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1.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(10)2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326644

RESUMO

Heterogeneous photocatalysis is a prominent area of research with major applications in solar energy conversion, air pollution mitigation, and removal of contaminants from water. A large number of scientific papers related to the photocatalysis field and its environmental applications are published in different journals specializing in materials and nanomaterials. However, many problems exist in the conception of papers by authors unfamiliar with standard characterization methods of photocatalysts as well as with the procedures needed to determine photocatalytic activities based on the determination of "apparent quantum efficiencies" within a wavelength interval or "apparent quantum yields" in the case of using monochromatic light. In this regard, an astonishing number of recent research articles include claims of highly efficient (photo)catalysts or similar terms about materials with superior or enhanced efficiency for a given reaction without proper experimental support. Consequently, the comparison of the efficiencies of photocatalysts may result as being meaningless, especially when reports are only based on expressions determining (1) a reaction rate per weight of catalyst or its surface area, (2) quantum efficiencies or quantum yields, and (3) turnover frequencies or turnover numbers. Herein, we summarize the standards needed for reporting valuable data in photocatalysis and highlight some common discrepancies found in the literature. This work should inform researchers interested in reporting photocatalysis projects about the correct procedures for collecting experimental data and properly characterizing the materials by providing examples and key supporting literature.

2.
Adv Mater ; 29(7)2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27982465

RESUMO

Rich, porous graphene frameworks decorated with uniformly dispersed active sites are prepared by using polyaniline as a graphene precursor and introducing phenanthroline as a pore-forming agent. The unprecedented fuel-cell performance of this electrocatalyst is linked to the graphene frameworks with vast distribution of pore sizes, which maximizes the active-sites accessibility, facilitates mass-transport properties, and improves the carbon corrosion resistance.

3.
Adv Mater ; 28(30): 6420, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27493071

RESUMO

On page 6421, Z. Chen and co-workers describe an electrically rechargeable, nanoarchitectured air electrode that morphologically emulates a human-hair array for solid-state zinc-air batteries. Grown directly on a stainless-steel mesh, the hair-like array can effectively catalyze molecular oxygen to water. Batteries equipped with this electrode show tangible benefits, including improved flexibility and performance.


Assuntos
Ar , Biomimética , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Cabelo/anatomia & histologia , Zinco/química , Catálise , Eletrodos , Humanos , Oxigênio/química , Aço Inoxidável , Água/química
4.
Adv Mater ; 28(30): 6421-8, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27197721

RESUMO

An electrically rechargeable, nanoarchitectured air electrode that morphologically emulates a human hair array is demonstrated in a zinc-air battery. The hair-like array of mesoporous cobalt oxide nanopetals in nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes is grown directly on a stainless-steel mesh. This electrode produces both flexibility and improved battery performance, and thus fully manifests the advantages of flexible rechargeable zinc-air batteries in practical applications.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(10): 6488-95, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26937737

RESUMO

Nitrogen-functionalized graphene materials have been demonstrated as promising electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), owning to their respectable activity and excellent stability in alkaline electrolyte. However, they exhibit unacceptable catalytic activity in acid medium. Here, a hierarchically porous Co-N functionalized graphene aerogel is prepared as an efficient catalyst for the ORR in acid electrolyte. In the preparation process, polyaniline (PANI) is introduced as a pore-forming agent to aid in the self-assembly of graphene species into a porous aerogel networks, and a nitrogen precursor to induce in situ nitrogen doping. Therefore, a Co-N decorated graphene aerogel framework with a large surface area (485 m(2) g(-1)) and an abundance of meso/macropores is effectively formed after heat treatment. Such highly desired structures can not only expose sufficient active sites for the ORR but also guarantee the fast mass transfer in the catalytic process, which provides significant catalytic activity with positive onset and half wave potentials, low hydrogen peroxide yield, high resistance to methanol crossover, and remarkable stability that is comparable to commercial Pt/C in acid medium.

6.
Adv Mater ; 27(7): 1229-34, 2015 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25417577

RESUMO

Direct growth of multigrain platinum nanowires on sulfur-doped graphene (PtNW/SG) is reported. The growth mechanism, including Pt nanoparticle nucleation on SG, followed by nanoparticle attachment with orientation along the <111> direction is highlighted. PtNW/SG demonstrates improved Pt mass and specific activity compared with commercial catalysts toward oxygen reduction, in addition to dramatically improved stability through accelerated durability testing.

7.
Sci Rep ; 3: 2431, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23942256

RESUMO

Graphene supported Pt nanostructures have great potential to be used as catalysts in electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies; however the simultaneous control of Pt morphology and dispersion, along with ideally tailoring the physical properties of the catalyst support properties has proven very challenging. Using sulfur doped graphene (SG) as a support material, the heterogeneous dopant atoms could serve as nucleation sites allowing for the preparation of SG supported Pt nanowire arrays with ultra-thin diameters (2-5 nm) and dense surface coverage. Detailed investigation of the preparation technique reveals that the structure of the resulting composite could be readily controlled by fine tuning the Pt nanowire nucleation and growth reaction kinetics and the Pt-support interactions, whereby a mechanistic platinum nanowire array growth model is proposed. Electrochemical characterization demonstrates that the composite materials have 2-3 times higher catalytic activities toward the oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation reaction compared with commercial Pt/C catalyst.

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