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1.
Horm Behav ; 136: 105054, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488063

RESUMO

Comparing twins from same- and opposite-sex pairs can provide information on potential sex differences in a variety of outcomes, including socioeconomic-related outcomes such as educational attainment. It has been suggested that this design can be applied to examine the putative role of intrauterine exposure to testosterone for educational attainment, but the evidence is still disputed. Thus, we established an international database of twin data from 11 countries with 88,290 individual dizygotic twins born over 100 years and tested for differences between twins from same- and opposite-sex dizygotic pairs in educational attainment. Effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by linear regression models after adjusting for birth year and twin study cohort. In contrast to the hypothesis, no difference was found in women (ß = -0.05 educational years, 95% CI -0.11, 0.02). However, men with a same-sex co-twin were slightly more educated than men having an opposite-sex co-twin (ß = 0.14 educational years, 95% CI 0.07, 0.21). No consistent differences in effect sizes were found between individual twin study cohorts representing Europe, the USA, and Australia or over the cohorts born during the 20th century, during which period the sex differences in education reversed favoring women in the latest birth cohorts. Further, no interaction was found with maternal or paternal education. Our results contradict the hypothesis that there would be differences in the intrauterine testosterone levels between same-sex and opposite-sex female twins affecting education. Our findings in men may point to social dynamics within same-sex twin pairs that may benefit men in their educational careers.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117700, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380236

RESUMO

Little is known about the association between ambient temperature and DNA methylation, which is a potential biological process through which ambient temperature affects health. This study aimed to evaluate the association between ambient temperature and DNA methylation across human genome. We included 479 Australian women, including 132 twin pairs and 215 sisters of these twins. Blood-derived DNA methylation was measured using the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Data on average ambient temperature during eight different exposure windows [lag0d (the blood draw day), lag0-7d (the current day and previous seven days prior to blood draw), lag0-14d, lag0-21d, lag0-28d, lag0-90d, lag0-180d, and lag0-365d)] was linked to each participant's home address. For each cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG), we evaluated the association between its methylation level and temperature using generalized estimating equations (GEE), adjusting for important covariates. We used comb-p and DMRcate to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We identified 31 CpGs at which blood DNA methylation were significantly associated with ambient temperature with false discovery rate [FDR] < 0.05. There were 82 significant DMRs identified by both comb-p (Sidak p-value < 0.01) and DMRcate (FDR < 0.01). Most of these CpGs and DMRs only showed association with temperature during one specific exposure window. These CpGs and DMRs were mapped to 85 genes. These related genes have been related to many human chronic diseases or phenotypes (e.g., diabetes, arthritis, breast cancer, depression, asthma, body height) in previous studies. The signals of short-term windows (lag0d and lag0-21d) showed enrichment in biological processes related to cell adhesion. In conclusion, short-, medium-, and long-term exposures to ambient temperature were all associated with blood DNA methylation, but the target genomic loci varied by exposure window. These differential methylation signals may serve as potential biomarkers to understand the health impacts of temperature.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , DNA , Austrália , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Temperatura
3.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(8): 87007, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High surrounding greenness has many health benefits and might contribute to slower biological aging. However, very few studies have evaluated this from the perspective of epigenetics. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the association between surrounding greenness and biological aging based on DNA methylation. METHODS: We derived Horvath's DNA methylation age (DNAmAge), Hannum's DNAmAge, PhenoAge, and GrimAge based on DNA methylation measured in peripheral blood samples from 479 Australian women in 130 families. Measures of DNAmAge acceleration (DNAmAgeAC) were derived from the residuals after regressing each DNAmAge metric on chronological age. Greenness was represented by satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) metrics within 300-, 500-, 1,000-, and 2,000-m buffers surrounding participant addresses. Greenness-DNAmAgeAC associations were estimated using a within-sibship design fitted by linear mixed effect models, adjusting for familial clustering and important covariates. RESULTS: Greenness metrics were associated with significantly lower DNAmAgeAC based on GrimAge acceleration, suggesting slower biological aging with higher greenness based on both NDVI and EVI in 300-2,000m buffer areas. For example, each interquartile range increase in NDVI within 1,000m was associated with a 0.59 (95% CI: 0.18, 1.01)-year decrease in GrimAge acceleration. Greenness was also inversely associated with three of the eight components of GrimAge, specifically, DNA methylation-based surrogates of serum cystatin-C, serum growth differentiation factor 15, and smoking pack years. Associations between greenness and biological aging measured by Horvath's and Hannum's DNAmAgeAC were less consistent, and depended on neighborhood socioeconomic status. No significant associations were estimated for PhenoAge acceleration. DISCUSSION: Higher surrounding greenness was associated with slower biological aging, as indicated by GrimAge age acceleration, in Australian women. Associations were also evident for three individual components of GrimAge, but were inconsistent for other measures of biological aging. Additional studies are needed to confirm our results. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8793.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298744

RESUMO

MSH3 gene or protein deficiency or loss-of-function in colorectal cancer can cause a DNA mismatch repair defect known as "elevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotide repeats" (EMAST). A high percentage of MSI-H tumors exhibit EMAST, while MSI-L is also linked with EMAST. However, the distribution of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) within the EMAST spectrum is not known. Five tetranucleotide repeat and five MSI markers were used to classify 100 sporadic colorectal tumours for EMAST, MSI-H and MSI-L according to the number of unstable markers detected. Promoter methylation was determined using methylation-specific PCR for MSH3, MCC, CDKN2A (p16) and five CIMP marker genes. EMAST was found in 55% of sporadic colorectal carcinomas. Carcinomas with only one positive marker (EMAST-1/5, 26%) were associated with advanced tumour stage, increased lymph node metastasis, MSI-L and lack of CIMP-H. EMAST-2/5 (16%) carcinomas displayed some methylation but MSI was rare. Carcinomas with ≥3 positive EMAST markers (13%) were more likely to have a proximal colon location and be MSI-H and CIMP-H. Our study suggests that EMAST/MSI-L is a valuable prognostic and predictive marker for colorectal carcinomas that do not display the high methylation phenotype CIMP-H.

6.
Genet Med ; 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113011

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between a previously published 313 variant-based breast cancer (BC) polygenic risk score (PRS313) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk, in BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant heterozygotes. METHODS: We included women of European ancestry with a prevalent first primary invasive BC (BRCA1 = 6,591 with 1,402 prevalent CBC cases; BRCA2 = 4,208 with 647 prevalent CBC cases) from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA), a large international retrospective series. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the association between overall and ER-specific PRS313 and CBC risk. RESULTS: For BRCA1 heterozygotes the estrogen receptor (ER)-negative PRS313 showed the largest association with CBC risk, hazard ratio (HR) per SD = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.06-1.18), C-index = 0.53; for BRCA2 heterozygotes, this was the ER-positive PRS313, HR = 1.15, 95% CI (1.07-1.25), C-index = 0.57. Adjusting for family history, age at diagnosis, treatment, or pathological characteristics for the first BC did not change association effect sizes. For women developing first BC < age 40 years, the cumulative PRS313 5th and 95th percentile 10-year CBC risks were 22% and 32% for BRCA1 and 13% and 23% for BRCA2 heterozygotes, respectively. CONCLUSION: The PRS313 can be used to refine individual CBC risks for BRCA1/2 heterozygotes of European ancestry, however the PRS313 needs to be considered in the context of a multifactorial risk model to evaluate whether it might influence clinical decision-making.

7.
Environ Int ; 154: 106556, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is a potential biological mechanism through which residential greenness affects health, but little is known about its association with greenness and whether the association could be modified by genetic background. We aimed to evaluate the association between surrounding greenness and genome-wide DNA methylation and potential gene-greenness interaction effects on DNA methylation. METHODS: We measured blood-derived DNA methylation using the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array (Illumina) for 479 Australian women, including 66 monozygotic, 66 dizygotic twin pairs, and 215 sisters of these twins. Surrounding greenness was represented by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) within 300, 500, 1000 or 2000 m surrounding participants' home addresses. For each cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG), the associations between its methylation level and NDVI or EVI were evaluated by generalized estimating equations, after adjusting for age, education, marital status, area-level socioeconomic status, smoking behavior, cell-type proportions, and familial clustering. We used comb-p and DMRcate to identify significant differentially methylated regions (DMRs). For each significant CpG, we evaluated the interaction effects of greenness and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within ±1 Mb window on its methylation level. RESULTS: We found associations between surrounding greenness and blood DNA methylation for one CpG (cg04720477, mapped to the promoter region of CNP gene) with false discovery rate [FDR] < 0.05, and for another 9 CpGs with 0.05 ≤ FDR < 0.10. For two of these CpGs, we found 33 SNPs significantly (FDR < 0.05) modified the greenness-methylation association. There were 35 significant DMRs related to surrounding greenness that were identified by both comb-p (Sidak p-value < 0.01) and DMRcate (FDR < 0.01). Those CpGs and DMRs were mapped to genes related to many human diseases, such as mental health disorders and neoplasms as well as nutritional and metabolic diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Surrounding greenness was associated with blood DNA methylation of many loci across human genome, and this association could be modified by genetic variations.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma , Austrália , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Fumar
8.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872391

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is a known cause of cancer, but its role in the etiology of second primary (metachronous) cancer is uncertain. Associations between alcohol intake up until study enrollment (prediagnosis) and risk of metachronous cancer were estimated using 9435 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study who were diagnosed with their first invasive cancer after enrollment (1990-1994). Follow-up was from date of first invasive cancer until diagnosis of metachronous cancer, death or censor date (February 2018), whichever came first. Alcohol intake for 10-year periods from age 20 until decade encompassing baseline using recalled beverage-specific frequency and quantity was used to calculate baseline and lifetime intakes, and group-based intake trajectories. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for potential confounders. After a mean follow-up of 7 years, 1512 metachronous cancers were identified. A 10 g/d increment in prediagnosis lifetime alcohol intake (HR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.00-1.06; Pvalue = .02) and an intake of ≥60 g/d (HR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.01-1.73) were associated with increased metachronous cancer risk. We observed positive associations (per 10 g/d increment) for metachronous colorectal (HR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.00-1.14), upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) (HR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.00-1.34) and kidney cancer (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.10-1.39). Although these findings were partly explained by effects of smoking, the association for kidney cancer remained unchanged when current smokers or obese individuals were excluded. Alcohol intake trajectories over the life course confirmed associations with metachronous cancer risk. Prediagnosis long-term alcohol intake, and particularly heavy drinking, may increase the risk of metachronous cancer, particularly of the colorectum, UADT and kidney.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802562

RESUMO

VTRNA2-1 is a metastable epiallele with accumulating evidence that methylation at this region is heritable, modifiable and associated with disease including risk and progression of cancer. This study investigated the influence of genetic variation and other factors such as age and adult lifestyle on blood DNA methylation in this region. We first sequenced the VTRNA2-1 gene region in multiple-case breast cancer families in which VTRNA2-1 methylation was identified as heritable and associated with breast cancer risk. Methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTL) were investigated using a prospective cohort study (4500 participants with genotyping and methylation data). The cis-mQTL analysis (334 variants ± 50 kb of the most heritable CpG site) identified 43 variants associated with VTRNA2-1 methylation (p < 1.5 × 10-4); however, these explained little of the methylation variation (R2 < 0.5% for each of these variants). No genetic variants elsewhere in the genome were found to strongly influence VTRNA2-1 methylation. SNP-based heritability estimates were consistent with the mQTL findings (h2 = 0, 95%CI: -0.14 to 0.14). We found no evidence that age, sex, country of birth, smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption or diet influenced blood DNA methylation at VTRNA2-1. Genetic factors and adult lifestyle play a minimal role in explaining methylation variability at the heritable VTRNA2-1 cluster.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803639

RESUMO

Case-control studies of breast cancer have consistently shown that pathogenic variants in CHEK2 are associated with about a 3-fold increased risk of breast cancer. Information about the recurrent protein-truncating variant CHEK2 c.1100delC dominates this estimate. There have been no formal estimates of age-specific cumulative risk of breast cancer for all CHEK2 pathogenic (including likely pathogenic) variants combined. We conducted a population-based case-control-family study of pathogenic CHEK2 variants (26 families, 1071 relatives) and estimated the age-specific cumulative risk of breast cancer using segregation analysis. The estimated hazard ratio for carriers of pathogenic CHEK2 variants (combined) was 4.9 (95% CI 2.5-9.5) relative to non-carriers. The HR for carriers of the CHEK2 c.1100delC variant was estimated to be 3.5 (95% CI 1.02-11.6) and the HR for carriers of all other CHEK2 variants combined was estimated to be 5.7 (95% CI 2.5-12.9). The age-specific cumulative risk of breast cancer was estimated to be 18% (95% CI 11-30%) and 33% (95% CI 21-48%) to age 60 and 80 years, respectively. These findings provide important information for the clinical management of breast cancer risk for women carrying pathogenic variants in CHEK2.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 148(11): 2759-2773, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554339

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is causally linked to several cancers but the evidence for stomach cancer is inconclusive. In our study, the association between long-term alcohol intake and risk of stomach cancer and its subtypes was evaluated. We performed a pooled analysis of data collected at baseline from 491 714 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition and the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for incident stomach cancer in relation to lifetime alcohol intake and group-based life course intake trajectories, adjusted for potential confounders including Helicobacter pylori infection. In all, 1225 incident stomach cancers (78% noncardia) were diagnosed over 7 094 637 person-years; 984 in 382 957 study participants with lifetime alcohol intake data (5 455 507 person-years). Although lifetime alcohol intake was not associated with overall stomach cancer risk, we observed a weak positive association with noncardia cancer (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00-1.06 per 10 g/d increment), with a HR of 1.50 (95% CI: 1.08-2.09) for ≥60 g/d compared to 0.1 to 4.9 g/d. A weak inverse association with cardia cancer (HR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-1.00) was also observed. HRs of 1.48 (95% CI: 1.10-1.99) for noncardia and 0.51 (95% CI: 0.26-1.03) for cardia cancer were observed for a life course trajectory characterized by heavy decreasing intake compared to light stable intake (Phomogeneity = .02). These associations did not differ appreciably by smoking or H pylori infection status. Limiting alcohol use during lifetime, particularly avoiding heavy use during early adulthood, might help prevent noncardia stomach cancer. Heterogeneous associations observed for cardia and noncardia cancers may indicate etiologic differences.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Austrália/etnologia , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia
13.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(4): 585-592, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630024

RESUMO

Importance: Women with pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are at high risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers. They usually undergo intensive cancer surveillance and may also consider surgical interventions, such as risk-reducing mastectomy or risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy has been shown to reduce ovarian cancer risk, but its association with breast cancer risk is less clear. Objective: To assess the association of RRSO with the risk of breast cancer in women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series included families enrolled in the Breast Cancer Family Registry between 1996 and 2000 that carried an inherited pathogenic variant in BRCA1 (498 families) or BRCA2 (378 families). A survival analysis approach was used that was designed specifically to assess the time-varying association of RRSO with breast cancer risk and accounting for other potential biases. Data were analyzed from August 2019 to November 2020. Exposure: Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. Main Outcomes and Measures: In all analyses, the primary end point was the time to a first primary breast cancer. Results: A total of 876 families were evaluated, including 498 with BRCA1 (2650 individuals; mean [SD] event age, 55.8 [19.1] years; 437 White probands [87.8%]) and 378 with BRCA2 (1925 individuals; mean [SD] event age, 57.0 [18.6] years; 299 White probands [79.1%]). Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers within 5 years after surgery (hazard ratios [HRs], 0.28 [95% CI, 0.10-0.63] and 0.19 [95% CI, 0.06-0.71], respectively), whereas the corresponding HRs were weaker after 5 years postsurgery (HRs, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.38-0.97] and 0.99 [95% CI; 0.84-1.00], respectively). For BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers who underwent RRSO at age 40 years, the cause-specific cumulative risk of breast cancer was 49.7% (95% CI, 40.0-60.3) and 52.7% (95% CI, 47.9-58.7) by age 70 years, respectively, compared with 61.0% (95% CI, 56.7-66.0) and 54.0% (95% CI, 49.3-60.1), respectively, for women without RRSO. Conclusions and Relevance: Although the primary indication for RRSO is the prevention of ovarian cancer, it is also critical to assess its association with breast cancer risk in order to guide clinical decision-making about RRSO use and timing. The results of this case series suggest a reduced risk of breast cancer associated with RRSO in the immediate 5 years after surgery in women carrying BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants, and a longer-term association with cumulative breast cancer risk in women carrying BRCA1 pathogenic variants.

14.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(2): 230-238, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524116

RESUMO

People with Lynch syndrome (LS), who carry a pathogenic mutation in a DNA mismatch repair gene, have increased risks of colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC). A high reported variability in cancer risk suggests the existence of factors that modify cancer risk for persons with LS. We aimed to investigate the associations between height and CRC and EC risk for persons with LS using data from 2 large studies. Information on 1,115 men and 1,553 women with LS from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (1998-2007) and the GEOLynch Cohort Study (2006-2017) was harmonized. We used weighted Cox proportional hazards regression models with age on the time axis to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for each 5-cm increment in self-reported height. CRC was diagnosed in 947 persons during 65,369 person-years of observation, and 171 women were diagnosed with EC during 39,227 person-years. Height was not associated with CRC for either men (per 5-cm increment, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91, 1.11) or women (per 5-cm increment, HR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.11), nor was height associated with EC (per 5-cm increment, HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.94, 1.24). Hence, we observed no evidence for an association of height with either CRC or EC among persons with LS.


Assuntos
Estatura , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
15.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 225(1): 51.e1-51.e17, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has been shown to decrease with longer duration of oral contraceptive use. Although the effects of using oral contraceptives in the general population are well established (approximately 50% risk reduction in ovarian cancer), the estimated risk reduction in mutation carriers is much less precise because of potential bias and small sample sizes. In addition, only a few studies on oral contraceptive use have examined the associations of duration of use, time since last use, starting age, and calendar year of start with risk of ovarian cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate in more detail the associations of various characteristics of oral contraceptive use and risk of ovarian cancer, to provide healthcare providers and carriers with better risk estimates. STUDY DESIGN: In this international retrospective study, ovarian cancer risk associations were assessed using oral contraceptives data on 3989 BRCA1 and 2445 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Age-dependent-weighted Cox regression analyses were stratified by study and birth cohort and included breast cancer diagnosis as a covariate. To minimize survival bias, analyses were left truncated at 5 years before baseline questionnaire. Separate analyses were conducted for each aspect of oral contraceptive use and in a multivariate analysis, including all these aspects. In addition, the analysis of duration of oral contraceptive use was stratified by recency of use. RESULTS: Oral contraceptives were less often used by mutation carriers who were diagnosed with ovarian cancer (ever use: 58.6% for BRCA1 and 53.5% BRCA2) than by unaffected carriers (ever use: 88.9% for BRCA1 and 80.7% for BRCA2). The median duration of use was 7 years for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers who developed ovarian cancer and 9 and 8 years for unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers with ovarian cancer, respectively. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, univariate analyses have shown that both a longer duration of oral contraceptive use and more recent oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduction in the risk of ovarian cancer. However, in multivariate analyses, including duration of use, age at first use, and time since last use, duration of oral contraceptive use proved to be the prominent protective factor (compared with <5 years: 5-9 years [hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-1.12]; >10 years [hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.73]; Ptrend=.008). The inverse association between duration of use and ovarian cancer risk persisted for more than 15 years (duration of ≥10 years; BRCA1 <15 years since last use [hazard ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.43]; BRCA1 >15 years since last use [hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.59]). Univariate results for BRCA2 mutation carriers were similar but were inconclusive because of limited sample size. CONCLUSION: For BRCA1 mutation carriers, longer duration of oral contraceptive use is associated with a greater reduction in ovarian cancer risk, and the protection is long term.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Anticoncepcionais Orais/administração & dosagem , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Gut ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414168

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Germline pathogenic variants (PVs) in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and in the base excision repair gene MUTYH underlie hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) and polyposis syndromes. We evaluated the robustness and discriminatory potential of tumour mutational signatures in CRCs for identifying germline PV carriers. DESIGN: Whole-exome sequencing of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) CRC tissue was performed on 33 MMR germline PV carriers, 12 biallelic MUTYH germline PV carriers, 25 sporadic MLH1 methylated MMR-deficient CRCs (MMRd controls) and 160 sporadic MMR-proficient CRCs (MMRp controls) and included 498 TCGA CRC tumours. COSMIC V3 single base substitution (SBS) and indel (ID) mutational signatures were assessed for their ability to differentiate CRCs that developed in carriers from non-carriers. RESULTS: The combination of mutational signatures SBS18 and SBS36 contributing >30% of a CRC's signature profile was able to discriminate biallelic MUTYH carriers from all other non-carrier control CRCs with 100% accuracy (area under the curve (AUC) 1.0). SBS18 and SBS36 were associated with specific MUTYH variants p.Gly396Asp (p=0.025) and p.Tyr179Cys (p=5×10-5), respectively. The combination of ID2 and ID7 could discriminate the 33 MMR PV carrier CRCs from the MMRp control CRCs (AUC 0.99); however, SBS and ID signatures, alone or in combination, could not provide complete discrimination (AUC 0.79) between CRCs from MMR PV carriers and sporadic MMRd controls. CONCLUSION: Assessment of SBS and ID signatures can discriminate CRCs from biallelic MUTYH carriers and MMR PV carriers from non-carriers with high accuracy, demonstrating utility as a potential diagnostic and variant classification tool.

17.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 11, 2021 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumour DNA methylation profiling has shown potential to refine disease subtyping and improve the diagnosis and prognosis prediction of breast cancer. However, limited data exist regarding invasive lobular breast cancer (ILBC). Here, we investigated the genome-wide variability of DNA methylation levels across ILBC tumours and assessed the association between methylation levels at the variably methylated regions and overall survival in women with ILBC. METHODS: Tumour-enriched DNA was prepared by macrodissecting formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumour tissue from 130 ILBCs diagnosed in the participants of the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS). Genome-wide tumour DNA methylation was measured using the HumanMethylation 450K (HM450K) BeadChip array. Variably methylated regions (VMRs) were identified using the DMRcate package in R. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association between methylation levels at the ten most significant VMRs and overall survival. Gene set enrichment analyses were undertaken using the web-based tool Metaspace. Replication of the VMR and survival analysis findings was examined using data retrieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) for 168 ILBC cases. We also examined the correlation between methylation and gene expression for the ten VMRs of interest using TCGA data. RESULTS: We identified 2771 VMRs (P < 10-8) in ILBC tumours. The ten most variably methylated clusters were predominantly located in the promoter region of the genes: ISM1, APC, TMEM101, ASCL2, NKX6, HIST3H2A/HIST3H2BB, HCG4P3, HES5, CELF2 and EFCAB4B. Higher methylation level at several of these VMRs showed an association with reduced overall survival in the MCCS. In TCGA, all associations were in the same direction, however stronger than in the MCCS. The pooled analysis of the MCCS and TCGA data showed that methylation at four of the ten genes was associated with reduced overall survival, independently of age and tumour stage; APC: Hazard Ratio (95% Confidence interval) per one-unit M-value increase: 1.18 (1.02-1.36), TMEM101: 1.23 (1.02-1.48), HCG4P3: 1.37 (1.05-1.79) and CELF2: 1.21 (1.02-1.43). A negative correlation was observed between methylation and gene expression for CELF2 (R = - 0.25, P = 0.001), but not for TMEM101 and APC. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified regions showing greatest variability across the ILBC tumour genome and found methylation at several genes to potentially serve as a biomarker of survival for women with ILBC.

18.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245375, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481864

RESUMO

Five-year absolute breast cancer risk prediction models are required to comply with national guidelines regarding risk reduction regimens. Models including the Gail model are under-utilized in the general population for various reasons, including difficulty in accurately completing some clinical fields. The purpose of this study was to determine if a streamlined risk model could be designed without substantial loss in performance. Only the clinical risk factors that were easily answered by women will be retained and combined with an objective validated polygenic risk score (PRS) to ultimately improve overall compliance with professional recommendations. We first undertook a review of a series of 2,339 Caucasian, African American and Hispanic women from the USA who underwent clinical testing. We first used deidentified test request forms to identify the clinical risk factors that were best answered by women in a clinical setting and then compared the 5-year risks for the full model and the streamlined model in this clinical series. We used OPERA analysis on previously published case-control data from 11,924 Gail model samples to determine clinical risk factors to include in a streamlined model: first degree family history and age that could then be combined with the PRS. Next, to ensure that the addition of PRS to the streamlined model was indeed beneficial, we compared risk stratification using the Streamlined model with and without PRS for the existing case-control datasets comprising 1,313 cases and 10,611 controls of African-American (n = 7421), Caucasian (n = 1155) and Hispanic (n = 3348) women, using the area under the curve to determine model performance. The improvement in risk discrimination from adding the PRS risk score to the Streamlined model was 52%, 46% and 62% for African-American, Caucasian and Hispanic women, respectively, based on changes in log OPERA. There was no statistically significant difference in mean risk scores between the Gail model plus risk PRS compared to the Streamlined model plus PRS. This study demonstrates that validated PRS can be used to streamline a clinical test for primary care practice without diminishing test performance. Importantly, by eliminating risk factors that women find hard to recall or that require obtaining medical records, this model may facilitate increased clinical adoption of 5-year risk breast cancer risk prediction test in keeping with national standards and guidelines for breast cancer risk reduction.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Afro-Americanos/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 14(1): 131-144, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115784

RESUMO

Guidelines endorse the use of chemoprevention for breast cancer risk reduction. This study examined the barriers and facilitators to chemoprevention use for Australian women at increased risk of breast cancer, and their clinicians. Surveys, based on the Theoretical Domains Framework, were mailed to 1,113 women at ≥16% lifetime risk of breast cancer who were enrolled in the Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer cohort study (kConFab), and their 524 treating clinicians. Seven hundred twenty-five women (65%) and 221 (42%) clinicians responded. Only 10 (1.4%) kConFab women had ever taken chemoprevention. Three hundred seventy-eight (52%) kConFab women, two (3%) breast surgeons, and 51 (35%) family physicians were not aware of chemoprevention. For women, the strongest barriers to chemoprevention were side effects (31%) and inadequate information (23%), which operate in the Theoretical Domains Framework domains of "beliefs about consequences" and "knowledge," respectively. Strongest facilitators related to tamoxifen's long-term efficacy (35%, "knowledge," "beliefs about consequences," and "goals" domains), staying healthy for family (13%, "social role" and "goals" domains), and abnormal breast biopsy (13%, "environmental context" domain). The strongest barrier for family physicians was insufficient knowledge (45%, "knowledge" domain) and for breast surgeons was medication side effects (40%, "beliefs about consequences" domain). The strongest facilitators for both clinician groups related to clear guidelines, strong family history, and better tools to select patients ("environmental context and resources" domain). Clinician knowledge and resources, and beliefs about the side-effect consequences of chemoprevention, are key domains that could be targeted to potentially enhance uptake. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: Despite its efficacy in reducing breast cancer incidence, chemoprevention is underutilised. This survey study of Australian women and their clinicians used behavioural change theory to identify modifiable barriers to chemoprevention uptake, and to suggest interventions such as policy change, educational resources and public campaigns, that may increase awareness and use.See related Spotlight by Vogel, p. 1.

20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(1): 105-115, 2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to maternal smoking is detrimental to child health but its association with risk of cancer has seldom been investigated. Maternal smoking induces widespread and long-lasting DNA methylation changes, which we study here for association with risk of cancer in adulthood. METHODS: Eight prospective case-control studies nested within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study were used to assess associations between maternal-smoking-associated methylation marks in blood and risk of several cancers: breast (n = 406 cases), colorectal (n = 814), gastric (n = 166), kidney (n = 139), lung (n = 327), prostate (n = 847) and urothelial (n = 404) cancer and B-cell lymphoma (n = 426). We used conditional logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between cancer and five methylation scores calculated as weighted averages for 568, 19, 15, 28 and 17 CpG sites. Models were adjusted for confounders, including personal smoking history (smoking status, pack-years, age at starting and quitting) and methylation scores for personal smoking. RESULTS: All methylation scores for maternal smoking were strongly positively associated with risk of urothelial cancer. Risk estimates were only slightly attenuated after adjustment for smoking history, other potential confounders and methylation scores for personal smoking. Potential negative associations were observed with risk of lung cancer and B-cell lymphoma. No associations were observed for other cancers. CONCLUSIONS: We found that methylation marks of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking are associated with increased risk of urothelial cancer. Our study demonstrates the potential for using DNA methylation to investigate the impact of early-life, unmeasured exposures on later-life cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos
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