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1.
J Mol Diagn ; 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396080

RESUMO

Identifying tumor DNA mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR) is important for precision medicine. Tumor features, individually and in combination, derived from whole-exome sequenced (WES) colorectal cancers (CRCs) and panel sequenced CRCs, endometrial cancers (ECs) and sebaceous skin tumors (SSTs) were assessed for their accuracy in detecting dMMR. CRCs (n=300) with WES, where MMR status was determined by immunohistochemistry, were assessed for microsatellite instability (MSMuTect, MANTIS, MSIseq, MSISensor), COSMIC tumor mutational signatures (TMS) and somatic mutation counts. A 10-fold cross-validation approach (100 repeats) evaluated the dMMR prediction accuracy for 1) individual features, 2) Lasso statistical model and 3) an additive feature combination approach. Panel sequenced tumors (29 CRCs, 22 ECs, 20 SSTs) were assessed for the top performing dMMR predicting features/models using these three approaches. For WES CRCs, 10 features provided >80% dMMR prediction accuracy, with MSMuTect, MSIseq, and MANTIS achieving ≥99% accuracy. The Lasso model achieved 98.3%. The additive feature approach with ≥3/6 of MSMuTect, MANTIS, MSIseq, MSISensor, INDEL count or TMS ID2+ID7 achieved 99.7% accuracy. For the panel sequenced tumors, the additive feature combination approach of ≥3/6 achieved accuracies of 100%, 95.5% and 100%, for CRCs, ECs, and SSTs, respectively. The microsatellite instability calling tools performed well in WES CRCs, however, an approach combining tumor features may improve dMMR prediction in both WES and panel sequenced data across tissue types.

2.
Cancer Res Commun ; 2(4): 211-219, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303815

RESUMO

Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 200 susceptibility loci for breast cancer, but these variants explain less than a fifth of the disease risk. Although gene-environment interactions have been proposed to account for some of the remaining heritability, few studies have empirically assessed this. Methods: We obtained genotype and risk factor data from 46,060 cases and 47,929 controls of European ancestry from population-based studies within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). We built gene expression prediction models for 4,864 genes with a significant (P<0.01) heritable component using the transcriptome and genotype data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We leveraged predicted gene expression information to investigate the interactions between gene-centric genetic variation and 14 established risk factors in association with breast cancer risk, using a mixed-effects score test. Results: After adjusting for number of tests using Bonferroni correction, no interaction remained statistically significant. The strongest interaction observed was between the predicted expression of the C13orf45 gene and age at first full-term pregnancy (PGXE=4.44×10-6). Conclusion: In this transcriptome-informed genome-wide gene-environment interaction study of breast cancer, we found no strong support for the role of gene expression in modifying the associations between established risk factors and breast cancer risk. Impact: Our study suggests a limited role of gene-environment interactions in breast cancer risk.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 109(10): 1777-1788, 2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206742

RESUMO

Rare pathogenic variants in known breast cancer-susceptibility genes and known common susceptibility variants do not fully explain the familial aggregation of breast cancer. To investigate plausible genetic models for the residual familial aggregation, we studied 17,425 families ascertained through population-based probands, 86% of whom were screened for pathogenic variants in BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, CHEK2, ATM, and TP53 via gene-panel sequencing. We conducted complex segregation analyses and fitted genetic models in which breast cancer incidence depended on the effects of known susceptibility genes and other unidentified major genes and a normally distributed polygenic component. The proportion of familial variance explained by the six genes was 46% at age 20-29 years and decreased steadily with age thereafter. After allowing for these genes, the best fitting model for the residual familial variance included a recessive risk component with a combined genotype frequency of 1.7% (95% CI: 0.3%-5.4%) and a penetrance to age 80 years of 69% (95% CI: 38%-95%) for homozygotes, which may reflect the combined effects of multiple variants acting in a recessive manner, and a polygenic variance of 1.27 (95% CI: 0.94%-1.65), which did not vary with age. The proportion of the residual familial variance explained by the recessive risk component was 40% at age 20-29 years and decreased with age thereafter. The model predicted age-specific familial relative risks consistent with those observed by large epidemiological studies. The findings have implications for strategies to identify new breast cancer-susceptibility genes and improve disease-risk prediction, especially at a young age.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Penetrância , Adulto Jovem
6.
Breast Cancer Res ; 24(1): 69, 2022 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prediction of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk is challenging due to moderate performances of the known risk factors. We aimed to improve our previous risk prediction model (PredictCBC) by updated follow-up and including additional risk factors. METHODS: We included data from 207,510 invasive breast cancer patients participating in 23 studies. In total, 8225 CBC events occurred over a median follow-up of 10.2 years. In addition to the previously included risk factors, PredictCBC-2.0 included CHEK2 c.1100delC, a 313 variant polygenic risk score (PRS-313), body mass index (BMI), and parity. Fine and Gray regression was used to fit the model. Calibration and a time-dependent area under the curve (AUC) at 5 and 10 years were assessed to determine the performance of the models. Decision curve analysis was performed to evaluate the net benefit of PredictCBC-2.0 and previous PredictCBC models. RESULTS: The discrimination of PredictCBC-2.0 at 10 years was higher than PredictCBC with an AUC of 0.65 (95% prediction intervals (PI) 0.56-0.74) versus 0.63 (95%PI 0.54-0.71). PredictCBC-2.0 was well calibrated with an observed/expected ratio at 10 years of 0.92 (95%PI 0.34-2.54). Decision curve analysis for contralateral preventive mastectomy (CPM) showed the potential clinical utility of PredictCBC-2.0 between thresholds of 4 and 12% 10-year CBC risk for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Additional genetic information beyond BRCA1/2 germline mutations improved CBC risk prediction and might help tailor clinical decision-making toward CPM or alternative preventive strategies. Identifying patients who benefit from CPM, especially in the general breast cancer population, remains challenging.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mastectomia Profilática , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mastectomia , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Fatores de Risco
7.
Genet Med ; 24(10): 2155-2166, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35997715

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Models used to predict the probability of an individual having a pathogenic homozygous or heterozygous variant in a mismatch repair gene, such as MMRpro, are widely used. Recently, MMRpro was updated with new colorectal cancer penetrance estimates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive performance of MMRpro and other models for individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer. METHODS: We performed a validation study of 4 models, Leiden, MMRpredict, PREMM5, and MMRpro, using 784 members of clinic-based families from the United States. Predicted probabilities were compared with germline testing results and evaluated for discrimination, calibration, and predictive accuracy. We analyzed several strategies to combine models and improve predictive performance. RESULTS: MMRpro with additional tumor information (MMRpro+) and PREMM5 outperformed the other models in discrimination and predictive accuracy. MMRpro+ was the best calibrated with an observed to expected ratio of 0.98 (95% CI = 0.89-1.08). The combination models showed improvement over PREMM5 and performed similar to MMRpro+. CONCLUSION: MMRpro+ and PREMM5 performed well in predicting the probability of having a pathogenic homozygous or heterozygous variant in a mismatch repair gene. They serve as useful clinical decision tools for identifying individuals who would benefit greatly from screening and prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética
8.
J Genet Couns ; 2022 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794807

RESUMO

Indications for genetic testing for inherited cancer syndromes are expanding both in the academic and the community setting. However, only a fraction of individuals who are candidates for testing pursue this option. Therefore, it is important to understand those factors that impact the uptake of genetic testing in individuals affected and unaffected with cancer. A successful translation of genomic risk stratification into clinical care will require that providers of this information are aware of the attitudes, perceived risks and benefits, and concerns of individuals who will be considering testing. The purpose of this study was to assess beliefs, attitudes and preferences for genetic risk information, by personal characteristics of women affected and unaffected by breast cancer enrolled in the Breast Cancer Family Registry Cohort. Data for this analysis came from eight survey questions, which asked participants (N = 9,048, 100% female) about their opinions regarding genetic information. Women reported that conveying the accuracy of the test was important and were interested in information related to personal level of risk, finding out about diseases that could be treated, and information that could be helpful to their families. Young women were most interested in how their own health needs might be impacted by genetic test results, while older women were more interested in how genetic information would benefit other members of the family. Interest in how the genetic test was performed was highest among Asian and Hispanic women. Women affected with breast cancer were more likely to report feeling sad about possibly passing down a breast cancer gene, while unaffected women were more uncertain about their future risk of cancer. The variety of informational needs identified has implications for how genetic counselors can tailor communication to individuals considering genetic testing.

9.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 194(3): 673-682, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35780210

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The American Cancer Society (ACS) published an updated Guideline for Cancer Prevention (ACS Guideline) in 2020. Research suggests that adherence to the 2012 ACS Guideline might lower breast cancer risk, but there is limited evidence that this applies to women at increased familial and genetic risk of breast cancer. METHODS: Using the Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR), a cohort enriched for increased familial and genetic risk of breast cancer, we examined adherence to three 2020 ACS Guideline recommendations (weight management (body mass index), physical activity, and alcohol consumption) with breast cancer risk in 9615 women. We used Cox proportional hazard regression modeling to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) overall and stratified by BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant status, family history of breast cancer, menopausal status, and estrogen receptor-positive (ER +) breast cancer. RESULTS: We observed 618 incident invasive or in situ breast cancers over a median 12.9 years. Compared with being adherent to none (n = 55 cancers), being adherent to any ACS recommendation (n = 563 cancers) was associated with a 27% lower breast cancer risk (HR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55-0.97). This was evident for women with a first-degree family history of breast cancer (HR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.50-0.93), women without BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variants (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53-0.95), postmenopausal women (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.44-0.89), and for risk of ER+ breast cancer (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.40-0.98). DISCUSSION: Adherence to the 2020 ACS Guideline recommendations for BMI, physical activity, and alcohol consumption could reduce breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women and women at increased familial risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , American Cancer Society , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13148, 2022 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909142

RESUMO

We tested the causality between education and smoking using the natural experiment of discordant twin pairs allowing to optimally control for background genetic and childhood social factors. Data from 18 cohorts including 10,527 monozygotic (MZ) and same-sex dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs discordant for education and smoking were analyzed by linear fixed effects regression models. Within twin pairs, education levels were lower among the currently smoking than among the never smoking co-twins and this education difference was larger within DZ than MZ pairs. Similarly, education levels were higher among former smoking than among currently smoking co-twins, and this difference was larger within DZ pairs. Our results support the hypothesis of a causal effect of education on both current smoking status and smoking cessation. However, the even greater intra-pair differences within DZ pairs, who share only 50% of their segregating genes, provide evidence that shared genetic factors also contribute to these associations.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Criança , Escolaridade , Humanos , Fumar/genética , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética
11.
EJHaem ; 3(1): 109-120, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35846225

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological cancer and causes significant mortality and morbidity. Knowledge regarding modifiable risk factors for MM remains limited. This analysis of an Australian population-based case-control family study investigates whether smoking or alcohol consumption is associated with risk of MM and related diseases. Incident cases (n = 789) of MM were recruited via cancer registries in Victoria and New South Wales. Controls (n = 1,113) were either family members of cases (n = 696) or controls recruited for a similarly designed study of renal cancers (n = 417). Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional multivariable logistic regression. Heavy intake (>20 g ethanol/day) of alcohol had a lower risk of MM compared with nondrinkers (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.50-0.93), and there was an inverse dose-response relationship for average daily alcohol intake (OR per 10 g ethanol per day = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86-0.99); there was no evidence of an interaction with sex. There was no evidence of an association with MM risk for smoking-related exposures (p > 0.18). The associations between smoking and alcohol with MM are similar to those with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Further research into potential underlying mechanisms is warranted.

12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35723569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reproductive factors have been shown to be differentially associated with risk of estrogen receptor (ER) positive and ER-negative breast cancer. However, their associations with intrinsic-like subtypes are less clear. METHODS: Analyses included up to 23,353 cases, and 71,072 controls pooled from 31 population-based case-control or cohort studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium across 16 countries on 4 continents. Polytomous logistic regression was used to estimate the association between reproductive factors and risk of breast cancer by intrinsic-like subtypes (luminal A-like, luminal B-like, luminal B-HER2-like, HER2-enriched-like, and triple-negative) and by invasiveness. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: Compared to nulliparous women, parous women had a lower risk of luminal A-like, luminal B-like, luminal B-HER2-like and HER2-enriched-like disease. This association was apparent only after approximately 10 years since last birth and became stronger with increasing time (odds ratio [OR] = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.49 to 0.71; and OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.28 to 0.46; for multiparous women with luminal A-like tumors 20-<25 years after last birth and 45-<50 years after last birth, respectively). In contrast, parous women had a higher risk of triple-negative breast cancer right after their last birth (for multiparous women: OR = 3.12, 95%CI = 2.02 to 4.83) that was attenuated with time but persisted for decades (OR = 1.03, 95%CI = 0.79 to 1.34, for multiparous women 25 to < 30 years after last birth). Older age at first birth (P-heterogeneity<.001 for triple-negative compared to luminal-A like) and breastfeeding (P-heterogeneity<.001 for triple-negative compared to luminal-A like) were associated with lower risk of triple-negative but not with other disease subtypes. Younger age at menarche was associated with higher risk of all subtypes; older age at menopause was associated with higher risk of luminal A-like but not triple-negative breast cancer. Associations for in situ tumors were similar to luminal A-like. CONCLUSION: This large and comprehensive study demonstrates a distinct reproductive risk factor profile for triple-negative breast cancer compared to other subtypes, with implications for the understanding of disease etiology and risk prediction.

13.
Epigenetics ; 17(12): 1838-1847, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35726372

RESUMO

Lifestyle-related phenotypes have been shown to be heritable and associated with DNA methylation. We aimed to investigate whether genetic predisposition to tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and higher body mass index (BMI) moderates the effect of these phenotypes on blood DNA methylation. We calculated polygenic scores (PGS) to quantify genetic predisposition to these phenotypes using training (N = 7,431) and validation (N = 4,307) samples. Using paired genetic-methylation data (N = 4,307), gene-environment interactions (i.e., PGS × lifestyle) were assessed using linear mixed-effects models with outcomes: 1) methylation at sites found to be strongly associated with smoking (1,061 CpGs), alcohol consumption (459 CpGs), and BMI (85 CpGs) and 2) two epigenetic ageing measures, PhenoAge and GrimAge. In the validation sample, PGS explained ~1.4% (P = 1 × 10-14), ~0.6% (P = 2 × 10-7), and ~8.7% (P = 7 × 10-87) of variance in smoking initiation, alcohol consumption, and BMI, respectively. Nominally significant interaction effects (P < 0.05) were found at 61, 14, and 7 CpGs for smoking, alcohol consumption, and BMI, respectively. There was strong evidence that all lifestyle-related phenotypes were positively associated with PhenoAge and GrimAge, except for alcohol consumption with PhenoAge. There was weak evidence that the association of smoking with GrimAge was attenuated in participants genetically predisposed to smoking (interaction term: -0.022, standard error [SE] = 0.012, P = 0.058) and that the association of alcohol consumption with PhenoAge was attenuated in those genetically predisposed to drink alcohol (interaction term: -0.030, SE = 0.015, P = 0.041). In conclusion, genetic susceptibility to unhealthy lifestyles did not strongly modify the association between observed lifestyle behaviour and blood DNA methylation. Potential associations were observed for epigenetic ageing measures, which should be replicated in additional studies.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Epigênese Genética
14.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 8(1): 125, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Digital cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-i) in people with low back pain (LBP) may be efficacious in improving both sleep and pain; and twin trial designs provide greater precision of treatment effects by accounting for genetic and early environmental factors. We aimed to determine the feasibility of a trial investigating the efficacy of a digital CBT-i program in people with comorbid symptoms of insomnia and LBP, in twins and people from the general community (singletons). METHODS: Thirty-two twins (16 pairs) and 66 singletons with comorbid symptoms of insomnia and LBP (> 6 weeks duration) were randomized to digital CBT-i (intervention) or educational program (control) for 6 weeks. The digital CBT-I, Sleepio (developed by Big Health Inc.), was an online interactive, automated, personalized course comprising of six sessions, once a week. The education program was six emails with general sleep information, once a week. Participants were blinded to their group allocation and offered the alternative intervention at the completion of the study. Feasibility outcomes included recruitment and follow-up rates, data collection and outcome measure completion, contamination (communication about trial interventions), acceptability (adherence), credibility, and participants' experience of the intervention. RESULTS: Sixteen out of 722 contacted twin pairs were recruited (recruitment rate = 2.2%). Twins were recruited between September 2015 and August 2018 (35 months) and singletons between October 2017 and Aug 2018 (10 months). Follow-up rates for post-intervention and 3-month follow-up were 81% and 72% for twins and 82% and 78% for singletons respectively. Adherence rates (percentage of sessions completed out of six) for the digital CBT-i were 63% for twins and 55% for singletons. Contamination (speaking about the study to each other) was present in two twin pairs (13%). Written or verbal feedback (n = 21) regarding the digital CBT-i intervention from participants were positive (n = 11), neutral (n = 5), or negative (n = 6). CONCLUSIONS: Online CBT-i was received favorably with people with comorbid symptoms of insomnia and LBP. While the online data collection was successful, strategies need to be implemented to improve adherence, follow-up, control group credibility (for digital CBT-i), and twin recruitment rates (for twin trials). TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12615000672550 ). Registered 29 June 2015.

15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(11)2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681745

RESUMO

Cumulus, Altocumulus, and Cirrocumulus are measures of mammographic density defined at increasing pixel brightness thresholds, which, when converted to mammogram risk scores (MRSs), predict breast cancer risk. Twin and family studies suggest substantial variance in the MRSs could be explained by genetic factors. For 2559 women aged 30 to 80 years (mean 54 years), we measured the MRSs from digitized film mammograms and estimated the associations of the MRSs with a 313-SNP breast cancer polygenic risk score (PRS) and 202 individual SNPs associated with breast cancer risk. The PRS was weakly positively correlated (correlation coefficients ranged 0.05-0.08; all p < 0.04) with all the MRSs except the Cumulus-white MRS based on the "white but not bright area" (correlation coefficient = 0.04; p = 0.06). After adjusting for its association with the Altocumulus MRS, the PRS was not associated with the Cumulus MRS. There were MRS associations (Bonferroni-adjusted p < 0.04) with one SNP in the ATXN1 gene and nominally with some ESR1 SNPs. Less than 1% of the variance of the MRSs is explained by the genetic markers currently known to be associated with breast cancer risk. Discovering the genetic determinants of the bright, not white, regions of the mammogram could reveal substantial new genetic causes of breast cancer.

16.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 9(1)2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis in childhood is associated with a diagnosis of asthma and/or bronchiectasis a few years later, however, consequences into middle-age are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between childhood bronchitis and respiratory-related health outcomes in middle-age. DESIGN: Cohort study from age 7 to 53 years. SETTING: General population of European descent from Tasmania, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 3202 participants of the age 53-year follow-up (mean age 53, range 51-55) of the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study cohort who were born in 1961 and first investigated at age 7 were included in our analysis. STATISTICAL METHODS: Multivariable linear and logistic regression. The association between parent reported childhood bronchitis up to age 7 and age 53-year lung conditions (n=3202) and lung function (n=2379) were investigated. RESULTS: Among 3202 participants, 47.5% had one or more episodes of childhood bronchitis, classified according to severity based on the number of episodes and duration as: 'non-recurrent bronchitis' (28.1%); 'recurrent non-protracted bronchitis' (18.1%) and 'recurrent-protracted bronchitis' (1.3%). Age 53 prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma and pneumonia (p-trend <0.001) and chronic bronchitis (p-trend=0.07) increased in accordance with childhood bronchitis severities. At age 53, 'recurrent-protracted bronchitis' (the most severe subgroup in childhood) was associated with doctor-diagnosed current asthma (OR 4.54, 95% CI 2.31 to 8.91) doctor-diagnosed pneumonia (OR=2.18 (95% CI 1.00 to 4.74)) and, paradoxically, increased transfer factor for carbon monoxide (z-score +0.51 SD (0.15-0.88)), when compared with no childhood bronchitis. CONCLUSION: In this cohort born in 1961, one or more episodes of childhood bronchitis was a frequent occurrence. 'Recurrent-protracted bronchitis', while uncommon, was especially linked to multiple respiratory outcomes almost five decades later, including asthma, pneumonia and raised lung gas transfer. These findings provide insights into the natural history of childhood 'bronchitis' into middle-age.


Assuntos
Asma , Bronquite Crônica , Bronquite , Pneumonia , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/epidemiologia , Bronquite/epidemiologia , Bronquite Crônica/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Breast Cancer Res ; 24(1): 24, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multigene panel tests for breast cancer predisposition routinely include ATM as it is now a well-established breast cancer predisposition gene. METHODS: We included ATM in a multigene panel test applied to the Australian Breast Cancer Family Registry (ABCFR), a population-based case-control-family study of breast cancer, with the purpose of estimating the prevalence and penetrance of heterozygous ATM pathogenic variants from the family data, using segregation analysis. RESULTS: The estimated breast cancer hazard ratio for carriers of pathogenic ATM variants in the ABCFR was 1.32 (95% confidence interval 0.45-3.87; P = 0.6). The estimated cumulative risk of breast cancer to age 80 years for heterozygous ATM pathogenic variant carriers was estimated to be 13% (95% CI 4.6-30). CONCLUSIONS: Although ATM has been definitively identified as a breast cancer predisposition gene, further evidence, such as variant-specific penetrance estimates, are needed to inform risk management strategies for carriers of pathogenic variants to increase the clinical utility of population testing of this gene.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Austrália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
19.
Breast Cancer Res ; 24(1): 27, 2022 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35414113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mammographic density (MD) phenotypes, including percent density (PMD), area of dense tissue (DA), and area of non-dense tissue (NDA), are associated with breast cancer risk. Twin studies suggest that MD phenotypes are highly heritable. However, only a small proportion of their variance is explained by identified genetic variants. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study, as well as a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS), of age- and BMI-adjusted DA, NDA, and PMD in up to 27,900 European-ancestry women from the MODE/BCAC consortia. RESULTS: We identified 28 genome-wide significant loci for MD phenotypes, including nine novel signals (5q11.2, 5q14.1, 5q31.1, 5q33.3, 5q35.1, 7p11.2, 8q24.13, 12p11.2, 16q12.2). Further, 45% of all known breast cancer SNPs were associated with at least one MD phenotype at p < 0.05. TWAS further identified two novel genes (SHOX2 and CRISPLD2) whose genetically predicted expression was significantly associated with MD phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provided novel insight into the genetic background of MD phenotypes, and further demonstrated their shared genetic basis with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama , Densidade da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transcriptoma
20.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(6)2022 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35326633

RESUMO

Cumulus, Cumulus-percent, Altocumulus, Cirrocumulus, and Cumulus-white are mammogram risk scores (MRSs) for breast cancer based on mammographic density defined in effect by different levels of pixel brightness and adjusted for age and body mass index. We measured these MRS from digitized film mammograms for 593 monozygotic (MZ) and 326 dizygotic (DZ) female twin pairs and 1592 of their sisters. We estimated the correlations in relatives (r) and the proportion of variance due to genetic factors (heritability) using the software FISHER and predicted the familial risk ratio (FRR) associated with each MRS. The ρ estimates ranged from: 0.41 to 0.60 (standard error [SE] 0.02) for MZ pairs, 0.16 to 0.26 (SE 0.05) for DZ pairs, and 0.19 to 0.29 (SE 0.02) for sister pairs (including pairs of a twin and her non-twin sister), respectively. Heritability estimates were 39% to 69% under the classic twin model and 36% to 56% when allowing for shared non-genetic factors specific to MZ pairs. The FRRs were 1.08 to 1.17. These MRSs are substantially familial, due mostly to genetic factors that explain one-quarter to one-half as much of the familial aggregation of breast cancer that is explained by the current best polygenic risk score.

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