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Int J Obes (Lond) ; 42(5): 953-963, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777228


BACKGROUND: Obesity causes secondary hypogonadism (HG) in men. Standard testosterone (T) replacement therapy improves metabolic parameters but leads to infertility. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clomiphene citrate (CC) treatment of adult men with male obesity-associated secondary hypogonadism (MOSH). DESIGN: Single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-eight men aged 36.5 ± 7.8 years with a body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2, total testosterone (TT) ≤ 300 ng/dL, and symptoms in the ADAM questionnaire. INTERVENTION: Random allocation to receive 50 mg CC or placebo (PLB) for 12 weeks. OUTCOMES: (1) Clinical features: ADAM and sexual behavior questionnaires; (2) hormonal profile: serum TT, free T, estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG); (3) body composition: BMI, waist circumference, and bioelectric impedance analysis; (4) metabolic profile: blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, HOMA-IR, and lipid profile; (5) endothelial function: flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery, quantitative assessment of endothelial progenitor cells and serum sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and selectin-sE levels; (6) safety aspects: hematocrit, serum prostate-specific antigen, International Prostate Symptom Score, and self-reported adverse effects. RESULTS: There was an improvement in one sexual complaint (weaker erections; P < 0.001); increases (P < 0.001) in TT, free T, E2, LH, FSH, and SHBG; and improvements in lean mass (P < 0.001), fat-free mass (P = 0.004), and muscle mass (P < 0.001) in the CC group. CC reduced HDL (P < 0.001). No statistically significant differences were seen in endothelial function. CONCLUSIONS: CC appeared to effectively improve the hormonal profile and body composition. CC may be an alternative treatment for MOSH in adult men.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 101(3): 1104-12, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26713821


CONTEXT: Obesity in midlife is a risk factor for dementia, but it is unknown if caloric restriction-induced weight loss could prevent cognitive decline and therefore dementia in elderly patients with cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cognitive effect of intentional weight loss in obese elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), considering the influence of age, apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, physical activity, biochemical markers, and diet. DESIGN: Single-center, prospective controlled trial. SETTING: Academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty obese patients with MCI, aged 60 or older (68.1 ± 4.9 y, body mass index [BMI] 35.5 ± 4.4 kg/m(2), 83.7% women, 26.3% APOE allele ϵ4 carriers). INTERVENTION: Random allocation to conventional medical care alone (n = 40) or together with nutritional counselling (n = 40) in group meetings aiming to promote weight loss through caloric restriction for 12 months. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: clinical data, body composition, neuropsychological tests (main outcome), serum biomarkers, APOE genotype, physical performance, dietary recalls. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients completed the follow-up. BMI, on average, decreased 1.7 ± 1.8 kg/m(2) (P = .021), and most of the cognitive tests improved, without difference between the groups. In analysis with linear generalized models, the BMI decrease was associated with improvements in verbal memory, verbal fluency, executive function, and global cognition, after adjustment for education, gender, physical activity, and baseline tests. This association was strongest in younger seniors (for memory and fluency) and in APOE allele ϵ4 carriers (for executive function). Changes in homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance, C-reactive protein, leptin and intake of energy, carbohydrates, and fats were associated with improvement in cognitive tests. CONCLUSIONS: Intentional weight loss through diet was associated with cognitive improvement in patients with MCI.

Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Aconselhamento , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Obesidade/complicações , Programas de Redução de Peso
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 99(11): E2347-52, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25157409


CONTEXT: The mechanisms by which obesity alters the cerebral function and the effect of weight loss on the brain have not been completely clarified. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the effect of bariatric surgery on the cognitive function and cerebral metabolism. DESIGN: Seventeen obese women were studied prior to and 24 weeks after bariatric surgery using neuropsychological tests and positron emission tomography. SETTING: The study was conducted in a reference center for the treatment of obesity of a Brazilian public university. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-three women paired by age and level of education made up two groups: 17 severely obese patients and 16 lean patients. They did not have diabetes mellitus or a family history of dementia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of performance in neuropsychological tests and cerebral metabolism of the obese women before and after bariatric surgery was measured. The results found at the two moments were compared with those of the women of normal weight. RESULTS: Women with a mean age of 40.5 years and mean body mass index of 50.1 kg/m(2) when compared with women with mean body mass index of 22.3 kg/m(2) showed increased cerebral metabolism, especially in the posterior cingulate gyrus (P < .004). No difference was found between the groups for the neuropsychological tests. After 24 weeks the cerebral metabolism of the obese women was lower, similar to the lean women, and there was an improvement of executive function, accompanying changes of metabolic and inflammatory parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Obese women may have increased cerebral metabolism when compared with women of normal weight, and this appears to reverse after weight loss induced by bariatric surgery, accompanied by improved executive function.

Cirurgia Bariátrica/psicologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Função Executiva , Memória , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Adulto , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Obesidade Mórbida/metabolismo , Obesidade Mórbida/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso
São Paulo; s.n; 2014. [138] p. ilus, tab, graf.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-870807


Obesidade na idade adulta é um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de demência. O aumento da prevalência de obesidade, assim como o aumento da expectativa de vida na população tornam mais importante avaliar estratégias de prevenção e tratamento que possam diminuir o risco de declínio cognitivo. Neste estudo, foi avaliado se, em idosos obesos com Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve, a perda de peso induzida por dieta poderia melhorar aspectos da cognição, e se o genótipo para apoliproteína E, perfil metabólico e marcadores inflamatórios também teriam influência. Foi realizado um ensaio clínico prospectivo, randomizado de 1:1, de 12 meses, no Ambulatório de Endocrinologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP, entre 2011 e 2013, incluindo pacientes com 60 anos ou mais, com índice de massa corporal maior ou igual a 30 kg/m2, com Comprometimento cognitivo leve. Eles foram randomizados em dois grupos, um com assistência médica convencional (grupo convencional), outro adicionalmente com reuniões de orientação alimentar (26 a 28 sessões em 12 meses), com objetivo de obter maior perda de peso (grupo intensivo). Dos 1605 voluntários foram selecionados 80 pacientes, com idade média de 68,1 ±4,9 anos, escolaridade de 8,8 ±4,6 anos, IMC 35,5±4,4kg/m2; 13 (16,3%) eram do sexo masculino, 67 (83,6%) apresentavam síndrome metabólica; 50 (62,5%) eram fisicamente ativos. Os grupos eram semelhantes quanto às características iniciais. Após 12 meses, houve diminuição média de IMC de 1,7±1,8kg/m2 (4,9% do peso), e 85% da perda de peso foi em gordura corporal; sendo a variação semelhante entre os grupos. Para a maioria dos testes cognitivos aplicados houve melhora, sem diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos. Na análise do grupo todo, a perda de peso induzida por dieta foi associada a melhora em avaliação de memória, função executiva, atenção e queixas subjetivas, tendo sido essa associação mais forte abaixo dos 70 anos e em carreadores do alelo 4...

Obesity in adulthood is a risk factor for developing dementia. The populational rise in obesity and life expectancy increase the importance of search for strategies for prevention and treatment to reduce the risk of cognitive decline. In this study we evaluated if in elderly obese with Mild Cognitive Impairment, weight loss induced by diet could improve aspects of cognition, and if the apolipoprotein E genotype, metabolic profile and inflammatory markers also influence these tests. A prospective, randomized clinical trial was conducted at Ambulatório de Endocrinologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP, between 2011 and 2013, including patients 60 years or older, with a body mass index greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2, with mild cognitive impairment. They were randomized into two groups and followed by 12 months, one with conventional medical care (conventional group), another with also group meetings with nutricionists (26-28 sessions over 12 months), in order to achieve greater weight loss (intensive group). Of the 1605 volunteers were selected 80 subjects, mean age 68.1 ± 4.9 years, education 8.8 ± 4.6 years, BMI 35.5 ± 4.4kg/m2; 13 were male (16.3%), 67 (83.6%) had metabolic syndrome; 50 were physically active. The groups had similar baseline characteristics. After 12 months there was a decrease in BMI of 1.7 ± 1.8 kg/m2 (4.9% of weight), and 85% weight loss was in fat; similar between groups. There was improvement for most of the cognitive tests, without difference between groups. In the analysis of the whole group, the weight loss induced by diet was associated with improvements in memory, executive function, attention and subjective complaints, though this association was strongest under 70 years of age and in carriers of the ?4 allele of apolipoprotein E. Changes in insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, C-reactive protein and leptin were associated with improvement in some cognitive tests; increased risk of worsening was...

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Dieta , Memória , Síndrome Metabólica , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Restrição Calórica , Perda de Peso
Drugs Aging ; 27(6): 497-506, 2010 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20524709


Obesity is a serious chronic disease and the prevalence of this condition is increasing among the elderly. Although the benefits of weight loss to improve control of associated diseases are well known in young adults, they are not in older patients. The use of anti-obesity drugs to promote weight loss is widespread in Brazil and other countries, and obesity specialists frequently prescribe medicines in doses and for durations previously unreported in the literature. Sibutramine, orlistat and amfepramone (diethylpropion) have been evaluated in clinical trials of more than 2 years' duration in adults, demonstrating safety and efficacy, but long-term studies in obesity treatment are absent for other drugs. The efficacy and safety of obesity pharmacotherapy among the elderly is unknown. To describe the experience of obesity pharmacotherapy in the elderly in a specialized obesity care setting in Brazil, with a focus on efficacy and safety. A retrospective evaluation was conducted on medical charts from an outpatient clinic of a specialized tertiary centre for the treatment of obesity. We included patients who had had at least one consultation between January and December 2007, were aged > or =60 years at the beginning of the treatment, had had at least 6 months of follow-up and had received a prescription of at least one potential weight-loss drug. Diagnoses reported on medical records were documented. Age, weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were recorded at admission, after 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, and at the last available visit. The medicines prescribed, together with the dose, duration of use, adverse effects and reasons for discontinuation, were documented. The group consisted of 44 women (86%) and 7 men (14%), with a mean +/- SD age of 65.2 +/- 4.5 years, weight of 95.3 +/- 12.5 kg and BMI of 38.5 +/- 4.3 kg/m2. The mean +/- SD time of follow-up was 39.3 +/- 26.4 months, and the mean weight loss was 6.65 kg (p < 0.01). After the first 6 months, the mean +/- SD weight loss was 5.7 +/- 3.8 kg (p < 0.0001). A smaller weight loss was seen between the 6th and 12th months, with no statistically significant change in weight thereafter. A weight loss of > or =5% was achieved by 64.71%, 63.64%, 62.16% and 69.70% in the 6th, 12th, 18th and 24th months, respectively, and a weight loss of > or =10% was achieved by 17.65%, 34.09%, 32.43% and 39.39% in the 6th, 12th, 18th and 24th months, respectively. The medicines prescribed were sibutramine, orlistat, fluoxetine, sertraline, topiramate, fenproporex, mazindol and amfepramone, alone or in combinations, concomitantly or sequentially. The reasons for discontinuation were lack of response (n = 13), loss of response (development of tolerance) [n = 11], lack of adherence (n = 14) and adverse effects (n = 14). One episode of atrial flutter occurred in a patient taking fenproporex. The weight-loss medications were generally well tolerated, and only transient adverse events were reported. Long-term pharmacotherapy for obesity was effective and well tolerated by this group of elderly patients.

Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/efeitos adversos , Brasil , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos