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1.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578528

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels cause gout and correlate with cardiometabolic diseases via poorly understood mechanisms. We performed a trans-ancestry genome-wide association study of serum urate in 457,690 individuals, identifying 183 loci (147 previously unknown) that improve the prediction of gout in an independent cohort of 334,880 individuals. Serum urate showed significant genetic correlations with many cardiometabolic traits, with genetic causality analyses supporting a substantial role for pleiotropy. Enrichment analysis, fine-mapping of urate-associated loci and colocalization with gene expression in 47 tissues implicated the kidney and liver as the main target organs and prioritized potentially causal genes and variants, including the transcriptional master regulators in the liver and kidney, HNF1A and HNF4A. Experimental validation showed that HNF4A transactivated the promoter of ABCG2, encoding a major urate transporter, in kidney cells, and that HNF4A p.Thr139Ile is a functional variant. Transcriptional coregulation within and across organs may be a general mechanism underlying the observed pleiotropy between urate and cardiometabolic traits.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4130, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511532

RESUMO

Increased levels of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) are associated with higher risk of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events, but underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we conduct trans-ethnic (n = 564,257) and European-ancestry specific meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies of UACR, including ancestry- and diabetes-specific analyses, and identify 68 UACR-associated loci. Genetic correlation analyses and risk score associations in an independent electronic medical records database (n = 192,868) reveal connections with proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, gout, and hypertension. Fine-mapping and trans-Omics analyses with gene expression in 47 tissues and plasma protein levels implicate genes potentially operating through differential expression in kidney (including TGFB1, MUC1, PRKCI, and OAF), and allow coupling of UACR associations to altered plasma OAF concentrations. Knockdown of OAF and PRKCI orthologs in Drosophila nephrocytes reduces albumin endocytosis. Silencing fly PRKCI further impairs slit diaphragm formation. These results generate a priority list of genes and pathways for translational research to reduce albuminuria.

3.
Nat Genet ; 51(6): 957-972, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152163

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is responsible for a public health burden with multi-systemic complications. Through trans-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and independent replication (n = 1,046,070), we identified 264 associated loci (166 new). Of these, 147 were likely to be relevant for kidney function on the basis of associations with the alternative kidney function marker blood urea nitrogen (n = 416,178). Pathway and enrichment analyses, including mouse models with renal phenotypes, support the kidney as the main target organ. A genetic risk score for lower eGFR was associated with clinically diagnosed CKD in 452,264 independent individuals. Colocalization analyses of associations with eGFR among 783,978 European-ancestry individuals and gene expression across 46 human tissues, including tubulo-interstitial and glomerular kidney compartments, identified 17 genes differentially expressed in kidney. Fine-mapping highlighted missense driver variants in 11 genes and kidney-specific regulatory variants. These results provide a comprehensive priority list of molecular targets for translational research.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Testes de Função Renal , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Uromodulina/urina
4.
JCI Insight ; 3(23)2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518689

RESUMO

Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in TRIP11, encoding the golgin GMAP-210, cause the lethal human chondrodysplasia achondrogenesis 1A (ACG1A). We now find that a homozygous splice-site mutation of the lamin B receptor (LBR) gene results in the same phenotype. Intrigued by the genetic heterogeneity, we compared GMAP-210- and LBR-deficient primary cells to unravel how particular mutations in LBR cause a phenocopy of ACG1A. We could exclude a regulatory interaction between LBR and GMAP-210 in patients' cells. However, we discovered a common disruption of Golgi apparatus architecture that was accompanied by decreased secretory trafficking in both cases. Deficiency of Golgi-dependent glycan processing indicated a similar downstream effect of the disease-causing mutations upon Golgi function. Unexpectedly, our results thus point to a common pathogenic mechanism in GMAP-210- and LBR-related diseases attributable to defective secretory trafficking at the Golgi apparatus.

5.
Europace ; 20(12): 2003-2013, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29947763

RESUMO

Aims: Characterization of the cardiac phenotype associated with the novel LMNA nonsense mutation c.544C>T, p.Q182*, which we have identified in a large five-generation family. Methods and results: A family tree was constructed. Clinical data [arrhythmia, syncope, sudden cardiac death (SCD), New York Heart Association (NYHA) class] were collected from living and deceased family members. DNA of 23 living family members was analysed for mutations in LMNA. Additionally, dilated cardiomyopathy multi-gene-panel testing and whole exome sequencing were performed in some family members to identify potential phenotype-modifiers. In this five-generation family (n = 65), 17 SCDs occurred at 49.3 ± 10.0 years. Furthermore, we identified eight additional mutation-carriers, seven symptomatic (44 ± 13 years), and one asymptomatic (44 years). First signs of disease [sinus bradycardia with atrioventricular (AV)-block I°] occurred at 36.5 ± 8.1 years. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) (onset at 41.8 ± 5.7 years) rapidly progressed to permanent AF (46.2 ± 9.8 years). Subsequently, AV-conduction worsened, syncope, pacemaker-dependence, and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (43.3 ± 8.2 years) followed. Ventricular arrhythmia caused SCD in patients without implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). Patients protected by ICD developed rapidly progressive heart failure (45.2 ± 10.6 years). A different phenotype was seen in a sub-family in three patients with early onset of rapidly decompensating heart failure and only minor prior arrhythmia-related symptoms. One patient received high-urgency heart transplantation (HTX) at 32 years, while two died prior to HTX. One of them developed lethal peripartum-associated heart failure. Possible disease-modifiers were identified in this 'heart failure sub-family'. Conclusion: The novel LMNA nonsense mutation c.544C>T causes a severe arrhythmogenic phenotype manifesting with high incidence of SCD in most patients; and in one sub-family, a distinct phenotype with fast progressing heart failure, indicating the need for early consideration of ICD-implantation and listing for heart-transplantation.

6.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0162466, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27612175

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) evaluate associations between genetic variants and a trait or disease of interest free of prior biological hypotheses. GWAS require stringent correction for multiple testing, with genome-wide significance typically defined as association p-value <5*10-8. This study presents a new tool that uses external information about genes to prioritize SNP associations (GenToS). For a given list of candidate genes, GenToS calculates an appropriate statistical significance threshold and then searches for trait-associated variants in summary statistics from human GWAS. It thereby allows for identifying trait-associated genetic variants that do not meet genome-wide significance. The program additionally tests for enrichment of significant candidate gene associations in the human GWAS data compared to the number expected by chance. As proof of principle, this report used external information from a comprehensive resource of genetically manipulated and systematically phenotyped mice. Based on selected murine phenotypes for which human GWAS data for corresponding traits were publicly available, several candidate gene input lists were derived. Using GenToS for the investigation of candidate genes underlying murine skeletal phenotypes in data from a large human discovery GWAS meta-analysis of bone mineral density resulted in the identification of significantly associated variants in 29 genes. Index variants in 28 of these loci were subsequently replicated in an independent GWAS replication step, highlighting that they are true positive associations. One signal, COL11A1, has not been discovered through GWAS so far and represents a novel human candidate gene for altered bone mineral density. The number of observed genes that contained significant SNP associations in human GWAS based on murine candidate gene input lists was much greater than the number expected by chance across several complex human traits (enrichment p-value as low as 10-10). GenToS can be used with any candidate gene list, any GWAS summary file, runs on a desktop computer and is freely available.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Animais , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo XI/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
7.
Kidney Int ; 90(4): 764-73, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27263491

RESUMO

Genomewide association studies have identified numerous chronic kidney disease-associated genetic variants, but often do not pinpoint causal genes. This limitation was addressed by combining Mouse Genome Informatics with human genomewide association studies of kidney function. Genes for which mouse models showed abnormal renal physiology, morphology, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), or urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio were identified from Mouse Genome Informatics. The corresponding human orthologs were then evaluated for GFR-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 133,814 individuals and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio-associated SNPs in 54,451 individuals in genome-wide association studies meta-analysis of the CKDGen Consortium. After multiple testing corrections, significant associations with estimated GFR in humans were identified for single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 2, 7, and 17 genes causing abnormal GFR, abnormal physiology, and abnormal morphology in mice, respectively. Genes identified for abnormal kidney morphology showed significant enrichment for estimated GFR-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms. In total, 19 genes contained variants associated with estimated GFR or the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of which 16 mapped into previously reported genomewide significant loci. CYP26A1 and BMP4 emerged as novel signals subsequently validated in a large, independent study. An additional gene, CYP24A1, was discovered after conditioning on a published nearby association signal. Thus, our novel approach to combine comprehensive mouse phenotype information with human genomewide association studies data resulted in the identification of candidate genes for kidney disease pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Rim/fisiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Albuminúria/genética , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Creatinina/urina , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Testes de Função Renal , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Ácido Retinoico 4 Hidroxilase/genética , Vitamina D3 24-Hidroxilase/genética
8.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 31(2): 262-9, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26420894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children is characterized by rapid progression and a high incidence of end-stage renal disease and therefore constitutes an important health problem. While unbiased genetic screens have identified common risk variants influencing renal function and CKD in adults, the presence and identity of such variants in pediatric CKD are unknown. METHODS: The international Pediatric Investigation for Genetic Factors Linked with Renal Progression (PediGFR) Consortium comprises three pediatric CKD cohorts: Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD), Effect of Strict Blood Pressure Control and ACE Inhibition on the Progression of CRF in Pediatric Patients (ESCAPE) and Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with CKD (4C). Clean genotype data from > 10 million genotyped or imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were available for 1136 patients with measurements of serum creatinine at study enrollment. Genome-wide association studies were conducted to relate the SNPs to creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR crea) and proteinuria (urinary albumin- or protein-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 300 and ≥ 500 mg/g, respectively). In addition, European-ancestry PediGFR patients (cases) were compared with 1347 European-ancestry children without kidney disease (controls) to identify genetic variants associated with the presence of CKD. RESULTS: SNPs with suggestive association P-values < 1 × 10(-5) were identified in 10 regions for eGFR crea, four regions for proteinuria and six regions for CKD including some plausible biological candidates. No SNP was associated at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)). Investigation of the candidate genes for proteinuria in adults from the general population provided support for a region on chromosome 15 near RSL24D1/UNC13C/RAB27A. Conversely, targeted investigation of genes harboring GFR-associated variants in adults from the general population did not reveal significantly associated SNPs in children with CKD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that larger collaborative efforts will be needed to draw reliable conclusions about the presence and identity of common variants associated with eGFR, proteinuria and CKD in pediatric populations.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Morbidade/tendências , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
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