgeons expressed concern that subjective responses to the PROM might not accurately reflect experiences and that the PROM would predict need for revision rather than device failure. CONCLUSION: This study supports the acceptability and feasibility of BREAST-Q IS as a PROM for recipients of breast implants. Further validation of the Breast-Q IS is required.

10.
Am J Ther ; 26(6): e671-e678, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients with heart failure (HF) are treated with warfarin or non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs). Randomized outcome-driven comparisons of different anticoagulant strategies in HF are lacking. Data from international, government-mandated registries may be useful in understanding the real-life use of various anticoagulants and how they are linked to outcomes. STUDY QUESTION: To assess 2015 annual all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke rates co-reported for warfarin and NOACs in subjects with and without HF in the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database. STUDY DESIGN: We extracted and examined outcome cases in subjects with HF and on warfarin, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, or edoxaban and stratified these according to anticoagulants. MEASURES AND OUTCOMES: Annual all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke in FAERS. ANALYSIS METHOD: Odds ratio (OR) and χ(Equation is included in full-text article.)for oral anticoagulants from FAERS with and without HF among complete primary reports issued in 2015. RESULTS: FAERS reported 137,026 HF cases, with death co-reported in 42,942 (31.3%). In total, 11,278 (8.2%) HF patients were treated with anticoagulants, with more prescribed warfarin (n = 8260) than all NOACs combined (n = 3018). Very few reports for edoxaban were available. Warfarin consistently displayed a signal for excess adverse events compared to NOACs: OR (95% confidence interval) for the composite of mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke were 1.91 (1.76-2.07) versus apixaban, 1.92 (1.81-2.03) versus dabigatran, 4.09 (3.38-4.37) versus rivaroxaban, and 2.64 (2.53-2.76) versus all NOACs combined (all P < 0.001). Warfarin, compared to all NOACs combined, demonstrated higher rates of all-cause mortality [OR = 2.69 (95% confidence interval, 2.49-2.90)], myocardial infarction [5.30 (4.17-6.74)], stroke [OR = 8.85 (6.61-11.84)], and ischemic stroke [OR = 12.73 (8.87-18.27); all P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: Annual 2015 FAERS profiles in HF patients reveal that warfarin was numerically dominant. Warfarin was associated with higher risk of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke compared to NOACs. These observational data provide real-world insight into a potential safety benefit of NOACs over warfarin in the setting of HF.

11.
Med J Aust ; 210(9): 409-415, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of different strategies for recruiting participants for a large Australian randomised controlled trial (RCT), the Australian Study for the Prevention through Immunisation of Cardiovascular Events (AUSPICE). DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Men and women aged 55-60 years with at least two cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, overweight/obesity) were recruited for a multicentre placebo-controlled RCT assessing the effectiveness of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) for preventing cardiovascular events. METHODS: Invitations were mailed by the Australian Department of Human Services to people in the Medicare database aged 55-60 years; reminders were sent 2 weeks later. Invitees could respond in hard copy or electronically. Direct recruitment was supplemented by asking invitees to extend the invitation to friends and family (snowball sampling) and by Facebook advertising. MAIN OUTCOME: Proportions of invitees completing screening questionnaire and recruited for participation in the RCT. RESULTS: 21 526 of 154 992 invited people (14%) responded by completing the screening questionnaire, of whom 4725 people were eligible and recruited for the study. Despite the minimal study burden (one questionnaire, one clinic visit), the overall participation rate was 3%, or an estimated 10% of eligible persons. Only 16% of eventual participants had responded within 2 weeks of the initial invitation letter (early responders); early and late responders did not differ in their demographic or medical characteristics. Socio-economic disadvantage did not markedly influence response rates. Facebook advertising and snowball sampling did not increase recruitment. CONCLUSIONS: Trial participation rates are low, and multiple concurrent methods are needed to maximise recruitment. Social media strategies may not be successful in older age groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12615000536561.


Assuntos
/métodos , Seleção de Pacientes , Mídias Sociais , Austrália , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Aesthet Surg J ; 39(8): NP314-NP321, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Breast-Q Implant Surveillance module (BREAST-Q IS) is a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) that asks 5 questions on satisfaction (shape, feel, and rippling) and symptoms (pain and tightness) derived from the BREAST-Q. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to pilot BREAST-Q IS on patients within the Australian Breast Device Registry (ABDR), an opt-out clinical quality device registry, and explored Short Message Service (SMS) communication as a follow-up method. METHODS: Patients with a breast device surgery in the previous 10 to 15 months, age ≥18 years, with a mobile phone number, were invited to complete the 5-question PROM via SMS initially, followed by 3 phone call attempts if no response, an e-mail, and then a letter by post as a final engagement strategy. RESULTS: The study included 197 participants [breast augmentation (BA) = 118; breast reconstruction (BR) = 79]. Mean ± SD age was 40 ± 12 years (BA) and 44 ± 11 years (BR). Mean ± SD time since surgery was 414 ± 36 days (BA) and 413 ± 51 days (BR). The total response rate, including opt-outs, was 76%. Responses indicated that >90% of BA and >79% of BR were very or somewhat satisfied with shape, feel, and wrinkling; >70% of BA and >46% of BR reported no pain or tightness. Completion of survey via SMS was 51% (BA) and 55% (BR). Further responses were received by phone (25%, 26%), post (21%, 16%), and e-mail (3%, 3%). CONCLUSIONS: This pilot demonstrated high levels of satisfaction and low levels of pain and tightness in patients with breast augmentation and breast reconstruction 1 year postoperatively. It also showed the effectiveness of our engagement strategy, which achieved a 76% response rate. Over 50% of respondents used SMS to reply to a 5-question PROM assessing long-term surgical outcomes. This engagement strategy will be used as BREAST-Q IS is rolled out nationally.

15.
Cardiovasc Res ; 115(2): 266-276, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475996

RESUMO

There is growing evidence from Phase III randomized clinical trials of the cardiovascular benefits of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with diabetes mellitus. It is hypothesized that these benefits are mediated by mechanisms other than glucose control. To address this, we performed a systematic review of data from preclinical studies examining the direct cardioprotective effects of SGLT2 inhibitors. Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts databases were searched for preclinical studies that examined the potential cardioprotective effects of SGLT2 inhibitors. Submission documents to the US Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency, and Japanese Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency for the registration of SGLT2 inhibitors were also reviewed. A total of 36 reports were included in the final analysis. The potential direct cardiovascular benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors include: augmentation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; inhibition of sodium hydrogen exchange; reduction of atherosclerosis; modulation of natriuretic peptides; vasodilation; modulation of sympathetic tone; and reduction of inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and cardiac glucose uptake via down-regulation of SGLT1 expression. There are a number of mechanisms by which SGLT2 inhibitors may exert cardiovascular benefits beyond glycaemic control.

16.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 5(2): 169-179, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295783

RESUMO

AIMS: Socioeconomic status (SES) is recognizably linked with incident heart failure (HF) risk and the association of SES with geography presents a potential target for geographical location of preventive health services. To better inform policy we sought to quantify the independent association between SES and incident HF and investigate differences by type of SES measure. METHODS AND RESULTS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched up to August 2018. Observational studies and randomized trials reporting adjusted HF incidence by stratified socioeconomic measures were included. Effect sizes reflected HF incidence in the lowest vs. highest SES stratum and were pooled using a random-effects model. Low SES referred to the lowest resource stratum, the definition of which varied across studies: meta-analysis was only performed where strata were comparable. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic. Eleven studies comprising 6 308 006 individuals and 104 217 HF events found that low SES was associated with an increase in risk of incident HF ranging between 43% and 87% depending on SES measure, with an overall estimate of 62% [hazard ratio (HR) 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50-1.76]. By individual measure, HRs of 1.66 (95% CI 1.3-2.11), 1.87 (95% CI 1.33-2.62), and 1.54 (95% CI 1.22-1.95) were observed for education, income, and occupation, respectively. For area-level indexes, HRs were 1.43 (95% CI 1.2-1.69) (Carstairs index) and 1.61 (95% CI 1.56-1.65) (index of multiple deprivation). CONCLUSION: Low SES assessed by all common measures confers independent risk for incident HF. These findings carry implications for the design and delivery of HF prevention programmes.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações
17.
Heart Lung Circ ; 28(7): 1018-1026, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on whether outcomes of patients with heart failure (HF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have improved over time. The purpose of this study was to assess temporal trends in patient characteristics, treatment and outcomes of patients with HF undergoing PCI. METHODS: Using data from the Melbourne Interventional Group (MIG), we evaluated temporal trends of procedure volume, major adverse cardiac events (MACE; a composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction and target vessel revascularisation) and rates of cardiovascular readmission, all-cause death and cardiovascular death in consecutive patients with HF undergoing PCI. Change over time was assessed by Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. RESULTS: Data from 1,604 patients were analysed. In our cohort, there were no significant changes in the number of procedures performed annually and patient characteristics between January 2005 and December 2014. Optimal use of HF therapy has improved over the study period. Planned clopidogrel therapy of more than 12 months increased in tandem with increasing use of drug-eluting stents (DES). Procedural success was high (≥90%). However, the rates of MACE, cardiovascular readmission, all-cause death and cardiovascular death remained unchanged throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical outcomes in HF patients undergoing PCI have remained unchanged despite improvement in medical technology and contemporary therapeutic measures.


Assuntos
Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Stents Farmacológicos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 48(8): 780-796, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clopidogrel's anti-platelet effects may be attenuated by a pharmacokinetic interaction with co-prescribed proton pump inhibitors, which inhibit oxidative pathways that convert clopidogrel into its active metabolites. Despite this, the impact of PPIs on cardiovascular risk in the absence of clopidogrel is not well defined. AIM: To report on a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between PPIs and cardiovascular risk, independent of clopidogrel. METHODS: The databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov were systematically searched in October 2017. The primary outcome was association between PPI monotherapy and any adverse cardiovascular event. The secondary outcome was association between proton pump inhibitor monotherapy and acute myocardial infarction. Studies were excluded if they reported or did not adjust for concomitant anti-platelet therapy or involved participants aged less than 18 years. RESULTS: A total of 22 studies were included in the systematic review. Data from 16 studies were included in the meta-analysis (involving 447 408 participants). Of these, eight were randomised controlled trials, seven were observational studies and one was a retrospective analysis of a randomised controlled trial. An increased risk of any adverse cardiovascular event with PPI monotherapy was observed using pooled data from observational studies (risk ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.11-1.42, I2 81%, P < 0.001), but not from randomised controlled trials (risk ratio 0.89, 95% CI 0.34-2.33, I2 0%, P = 0.85). CONCLUSION: There is no clear evidence of an association between PPI monotherapy and increased cardiovascular risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco
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