Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 424
Filtrar
1.
J Med Econ ; : 1-10, 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687870

RESUMO

Aims: This article aimed to examine the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban in comparison to warfarin for stroke prevention in Japanese patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), from a public healthcare payer's perspective.Materials and methods: Baseline event risks were obtained from the J-ROCKET AF trial and the treatment effect data were taken from a network meta-analysis. The other model inputs were extracted from the literature and official Japanese sources. The outcomes included the number of ischaemic strokes, myocardial infarctions, systemic embolisms and bleedings avoided, life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), incremental costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). The scenario analysis considered treatment effect data from the same network meta-analysis.Results: In comparison with warfarin, rivaroxaban was estimated to avoid 0.284 ischaemic strokes per patient, to increase the number of QALYs by 0.535 per patient and to decrease the total costs by ¥118,892 (€1,011.11) per patient (1 JPY = 0.00850638 EUR; XE.com, 7 October 2019). Consequently, rivaroxaban treatment was found to be dominant compared to warfarin. In the scenario analysis, the ICER of rivaroxaban versus warfarin was ¥2,873,499 (€24,446.42) per QALY.Limitations: The various sources of data used resulted in the heterogeneity of the cost-effectiveness analysis results. Although, rivaroxaban was cost-effective in the majority of cases.Conclusion: Rivaroxaban is cost-effective against warfarin for stroke prevention in Japanese patients with NVAF, giving the payer WTP of 5,000,000 JPY.

2.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691, ago., 30 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1015771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 x 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. (AU)


Assuntos
Bactérias , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Aspirina
3.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691.e2, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Pantoprazol/administração & dosagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/induzido quimicamente , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/microbiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pantoprazol/efeitos adversos , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 403-412.e5, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are associated with increased upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy could reduce this risk. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528). CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Pantoprazol/administração & dosagem , Úlcera Péptica/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Úlcera Péptica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Péptica/epidemiologia , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Lancet ; 391(10117): 205-218, 2018 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29132879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and is a consequence of acute thrombotic events involving activation of platelets and coagulation proteins. Factor Xa inhibitors and aspirin each reduce thrombotic events but have not yet been tested in combination or against each other in patients with stable coronary artery disease. METHODS: In this multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, outpatient trial, patients with stable coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease were recruited at 602 hospitals, clinics, or community centres in 33 countries. This paper reports on patients with coronary artery disease. Eligible patients with coronary artery disease had to have had a myocardial infarction in the past 20 years, multi-vessel coronary artery disease, history of stable or unstable angina, previous multi-vessel percutaneous coronary intervention, or previous multi-vessel coronary artery bypass graft surgery. After a 30-day run in period, patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive rivaroxaban (2·5 mg orally twice a day) plus aspirin (100 mg once a day), rivaroxaban alone (5 mg orally twice a day), or aspirin alone (100 mg orally once a day). Randomisation was computer generated. Each treatment group was double dummy, and the patients, investigators, and central study staff were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome of the COMPASS trial was the occurrence of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01776424, and is closed to new participants. FINDINGS: Between March 12, 2013, and May 10, 2016, 27 395 patients were enrolled to the COMPASS trial, of whom 24 824 patients had stable coronary artery disease from 558 centres. The combination of rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduced the primary outcome more than aspirin alone (347 [4%] of 8313 vs 460 [6%] of 8261; hazard ratio [HR] 0·74, 95% CI 0·65-0·86, p<0·0001). By comparison, treatment with rivaroxaban alone did not significantly improve the primary outcome when compared with treatment with aspirin alone (411 [5%] of 8250 vs 460 [6%] of 8261; HR 0·89, 95% CI 0·78-1·02, p=0·094). Combined rivaroxaban plus aspirin treatment resulted in more major bleeds than treatment with aspirin alone (263 [3%] of 8313 vs 158 [2%] of 8261; HR 1·66, 95% CI 1·37-2·03, p<0·0001), and similarly, more bleeds were seen in the rivaroxaban alone group than in the aspirin alone group (236 [3%] of 8250 vs 158 [2%] of 8261; HR 1·51, 95% CI 1·23-1·84, p<0·0001). The most common site of major bleeding was gastrointestinal, occurring in 130 [2%] patients who received combined rivaroxaban plus aspirin, in 84 [1%] patients who received rivaroxaban alone, and in 61 [1%] patients who received aspirin alone. Rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduced mortality when compared with aspirin alone (262 [3%] of 8313 vs 339 [4%] of 8261; HR 0·77, 95% CI 0·65-0·90, p=0·0012). INTERPRETATION: In patients with stable coronary artery disease, addition of rivaroxaban to aspirin lowered major vascular events, but increased major bleeding. There was no significant increase in intracranial bleeding or other critical organ bleeding. There was also a significant net benefit in favour of rivaroxaban plus aspirin and deaths were reduced by 23%. Thus, addition of rivaroxaban to aspirin has the potential to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality from coronary artery disease worldwide. FUNDING: Bayer AG.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Morbidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
6.
Circ J ; 82(3): 691-698, 2018 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28883225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia portends a poor clinical outcome in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). However, its mechanism remains unknown. We sought to elucidate the effect of anemia on patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) who receive carvedilol therapy.Methods and Results:J-CHF study was a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial that assigned 360 HFrEF patients to 2.5 mg/5 mg/20 mg carvedilol groups according to the target dose. At baseline 70 patients (19%) had anemia ([A]) defined as hemoglobin level (Hb) <13 g/dL (male) or <12 g/dL (female) and the remaining 290 did not ([N]). Allocated and achieved doses of carvedilol were similar. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level significantly improved in both groups over 56 weeks, but they were smaller in [A] than in [N] (LVEF, P=0.046; BNP, P<0.0001 by ANOVA). Baseline Hb was an independent predictor of absolute change in LVEF (ß=0.13, P=0.047) and BNP (ß=-0.10, P=0.01). Presence of chronic kidney disease defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2at baseline was not associated with differential response to carvedilol therapy. During 3.8±1.4 years follow-up, group [A] had a higher incidence of the composite endpoint of death, hospitalization for cardiovascular causes including HF compared with [N] (P=0.006). Baseline Hb was an independent predictor of the composite endpoint (hazard ratio 0.86, P=0.04), whereas baseline eGFR was not. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested that anemia was associated with a blunted response to carvedilol in HFrEF patients.

7.
Lancet ; 391(10117): 205-218, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-36688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and is a consequence of acute thrombotic events involving activation of platelets and coagulation proteins. Factor Xa inhibitors and aspirin each reduce thrombotic events but have not yet been tested in combination or against each other in patients with stable coronary artery disease. METHODS: In this multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, outpatient trial, patients with stable coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease were recruited at 602 hospitals, clinics, or community centres in 33 countries. This paper reports on patients with coronary artery disease. Eligible patients with coronary artery disease had to have had a myocardial infarction in the past 20 years, multi-vessel coronary artery disease, history of stable or unstable angina, previous multi-vessel percutaneous coronary intervention, or previous multi-vessel coronary artery bypass graft surgery. After a 30-day run in period, patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive rivaroxaban (2·5 mg orally twice a day) plus aspirin (100 mg once a day), rivaroxaban alone (5 mg orally twice a day), or aspirin alone (100 mg orally once a day). Randomisation was computer generated. Each treatment group was double dummy, and the patients, investigators, and central study staff were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome of the COMPASS trial was the occurrence of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01776424, and is closed to new participants...(AU)


Assuntos
Rivaroxabana , Aspirina , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Estudos de Casos e Controles
8.
N Engl J Med ; 377(14): 1319-1330, 2017 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28844192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin would be more effective than aspirin alone for secondary cardiovascular prevention. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 27,395 participants with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease to receive rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg once daily). The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction. The study was stopped for superiority of the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group after a mean follow-up of 23 months. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in fewer patients in the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group than in the aspirin-alone group (379 patients [4.1%] vs. 496 patients [5.4%]; hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.86; P<0.001; z=-4.126), but major bleeding events occurred in more patients in the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group (288 patients [3.1%] vs. 170 patients [1.9%]; hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.40 to 2.05; P<0.001). There was no significant difference in intracranial or fatal bleeding between these two groups. There were 313 deaths (3.4%) in the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group as compared with 378 (4.1%) in the aspirin-alone group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.96; P=0.01; threshold P value for significance, 0.0025). The primary outcome did not occur in significantly fewer patients in the rivaroxaban-alone group than in the aspirin-alone group, but major bleeding events occurred in more patients in the rivaroxaban-alone group. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease, those assigned to rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin had better cardiovascular outcomes and more major bleeding events than those assigned to aspirin alone. Rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily) alone did not result in better cardiovascular outcomes than aspirin alone and resulted in more major bleeding events. (Funded by Bayer; COMPASS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01776424 .).


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Aterosclerose/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Prevenção Secundária/métodos
9.
Can J Cardiol ; 33(8): 1027-1035, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28754388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term aspirin prevents vascular events but is only modestly effective. Rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin might be more effective than aspirin alone for vascular prevention in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) or peripheral artery disease (PAD). Rivaroxaban as well as aspirin increase upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and this might be prevented by proton pump inhibitor therapy. METHODS: Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies (COMPASS) is a double-blind superiority trial comparing rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily combined with aspirin 100 mg once daily or rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily vs aspirin 100 mg once daily for prevention of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death in patients with stable CAD or PAD. Patients not taking a proton pump inhibitor were also randomized, using a partial factorial design, to pantoprazole 40 mg once daily or placebo. The trial was designed to have at least 90% power to detect a 20% reduction in each of the rivaroxaban treatment arms compared with aspirin and to detect a 50% reduction in upper GI complications with pantoprazole compared with placebo. RESULTS: Between February 2013 and May 2016, we recruited 27,395 participants from 602 centres in 33 countries; 17,598 participants were included in the pantoprazole vs placebo comparison. At baseline, the mean age was 68.2 years, 22.0% were female, 90.6% had CAD, and 27.3% had PAD. CONCLUSIONS: COMPASS will provide information on the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban, alone or in combination with aspirin, in the long-term management of patients with stable CAD or PAD, and on the efficacy and safety of pantoprazole in preventing upper GI complications in patients receiving antithrombotic therapy.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Terapia Trombolítica/normas , Humanos
10.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 31(1): 109-117, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28120277

RESUMO

Cardiovascular complications, including heart failure, hypertension, ischemic syndromes and venous thromboembolism, have been identified in patients treated with anti-cancer drugs. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and DNA synthesis inhibition are considered to be responsible for the cardiotoxicity induced by these agents. Protein quality control (PQC) has 3 major components, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagy-lysosome system, and participates in protein folding and degradation to maintain protein homeostasis. We have demonstrated that PQC dysfunction is a new causal mechanism for the development of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Increasing evidence shows that anti-cancer drugs, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors, anthracyclines and autophagy inhibitors, cause PQC dysfunction. Here, we provide an overview of the potential role of PQC dysfunction in the development of cardiovascular complications induced by anti-cancer drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Proteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotoxicidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Humanos , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Dobramento de Proteína , Proteólise , Ubiquitinação
11.
Clin Cardiol ; 40(2): 126-131, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27716968

RESUMO

Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) is a risk factor for stroke in elderly patients. Although warfarin has been used to prevent AF-associated stroke for more than 50 years, non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) including dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban recently have been developed to overcome the disadvantages of warfarin. Based on the results of NOAC clinical trials, Savelieva and Camm made recommendations regarding selection of NOACs in patients with nonvalvular AF. Recent accumulating evidence indicates that NOACs work differently in Asian and non-Asian individuals. In this review, we discuss the results of the large, randomized, phase 3 international clinical trials on NOACs, the subanalyses of Asians, and a Japanese phase 3 clinical trial of rivaroxaban to discriminate Japanese patient-specific characteristics with regard to their responses to NOACs and make recommendations. Our analysis revealed that rivaroxaban decreased the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding compared with warfarin in Japanese patients. The efficacy results showed that rivaroxaban significantly decreased the incidence of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio: 0.40, 95% confidence interval: 0.17-0.96) compared with warfarin. The lower incidence of GI bleeding and ischemic stroke may be specific to Japanese patients. Based on the present and previous results, the following recommendations regarding the selection of NOACs are added in the Camm chart for Japanese patients: edoxaban for patients with a high risk of bleeding and those with a previous stroke; and rivaroxaban for patients with a high risk of ischemic stroke and a low bleeding risk, and those with previous GI bleeding.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
12.
Can J Cardiol ; 33(8): 1027-1035, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-36563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term aspirin prevents vascular events but is only modestly effective. Rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin might be more effective than aspirin alone for vascular prevention in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) or peripheral artery disease (PAD). Rivaroxaban as well as aspirin increase upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and this might be prevented by proton pump inhibitor therapy. METHODS: Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies (COMPASS) is a double-blind superiority trial comparing rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily combined with aspirin 100 mg once daily or rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily vs aspirin 100 mg once daily for prevention of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death in patients with stable CAD or PAD. Patients not taking a proton pump inhibitor were also randomized, using a partial factorial design, to pantoprazole 40 mg once daily or placebo. The trial was designed to have at least 90% power to detect a 20% reduction in each of the rivaroxaban treatment arms compared with aspirin and to detect a 50% reduction in upper GI complications with pantoprazole compared with placebo...(AU)


Assuntos
Cardiopatias , Anticoagulantes , Aspirina
13.
BMJ Open ; 6(7): e011105, 2016 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27412101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the short-term and long-term prognostic impacts of acute phase coronary collaterals to occluded infarct-related arteries (IRA) after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) era. DESIGN: A prospective observational study. SETTING: Osaka Acute Coronary Insufficiency Study (OACIS) in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: 3340 patients with STEMI from the OACIS database who were admitted to hospitals within 24 hours from the onset and who had a completely occluded IRA. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were divided into 4 groups according to the Rentrop collateral score (RCS) by angiography on admission (RCS-0, no visible collaterals; RCS-1, collaterals without IRA filling; RCS-2, collaterals with partial IRA filling; and RCS-3, collaterals with complete IRA filling). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: In-hospital and 5-year mortality. RESULTS: Patients with RCS-0/3 were older than patients with RCS-1/2, and the prevalence of previous myocardial infarction was highest in patients with RCS-3. Median peak creatinine phosphokinase levels decreased as RCS increases (p<0.001), suggesting the acute cardioprotective effects of collaterals. Although RCS-1 and RCS-2 collaterals were associated with better in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR 0.48, p=0.046 and 0.38, p=0.010 for RCS-1 and RCS-2, respectively) and 5-year mortality (adjusted HR 0.53, p=0.004 and 0.46, p<0.001 for RCS-1 and RCS-2, respectively) as compared with R-0, presence of RCS-3 collaterals was not associated with improved in-hospital (adjusted OR 1.35, p=0.331) and 5-year mortality (adjusted HR 0.98, p=0.920), possibly because worse clinical profiles in patients with RCS-3 may mask mortality benefit of coronary collaterals. CONCLUSIONS: Presence of acute phase coronary collaterals such as RCS-1 and RCS-2 were associated with better in-hospital and 5-year mortality after STEMI in the contemporary PCI era.


Assuntos
Vasos Sanguíneos , Circulação Coronária , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Arritmias Cardíacas , Oclusão Coronária , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Coração/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Circ J ; 80(7): 1539-47, 2016 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27238618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic impact of acute-phase ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation (VT/VF) on ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients in the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) era. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the database of the Osaka Acute Coronary Insufficiency Study (OACIS), we studied 4,283 consecutive patients with STEMI who were hospitalized within 12 h of STEMI onset and underwent emergency PCI. Acute-phase VT/VF, defined as ≥3 consecutive ventricular premature complexes and/or VF within the 1st week of hospitalization, occurred in 997 (23.3%) patients. In-hospital mortality risk was significantly higher in patients with acute-phase VT/VF than inthose without (14.6% vs. 4.3%, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.83, P=0.0013). Among patients discharged alive, 5-year mortality rates were comparable between patients with and without acute-phase VT/VF. Subgroup analysis showed that acute-phase VT/VF was associated with increased 5-year mortality after discharge in high-risk patients (GRACE Risk Score ≥115; adjusted HR 1.60, P=0.043), but not in intermediate- or low-risk patients. CONCLUSIONS: Even in the PCI era, acute-phase VT/VF was associated with higher in-hospital deaths of STEMI patients. However, the 5-year prognostic impact of acute-phase VT/VF was limited to high-risk patients. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1539-1547).


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Taquicardia , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Taquicardia/mortalidade , Taquicardia/fisiopatologia , Taquicardia/cirurgia
16.
J Med Econ ; 19(9): 889-99, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27112188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects an estimated 1.5 million individuals in Japan, increasing their stroke risk and imposing considerable costs on the Japanese healthcare system. To reduce stroke incidence, guidelines recommend using anticoagulants in moderate-to-high risk non-valvular AF (NVAF) patients; however, many patients receive no treatment, aspirin only, or remain poorly-controlled on vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) due to high VKA discontinuation rates and non-adherence to guidelines. A prevalence-based Markov model was developed to estimate the clinical and budgetary impact of treating these patients with Xarelto(TM) (rivaroxaban, Bayer AG) in Japan. METHODS: Population, baseline risk of events, and associated management costs were estimated using data from Japanese publications where available. Treatment efficacy and safety were derived from published data and the J-ROCKET AF trial. Drug and physician visit costs were based on data from the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare, the J-ROCKET AF trial, and Japanese clinical guidelines. RESULTS: This model demonstrates that increased use of rivaroxaban in inadequately-managed NVAF patients could avoid 456 081 non-fatal ischemic strokes (IS) and 76 975 cardiovascular deaths over 10 years in Japan. This clinical benefit offsets the increased incidence of myocardial infarctions and anticoagulant-related bleeding. Decreased event costs could lead to a ¥188.4 billion decrease in net spending over the analysis time horizon. CONCLUSIONS: Introducing rivaroxaban may decrease the burden of NVAF in Japanese society. From a clinical perspective, the reduction in IS and embolic events outweighs the increased risk of anticoagulant-related bleeding; from an economic perspective, reduced event costs offset drug and physician visit costs, resulting in cost savings.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/economia , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Rivaroxabana/economia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/economia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/economia , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econométricos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Varfarina/economia , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
17.
J Cardiol ; 68(6): 523-528, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26796348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from the J-ROCKET AF study revealed that rivaroxaban was non-inferior to warfarin with respect to the principal safety outcomes in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. This subgroup analysis evaluated whether non-major clinically relevant bleeding (NMCRB) could be a predictive factor for major bleeding (MB). Other predictive factors for MB were also obtained in both rivaroxaban and warfarin treatment groups. METHODS: The temporal incidence of MB was compared between the rivaroxaban and warfarin treatment groups. Assessment was made whether MB events were often preceded by NMCRB. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify any independent predictive factors for MB in both treatment groups. RESULTS: The incidences of MB and NMCRB were 18.04% (138/639 patients) in the rivaroxaban arm, and 16.42% in the warfarin arm (124/639 patients). NMCRB preceded MB in only four patients in each treatment group (rivaroxaban: 4/117 and warfarin: 4/98). Multivariate analysis identified predictive factors for bleeding events: anemia with warfarin treatment and concomitant use of antiplatelet agents with rivaroxaban treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this subgroup analysis, particularly the fact that there was no repeated or sequential pattern between NMCRB and MB occurrences in both treatment groups, suggests that NMCRB might not be a predictive factor for MB. On the contrary, anemia and concomitant use of antiplatelet therapy were likely predictive factors for bleeding with warfarin and rivaroxaban treatment, respectively.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Anemia/complicações , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/administração & dosagem
18.
J Cardiol ; 67(4): 314-20, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26433912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether serum high-sensitive troponin T (hs-TnT) levels at the convalescent stage of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are associated with long-term mortality. METHODS: This study enrolled a total of 2944 consecutive STEMI patients who were registered in the Osaka Acute Coronary Insufficiency Study between 2000 and 2009, and whose hs-TnT levels were evaluated at the convalescent stage. Patients were divided into four hs-TnT category groups according to the results of survival classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. The impact of hs-TnT levels on 5-year mortality was evaluated using multivariate Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Only one patient had hs-TnT level below the detection limit of the assay (<0.003ng/mL). The median hs-TnT level was 0.025 (quartile 0.011-0.083)ng/mL. During the median follow-up period of 1782 days, 188 patients died. Survival CART analysis revealed that the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd discriminating hs-TnT levels to discern 5-year mortality were 0.028, 0.008, and 1.340ng/mL, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratios for the medium-low (0.009-0.028ng/mL), medium-high (0.029-1.340ng/mL), and high-risk (≥1.341ng/mL) groups were 3.03 (95% confidence interval 1.18-7.77, p=0.021), 4.29 (1.63-11.28, p=0.003), and 8.68 (2.20-34.27, p=0.002), respectively. Integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) analysis revealed that incorporation of this hs-TnT classification scheme with other clinical variables statistically improved the discriminatory accuracy for 5-year mortality, with a time-dependent IDI of 0.0076 (p=0.033). CONCLUSIONS: hs-TnT levels at the convalescent stage were associated with long-term mortality in STEMI patients. Even subclinical elevation of hs-TnT levels was associated with increased 5-year mortality.


Assuntos
Convalescença , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Análise de Sobrevida
19.
Circ J ; 79(10): 2138-47, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26248573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Asian patients in RE-LY, dabigatran etexilate (DE) was as effective as warfarin, with a significantly lower bleeding risk. We evaluated the relationship between baseline renal function or CHADS2 score and efficacy or safety outcomes in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Asian patients (n=2,782) were categorized according to baseline renal function or CHADS2 score, and efficacy and safety outcomes were analyzed for DE (110 mg and 150 mg b.i.d.) vs. warfarin. There was an increase in the rates of stroke/systemic embolism and major bleeding with worsening renal function and CHADS2 score. For stroke/systemic embolism (primary efficacy endpoint), there was no treatment interaction for dabigatran at either 110 or 150 mg b.i.d. compared with warfarin related to patients' baseline renal function (Pinteraction=0.56 for DE 110 mg and 0.62 for DE 150 mg vs. warfarin) or CHADS2 score (Pinteraction=0.68 for DE 110 mg and 0.31 for DE 150 mg vs. warfarin). For major bleeding, there was no treatment interaction by creatinine clearance category observed for either dose (Pinteraction=0.60 and 0.62 for DE 110 mg and DE 150 mg, respectively). Baseline CHADS2 score had no significant effect on bleeding event rates with DE vs. warfarin. CONCLUSIONS: Bleeding and stroke rates in Asian patients varied according to renal function and CHADS2 score, but the relative benefits of DE over warfarin were preserved when analyzed by subcategories.


Assuntos
Creatinina/urina , Dabigatrana , Hemorragia , Rim , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Varfarina , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Embolia/induzido quimicamente , Embolia/epidemiologia , Embolia/fisiopatologia , Embolia/urina , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/fisiopatologia , Hemorragia/urina , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/urina , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
20.
Circ J ; 79(5): 1058-67, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25739856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The geographic distribution of cardiovascular (CV) health-care services has not been assessed systematically. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data of the Japanese Circulation Society (JCS) annual survey were provided to the JCS working group with the permission of the JCS Scientific Committee. The status of CV practice in 2010 was then assessed in 47 prefectures retrospectively, along with national census and gross domestic product (GDP) data. The surveyed indices included resources (hospitals, beds and cardiologists), burden (number of inpatients), and outcome (CV mortality and autopsy) in each prefecture, which correlated well with respective populations or GDP. Inequality of geographic distribution was evident for pediatrics among the 47 prefectures, according to Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient or the maximum/minimum ratio for each index. According to the Gini coefficients, only the number of inpatients (medical or acute myocardial infarction) and beds for the total number of general hospitals or the hospitals surveyed in the present JCS study were lower than expected with regard to GDP. CONCLUSIONS: Geographic disparity of CV resources or burden was larger in pediatrics than in CV medicine or surgery. Improvement of equality in CV practice with regard to appropriateness and quality are the coming challenges for the JCS.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Gerais/provisão & distribução , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA