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1.
J Nat Med ; 75(3): 633-642, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822287

RESUMO

Two new bisindole alkaloids, bisnaecarpamines A (1) and B (2), possessing a vobasine-sarpagine type skeleton were isolated from the bark of Tabernaemontana macrocarpa Jack. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods and chemical correlation. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 2 were established using TDDFT-ECD calculation of the selected isomers. Bisnaecarpamine A exhibited potent antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain with IC50 value of 28.8 µM.

2.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 548: 167-173, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647792

RESUMO

Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe form of malaria. Acquired immunity against P. falciparum provides insufficient protection even after repeated infections. Therefore, P. falciparum parasites might exploit inhibitory receptors for immune evasion. P. falciparum RIFINs are products of a multigene family consisting of 150-200 genes. Previously, we demonstrated that some RIFINs downregulate the immune response through the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor (LILR) family inhibitory receptor, LILRB1, and leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 1, LAIR1. In this study, we further analyzed the expression of inhibitory receptor ligands on P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes and found that P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes expressed ligands for another LILR family inhibitory receptor, LILRB2, that recognizes HLA class I molecules as a host ligand. Furthermore, we identified that a specific RIFIN was a ligand for LILRB2 by using a newly developed RIFIN expression library. In addition, the domain 3 of LILRB2 was involved in RIFIN binding, whereas the domains 1 and 2 of LILRB2 were involved in the binding to HLA class I molecules. These results suggest that inhibitory receptor LILRB2 is also targeted by RIFIN for immune evasion of P. falciparum similar to LILRB1 and LAIR1.

3.
J Nat Med ; 75(2): 408-414, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462757

RESUMO

Two new bisindole alkaloids, 12'-O-demethyl-vobtusine-5-lactam and isovobtusine-N-oxide (1 and 2), were isolated from the leaves of Voacanga grandifolia, together with two known bisindole alkaloids. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR data. 1 and 2 showed potent antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and very low cytotoxic activity against a human cell line, HepG2 cells.


Assuntos
Alcaloides Indólicos/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Voacanga/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular
4.
Parasitol Int ; 81: 102277, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370608

RESUMO

In Uganda, artemether-lumefantrine was introduced as an artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for malaria in 2006. We have previously reported a moderate decrease in ex vivo efficacy of lumefantrine in Northern Uganda, where we also detected ex vivo artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Therefore, it is necessary to search for candidate partner alternatives for ACT. Here, we investigated ex vivo susceptibility to four ACT partner drugs as well as quinine and chloroquine, in 321 cases between 2013 and 2018. Drug-resistant mutations in pfcrt and pfmdr1 were also determined. Ex vivo susceptibility to amodiaquine, quinine, and chloroquine was well preserved, whereas resistance to mefloquine was found in 45.8%. There were few cases of multi-drug resistance. Reduced sensitivity to mefloquine and lumefantrine was significantly associated with the pfcrt K76 wild-type allele, in contrast to the association between chloroquine resistance and the K76T allele. Pfmdr1 duplication was not detected in any of the cases. Amodiaquine, a widely used partner drug for ACT in African countries, may be the first promising alternative in case lumefantrine resistance emerges. Therapeutic use of mefloquine may not be recommended in this area. This study also emphasizes the need for sustained monitoring of antimalarial susceptibility in Northern Uganda to develop proper treatment strategies.

5.
Parasitol Int ; 80: 102206, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049417

RESUMO

The automated hematology analyzers XN-30 (for research) and XN-31 prototype (for diagnosis support) can easily and rapidly detect Plasmodium-infected red blood cells (iRBCs) and distinguish the developmental stages of the parasite in approximately 1 min. Two dedicated reagents, Lysercell M and Fluorocell M, are available with the analyzers. Lysercell M plays an indispensable role in enhancing the fluorescence intensity of the nucleic acid staining dye in Fluorocell M and altering cell morphology. These effects of Lysercell M have been empirically determined but insufficiently analyzed. In this study, the properties of Lysercell M were analyzed using two flow cytometers and a fluorescence microscope. First, the fluorescence intensity emitted by iRBCs treated with Lysercell M or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was evaluated. Second, the size of RBCs treated with Lysercell M or PBS was measured. Finally, the morphology of individual parasites was observed after reconstruction of an M scattergram, a cytogram of the XN-31 prototype system, using an imaging flow cytometer. These analyses showed that treatment of iRBCs with Lysercell M increased the fluorescence intensity of stained parasite nucleic acids by approximately 10-fold and reduced the size of iRBCs in a stage-specific manner, facilitating the identification and quantification of ring form, trophozoite, and schizont stage iRBCs. These properties suggest that Lysercell M is useful for rapidly detecting iRBCs and accurately distinguishing the parasite developmental stages, thereby contributing to the usability of the XN-30 and XN-31 prototype analyzers.

6.
Parasitol Int ; 80: 102240, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147497

RESUMO

During intraerythrocytic development Plasmodium falciparum deploys numerous proteins to support erythrocyte invasion, intracellular growth and development, as well as host immune evasion. Since these proteins are key for parasite intraerythrocytic survival and propagation, they represent attractive targets for antimalarial vaccines. In this study we sought to characterize a member of the PHISTc family of proteins, PF3D7_0801000, as a potential vaccine target. Using the wheat germ cell-free system we expressed the N-terminal region of PF3D7_0801000 (G93-L494, PF3D7_0801000N) and generated specific immune sera. We observed that PF3D7_0801000 localizes in merozoites, and antibodies against PF3D7_0801000N modestly inhibit P. falciparum parasite growth in in vitro culture. Sliding window analysis of the coding sequence revealed that pf3d7_0801000n is relatively conserved among African parasite isolates. Antibody profiles in a malaria-exposed Ugandan population revealed that PF3D7_0801000N is strongly immunoreactive with antibody acquisition increasing with age. Taken together, these findings suggest the need for further evaluation of PF3D7_0801000 for its role in merozoite invasion and utility as an asexual blood-stage vaccine candidate antigen.

7.
Vaccine ; 38(46): 7246-7257, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BK-SE36 is blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate that is undergoing clinical trials. Here, the safety and immunogenicity of BK-SE36 with a novel adjuvant, CpG-ODN(K3) (thus, BK-SE36/CpG) was assessed in a phase 1a trial in Japan. METHODS: An investigator-initiated, randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study was conducted at Osaka University Hospital with 26 healthy malaria naïve Japanese male adults. The trial was conducted in two stages: Stage/Group 1, half-dose (n = 7 for BK-SE36/CpG and n = 3 for control) and Stage/Group 2, full-dose (n = 11 for BK-SE36/CpG and n = 5 for control). There were two intramuscular vaccinations 21 days apart for both half-dose (0.5 ml: 50 µg SE36 + 500 µg aluminum + 500 µg K3) and full-dose (1.0 ml: 100 µg SE36 + 1000 µg aluminum + 1000 µg K3). A one-year follow-up was done to monitor changes in autoimmune markers and vaccine-induced antibody response. RESULTS: BK-SE36/CpG was well tolerated. Vaccination site reactions were similar to those observed with BK-SE36. During the trial and follow-up period, no subject had clinical evidence of autoimmune disease. The full-dose group had significantly higher titres than the half-dose group (Student's t-test, p = 0.002) at 21 days post-second vaccination. Antibody titres remained above baseline values during 12 months of follow-up. The vaccine induced antibody was mostly composed of IgG1 and IgM, and recognised epitopes close to the polyserine region located in the middle of SE36. CONCLUSIONS: BK-SE36/CpG has an acceptable safety profile. Use of CpG-ODN(K3) greatly enhanced immunogenicity in malaria naïve Japanese adults when compared to BK-SE36 alone. The utility of BK-SE36/CpG is currently under evaluation in a malaria endemic setting in West Africa. TRIAL REGISTRATION: JMACCT Clinical Trial Registry JMA-IIA00109.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15605, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973246

RESUMO

Iron deficiency is the most common and widespread nutritional disorder worldwide. The automated haematology analyser XN-30 (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan) was developed to detect malaria-infected red blood cells (RBCs) in human blood samples using flow cytometry. The optical system of the analyser detects autofluorescence (AF)-emitting RBCs containing iron-deficient haem groups and would aid in the diagnosis of anaemia resulting from iron deficiency. Here, an RBC-optical (RBO) channel was devised and implemented on the analyser. In vitro analyses showed that the analyser detected AF-emitting RBCs treated with 5-aminolevulinic acid. Furthermore, the analyser detected AF-emitting RBCs in mice fed a low iron diet and infected with a rodent malaria parasite; it could also be effectively used in humans. This study demonstrates that the analyser can quantitatively and reproducibly detect AF-emitting RBCs and measure other haematological parameters, suggesting its usefulness for the initial evaluation of latent iron deficiency anaemia in conjunction with the diagnosis of malaria.

9.
Radiol Case Rep ; 15(12): 2560-2564, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989407

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a major threat to public health since the outbreak in Wuhan in 2019. Chest computed tomography is recommended for COVID-19 cases for evaluation and follow up of pneumonia and related complication. We report the case of a 66-year-old man with underlying hypertension and a history of smoking 76 packs a year; he was frequently monitored by computed tomography for pulmonary changes during the period from early symptom onset to death. Furthermore, he developed a pneumothorax during the course. The occurrence of pneumothorax in COVID-19 patients is not common, and there have been only a few previous reports. This is a valuable case of pneumothorax in a patient with COVID-19 treated with a ventilator and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. This case and previous reports suggest that pneumothorax occurs in COVID-19 with a relatively late onset (3-8 weeks). Long-term pneumonia morbidity, steroid therapy, positive pressure ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can cause pneumothorax, leading to capillary and alveolar damage.

10.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(9)2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825060

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to use the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS) to evaluate the chest computed tomography (CT) images of patients suspected of having COVID-19, and to investigate its diagnostic performance and interobserver agreement. The Dutch Radiological Society developed CO-RADS as a diagnostic indicator for assessing suspicion of lung involvement of COVID-19 on a scale of 1 (very low) to 5 (very high). We investigated retrospectively 154 adult patients with clinically suspected COVID-19, between April and June 2020, who underwent chest CT and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The patients' average age was 61.3 years (range, 21-93), 101 were male, and 76 were RT-PCR positive. Using CO-RADS, four radiologists evaluated the chest CT images. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated. Interobserver agreement was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) by comparing the individual reader's score to the median of the remaining three radiologists. The average sensitivity was 87.8% (range, 80.2-93.4%), specificity was 66.4% (range, 51.3-84.5%), and AUC was 0.859 (range, 0.847-0.881); there was no significant difference between the readers (p > 0.200). In 325 (52.8%) of 616 observations, there was absolute agreement among observers. The average ICC of readers was 0.840 (range, 0.800-0.874; p < 0.001). CO-RADS is a categorical taxonomic evaluation scheme for COVID-19 pneumonia, using chest CT images, that provides outstanding performance and from substantial to almost perfect interobserver agreement for predicting COVID-19.

11.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(8): 784-790, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741921

RESUMO

Malaria disease remains a serious worldwide health problem. In South-East Asia, one of the malaria infection "hot-spots," medicinal plants such as Piper betle have traditionally been used for the treatment of malaria, and allylpyrocatechol (1), a constituent of P. betle, has been shown to exhibit anti-malarial activities. In this study, we verified that 1 showed in vivo anti-malarial activity through not only intraperitoneal (i.p.) but also peroral (p.o.) administration. Additionally, some analogs of 1 were synthesized and the structure-activity relationship was analyzed to disclose the crucial sub-structures for the potent activity.

12.
Front Immunol ; 11: 893, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32477363

RESUMO

Clinical immunity to malaria develops after repeated exposure to Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Broadly reactive antibodies against parasite antigens expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes (variable surface antigens; VSAs) are candidates for anti-malaria therapeutics and vaccines. Among the VSAs, several RIFIN, STEVOR, and SURFIN family members have been demonstrated to be targets of naturally acquired immunity against malaria. For example, RIFIN family members are important ligands for opsonization of P. falciparum infected erythrocytes with specific immunoglobulins (IgG) acquiring broad protective reactivity. However, the global repertoire of human anti-VSAs IgG, its variation in children, and the key protective targets remain poorly understood. Here, we report wheat germ cell-free system-based production and serological profiling of a comprehensive library of A-RIFINs, B-RIFINs, STEVORs, and SURFINs derived from the P. falciparum 3D7 parasite strain. We observed that >98% of assayed proteins (n = 265) were immunogenic in malaria-exposed individuals in Uganda. The overall breadth of immune responses was significantly correlated with age but not with clinical malaria outcome among the study volunteers. However, children with high levels of antibodies to four RIFINs (PF3D7_0201000, PF3D7_1254500, PF3D7_1040600, PF3D7_1041100), STEVOR (PF3D7_0732000), and SURFIN 1.2 (PF3D7_0113600) had prospectively reduced the risk of developing febrile malaria, suggesting that the 5 antigens are important targets of protective immunity. Further studies on the significance of repeated exposure to malaria infection and maintenance of such high-level antibodies would contribute to a better understanding of susceptibility and naturally acquired immunity to malaria.

13.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399189

RESUMO

Much of the gain in malaria control, in terms of regional achievements in restricting geographical spread and reducing malaria cases and deaths, can be attributed to large-scale deployment of antimalarial drugs, insecticide-treated bed nets, and early diagnostics. However, despite impressive progress, control efforts have stalled because of logistics, unsustainable delivery, or short-term effectiveness of existing interventions or a combination of these reasons. A highly efficacious malaria vaccine as an additional tool would go a long way, but success in the development of this important intervention remains elusive. Moreover, most of the vaccine candidate antigens that were investigated in early-stage clinical trials, selected partly because of their immunogenicity and abundance during natural malaria infection, were polymorphic or structurally complex or both. Likewise, we have a limited understanding of immune mechanisms that confer protection. We reflect on some considerable technological and scientific progress that has been achieved and the lessons learned.


Assuntos
Vacinas Antimaláricas , Malária/prevenção & controle , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Humanos , Malária/imunologia
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 170, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252804

RESUMO

Serine repeat antigen (SERA) is conserved among species of the genus Plasmodium. Sera genes form a multigene family and are generally tandemly clustered on a single chromosome. Although all Plasmodium species encode multiple sera genes, the number varies between species. Among species, the members share similar sequences and gene organization. SERA possess a central papain-like cysteine protease domain, however, in some members, the active site cysteine residue is substituted with a serine. Recent studies implicate this gene family in a number of aspects in parasite biology and induction of protective immune response. This review summarizes the current understanding on this important gene family in several Plasmodium species. The Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-sera family, for example, consists of nine gene members. Unlike other multigene families in Plasmodium species, Pf-sera genes do not exhibit antigenic variation. Pf-sera5 nucleotide diversity is also low. Moreover, although Pf-sera5 is highly transcribed during the blood stage of malaria infection, and a large amount is released into the host blood following schizont rupture, in malaria endemic countries the sero-positive rates for Pf-SERA5 are low, likely due to Pf-SERA5 binding of host proteins to avoid immune recognition. As an antigen, the N-terminal 47 kDa domain of Pf-SERA5 is a promising vaccine candidate currently undergoing clinical trials. Pf-SERA5 and Pf-SERA6, as well as P. berghei (Pb)-SERA3, and Pb-SERA5, have been investigated for their roles in parasite egress. Two P. yoelii SERA, which have a serine residue at the protease active center, are implicated in parasite virulence. Overall, these studies provide insight that during the evolution of the Plasmodium parasite, the sera gene family members have increased by gene duplication, and acquired various functions that enable the parasite to survive and successfully maintain infection in the host.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Família Multigênica , Plasmodium/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Plasmodium/classificação
15.
Malar J ; 19(1): 155, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan that develops in red blood cells (RBCs) and requires various host factors. For its development in RBCs, nutrients not only from the RBC cytosol but also from the extracellular milieu must be acquired. Although the utilization of host nutrients by P. falciparum has been extensively analysed, only a few studies have reported its utilization of host serum proteins. Hence, the aim of the current study was to comprehensively identify host serum proteins taken up by P. falciparum parasites and to elucidate their role in pathogenesis. METHODS: Plasmodium falciparum was cultured with human serum in vitro. Uptake of serum proteins by parasites was comprehensively determined via shotgun liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry and western blotting. The calcium ion concentration in serum was also evaluated, and coagulation activity of the parasite lysate was assessed. RESULTS: Three proteins, vitamin K-dependent protein S, prothrombin, and vitronectin, were selectively internalized under sufficient Ca2+ levels in the culture medium. The uptake of these proteins was initiated before DNA replication, and increased during the trophozoite and schizont stages, irrespective of the assembly/disassembly of actin filaments. Coagulation assay revealed that prothrombin was activated and thereby induced blood coagulation. CONCLUSIONS: Serum proteins were taken up by parasites under culture conditions with sufficient Ca2+ levels. This uptake phenomenon was associated with their pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Western Blotting , Cromatografia Líquida , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade , Esquizontes/fisiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Trofozoítos/fisiologia
16.
Malar J ; 19(1): 76, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Usage of chloroquine was discontinued from the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infection in almost all endemic regions because of global spread of resistant parasites. Since the first report in Malawi, numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the discontinuance led to re-emergence of chloroquine-susceptible P. falciparum, suggesting a possible role in future malaria control. However, most studies were cross-sectional, with few studies looking at the persistence of chloroquine recovery in long term. This study fills the gap by providing, for a period of at least 6 years, proof of persistent re-emergence/stable recovery of susceptible parasite populations using both molecular and phenotypic methods. METHODS: Ex vivo drug-susceptibility assays to chloroquine (n = 319) and lumefantrine (n = 335) were performed from 2013 to 2018 in Gulu, Northern Uganda, where chloroquine had been removed from the official malaria treatment regimen since 2006. Genotyping of pfcrt and pfmdr1 was also performed. RESULTS: Chloroquine resistance (≥ 100 nM) was observed in only 3 (1.3%) samples. Average IC50 values for chloroquine were persistently low throughout the study period (17.4-24.9 nM). Parasites harbouring pfcrt K76 alleles showed significantly lower IC50s to chloroquine than the parasites harbouring K76T alleles (21.4 nM vs. 43.1 nM, p-value = 3.9 × 10-8). Prevalence of K76 alleles gradually increased from 71% in 2013 to 100% in 2018. CONCLUSION: This study found evidence of stable persistence of chloroquine susceptibility with the fixation of pfcrt K76 in Northern Uganda after discontinuation of chloroquine in the region. Accumulation of similar evidence in other endemic areas in Uganda could open channels for possible future re-use of chloroquine as an option for malaria treatment or prevention.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Uganda
17.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2669, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824483

RESUMO

Clinical manifestation of malaria is mainly due to intra-erythrocytic development of Plasmodium parasites. Plasmodium falciparum merozoites, the invasive form of the blood-stage parasite, invade human erythrocytes in a complex but rapid process. This multi-step progression involves interactions between parasite and human host proteins. Here we show that antibodies against a vaccine antigen, PfGAMA, co-immunoprecipitate with PfMSP10. This interaction was validated as direct by surface plasmon resonance analysis. We then demonstrate that antibodies against PfMSP10 have growth inhibitory activity against cultured parasites, with the region PfMSP10 R1 that is critical for its interaction with PfGAMA being the key target. We also observe that the PfMSP10 R1 region is highly conserved among African field isolates. Lastly, we show that high levels of antibodies against PfMSP10 R1 associate with reduced risk to clinical malaria in children resident in a malaria endemic region in northern Uganda. Put together, these findings provide for the first time the functional context of the important role of PfGAMA/PfMSP10 interaction in erythrocyte invasion and unveil a novel asexual blood-stage malaria vaccine target for attenuating P. falciparum merozoite invasion.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Malária Falciparum/imunologia , Humanos , Vacinas Antimaláricas/imunologia , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12517, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467354

RESUMO

The faecal microbiota plays a critical role in host health, with alterations in the human faecal microbial composition associated with various conditions, particularly diarrhoeal diseases. However, little is known about microbial changes during cryptosporidiosis, one of the most important diarrhoeal diseases caused by protozoa in cattle. In this study, alterations in the faecal microbiota of neonatal calves as a result of Cryptosporidium parvum infection were investigated on a C. parvum-positive farm. Comparisons were made among groups of C. parvum-infected, rotavirus-infected, and the pathogen-negative calves. A specific increase in the abundance of Fusobacterium was observed in the faecal microbiota of C. parvum-infected animals. Diarrhoea severity increased in accordance with the abundance of C. parvum and Fusobacterium. Moreover, the specific increase of Fusobacterium appeared to be a universal feature of C. parvum infection, since neonatal calves from geographically separated areas showed the same result. These observations indicated that the growth of Fusobacterium may be an important aggravating factor of cryptosporidiosis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/fisiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fusobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Criptosporidiose/microbiologia , Feminino , Fusobacterium/genética , Fusobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Masculino
19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1043-1053, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287781

RESUMO

The prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) pulmonary diseases has been increasing worldwide. NTM consist of approximately 200 species and distinguishing between them at the subspecies level is critical to treatment. In this study, we sequenced 63 NTM genomes, 27 of which were newly determined, by hybrid assembly using sequencers from Illumina and Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT). This analysis expanded the available genomic data to 175 NTM species and redefined their subgenus classification. We also developed a novel multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) database based on 184 genes from 7547 assemblies and an identification software, mlstverse, which can also be used for detecting other bacteria given a suitable MLST database. This method showed the highest sensitivity and specificity amongst conventional methods and demonstrated the capacity for rapid detection of NTM, 10 min of sequencing of the ONT MinION being sufficient. Application of this methodology could improve disease epidemiology and increase the cure rates of NTM diseases.


Assuntos
Genoma Bacteriano , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/microbiologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Genômica , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/classificação , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/genética , Filogenia
20.
Malar J ; 18(1): 237, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Basic blue 3 is a promising anti-malarial lead compound based on the π-delocalized lipophilic cation hypothesis. Its derivatives with nitrogen atoms bonded to carbon atoms at the 3- and 7-positions on the phenoxazine ring were previously shown to exert potent antiprotozoal activity against Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, and Leishmania donovani parasites in vitro. However, compounds with nitrogen modification at the 10-position on the phenoxazine ring were not evaluated. METHODS: Six acylphenoxazine derivatives (ITT-001 to 006) with nitrogen modification at the 10-position on the phenoxazine ring, which were synthesized from basic blue 3, were characterized and evaluated for anti-malarial activity in vitro with an automated haematology analyzer (XN-30) and light microscopy. Intensity of self-fluorescence was measured using a fluorometer. Localization of basic blue 3 was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using human cell lines, HEK293T and HepG2 cells. Finally, anti-malarial activity was evaluated in a rodent malaria model. RESULTS: All the six derivatives showed anti-malarial efficacy even against chloroquine-, pyrimethamine-, and artemisinin-resistant field isolates similar to the sensitive strains and isolates in vitro. The efficacy of basic blue 3 was the strongest, followed by that of ITT-001 to 004 and 006, while that of ITT-005 was the weakest. Basic blue 3 showed strong self-fluorescence, whereas ITT derivatives had five- to tenfold lower intensity than that of basic blue 3, which was shown by fluorescence microscopy to be selectively accumulated in the plasmodial cytoplasm. In contrast, ITT-003, 004, and 006 exhibited the lowest cytotoxicity in HEK293T and HepG2 cells in vitro and the highest selectivity between anti-malarial activity and cytotoxicity. The in vivo anti-malarial assay indicated that oral administration of ITT-004 was the most effective against the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei NK65 strain. CONCLUSIONS: The six ITT derivatives were effective against chloroquine- and pyrimethamine-resistant strains and artemisinin-resistant field isolates as well as the sensitive ones. Among them, ITT-004, which had high anti-malarial activity and low cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, is a promising anti-malarial lead compound.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Oxazinas/farmacologia , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Antimaláricos/toxicidade , Células HEK293 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Oxazinas/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade
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