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1.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668852

RESUMO

Introduction . Capnocytophaga species are common inhabitants of the oral cavity and can be responsible for systemic diseases in immunocompromised patients with granulocytopenia. Furthermore, it has been reported that some clinical isolates of Capnocytophaga species produce extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs).Gap statement. Information is lacking about the types of ß-lactamase genes possessed by Capnocytophaga spp. and the antimicrobial susceptibility of Capnocytophaga spp. possessing each ß-lactamase gene.Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of ß-lactamase genes in clinical strains of ß-lactamase-producing Capnocytophaga species isolated from clinical samples acquired at Shinshu University Hospital and examine the antimicrobial susceptibility of those strains.Methodology. The ß-lactamase-producing Capnocytophaga species (n=49) were obtained from clinical specimens. PCR assays were used to detect bla CfxA, bla CSP, bla TEM, bla CepA/CblA and transposon Tn4555 genes. Southern hybridization assays were used to detect bla CfxA and bla CSP. The minimum inhibitory concentration of some ß-lactams was determined using the E-test method.Results. PCR analysis indicated that the bla CfxA gene was present in 15 (30.6 %) and the bla CSP gene in 35 (69.3 %) of the 49 Capnocytophaga strains investigated, . Both bla CfxA and bla CSP genes were detected in a Capnocytophaga gingivalis strain. The PCR results were confirmed by Southern hybridization assays. Transposon Tn4555 was only detected in Capnocytophaga spp. harbouring the bla CfxA gene. All the ß-lactamase-producing Capnocytophaga isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime-clavulanic acid, cefoxitin and imipenem. In contrast, most of the isolates were resistant to amoxicillin.Conclusions. The clinical isolates of Capnocytophaga spp. showed a high prevalence of the bla CSP gene in Japan. The presence of the bla CSP gene was distributed in Capnocytophaga sputigena as well as other Capnocytophaga spp. These results seem to suggest the dissemination of bla CfxA and bla CSP ß-lactamase genes among Capnocytophaga species.


Assuntos
Capnocytophaga/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Boca/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , Japão , Prevalência
2.
Anal Chem ; 93(36): 12305-12311, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464086

RESUMO

A fast response potentiometric flow-through pH sensor was applied for organic acid determination. The analyte response with the pH sensor was obtained by eluent pH modification following ion exclusion chromatography with HClO4 as an eluent. The response characteristics depend on the adjusted baseline pH. The baseline pH adjustment was successfully done with an ammonia permeation device without solution mixing, which may cause analyte dilution, dispersion, and mixing noise. After pH adjustment, the pH response was universal to the equivalent of introduced analyte acids because the pH response was obtained by the titration of the permeant ammonia by the analytes. The average of limit of detections (S/N = 3) was 0.06 mM for seven target organic acids. Furthermore, the pH response follows the theoretical pH calculation with the concentrations of the eluent, pH modifier, and analyte. Thus, the analyte concentration in the sample can be theoretically calculated from the pH response without calibration by the analyte standard. Predicted concentrations of injected standards were within 5% of the actual standard concentration. Additionally, analysis of real samples was performed and compared with the conventional post-column reaction with a bromothymol blue (BTB) method. The results obtained with the present system (absolute quantification with theoretical calculation) and conventional BTB method agreed within 10% of errors.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos , Calibragem , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Padrões de Referência
3.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(11): 3140-3148, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The artificial sweetener acesulfame potassium (ACK) is officially approved as safe for intake and has been used in processed foods. However, ACKs have been reported to induce metabolic syndrome, along with alteration of the gut microbiota in mice. In recent years, studies have suggested that this artificial sweetener promotes myeloperoxidase reactivity in Crohn's disease-like ileitis. We aimed to investigate the effect of ACK on the intestinal mucosa and gut microbiota of normal mice. METHODS: Acesulfame potassium was administered to C57BL/6J mice (8 weeks old) via free drinking. Intestinal damage was evaluated histologically, and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL1-ß, MAdCAM-1, GLP1R, and GLP2R were determined with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the expression of MAdCAM-1 in the small intestine. The composition of gut microbiota was assessed using high-throughput sequencing. We performed intravital microscopic observation to examine if ACK altered lymphocyte migration to the intestinal microvessels. RESULTS: Acesulfame potassium increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, decreased the expression of GLP-1R and GLP-2R, and induced small intestinal injury with an increase in intestinal permeability, and ACK treatment induced microbial changes, but the transfer of feces alone from ACK mice did not reproduce intestinal damage in recipient mice. ACK treatment significantly increased the migration of lymphocytes to intestinal microvessels. CONCLUSION: Acesulfame potassium induces dysbiosis and intestinal injury with enhanced lymphocyte migration to intestinal mucosa. Massive use of non-caloric artificial sweeteners may not be as safe as we think.

4.
Intern Med ; 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393161

RESUMO

Takayasu arteritis (TA) sometimes presents with colitis, which may be diagnosed as inflammatory bowel disease unclassified (IBDU) because of atypical or mixed findings of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease. We herein report an 18-year-old girl presenting with colitis with an occasional high fever eventually diagnosed as TA with IBDU. Colonic inflammation was initially discontinuous and stronger in the proximal colon, atypical of UC. However, over 10-year observation, the distribution of colonic inflammation varied and became UC-like. Variations in TA-related colonic inflammations over time have been unclear. Our long-term observation might help clarify the details of TA-related colonic inflammation.

5.
J Gastroenterol ; 56(9): 829-842, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yeasts are a type of fungi thought to have probiotic functions. In this study, we isolated a novel probiotic yeast (Zygosaccharomyces sapae strain I-6) from Miso (a traditional Japanese fermented food). We examined its effects on phenotypic changes in intestinal dendritic cells (DCs), and evaluated its anti-inflammatory effects in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. METHODS: A single colony was selected from homogenized Miso, based on its ability to produce interleukin (IL)-10 in CD11c+ bone marrow DCs (BMDCs) in vitro. The anti-inflammatory effects of strain I-6 on CD11c+ BMDCs and CD11c+ CD103+ DCs were analyzed in mouse mesenteric lymph nodes in vitro and in a DSS mouse model. RESULTS: The IL-10 concentrations in the co-culture BMDC supernatants treated with I-6 were dramatically higher than in those treated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc). IL-10 production is mediated by both TLR2 and Dectin-1. ß-Glucan extracted from I-6 also induced higher levels of IL-10 production in BMDCs than ß-glucan from Sc. The number of mesenteric lymph node CD11c+ CD103+ DCs was significantly increased by I-6 administration, compared with Sc administration. Strain I-6 showed strong anti-inflammatory effects on DSS-induced colitis compared to Sc. Moreover, the adoptive transfer of I-6-treated BMDCs showed anti-inflammatory effects on DSS-induced colitis in mice without oral administration of I-6 cells. CONCLUSIONS: Strain I-6 induced phenotypic changes in intestinal CD11c+ DCs characterized by high IL-10 production and exerted strong anti-inflammatory effects on DSS-induced colitis. Traditional Japanese fermented foods may be a valuable source of probiotic yeasts for effective IBD therapy and treatment.

6.
Biocontrol Sci ; 26(2): 99-104, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092720

RESUMO

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was approved for medical use in 2011, and is currently used as a rapid, accurate and low-cost technique for bacterial identification. Microbiological testing and internal accuracy control in Japan are mainly implemented in accordance with the standards of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). However, few facilities perform internal accuracy control of bacterial identification by MALDI-TOF MS. Therefore, we examined the procedures for internal accuracy control of bacterial identification using MALDI-TOF MS in daily work at clinical laboratories in the seven hospitals.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Japão , Controle de Qualidade
7.
Helicobacter ; 26(4): e12814, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter (NHPH) is not widely recognized as a cause of acute gastric mucosal lesions (AGML), as only a few cases of AGML caused by NHPH have been reported. We present here one case and examine the species and eradication of NHPH together with the three previously reported cases. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old woman presented with a two-day history of severe epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed mucosal edema, multiple erosions, and ulcerations in the antrum. Biopsy specimens taken from the antrum revealed long spiral-shaped organisms, suggesting NHPH. As both serum anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antibody and H. pylori stool antigen test were negative, this case was diagnosed as AGML caused by NHPH. After the administration of esomeprazole 20 mg for 14 days and the interval of the following 12 days, AGML was deemed to have been cured endoscopically. In addition, microscopic examination and PCR analysis confirmed the success of NHPH eradication. CONCLUSIONS: NHPH should be considered a probable cause of AGML in cases that are not attributed to the other causes already recognized. Taking probability of spontaneous eradication into consideration, it is appropriate to start eradication therapy after confirming the chronicity of NHPH infection.


Assuntos
Gastrite , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter , Doença Aguda , Esomeprazol , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Gastrite/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Helicobacter ; 26(4): e12811, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: There are only a few reports of non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter (NHPH) gastritis in Japanese patients. We aimed to examine its prevalence, clinical features, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) findings based on 50 patients encountered in one facility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects were all patients who had undergone gastric mucosal biopsy endoscopically at Kenwakai Hospital for approximately 10 years. NHPH infection was diagnosed by microscopic findings of Giemsa staining performed on all specimens. PCR analysis of urease genes was performed to detect and identify NHPH, when informed consent was obtained. Helicobacter pylori-diagnostic tests were also performed. NHPH-infected patients were questioned about symptoms and animal contact. RESULTS: NHPH gastritis was found in 50 of 3847 patients (1.30%). The percentage increased to 3.35% (30 of 896 patients) in the latter 2 years and 4 months with increasing recognition of its characteristic endoscopic findings by endoscopists. PCR analysis, performed in 30 patients, detected NHPH in 28 patients: 26 as Helicobacter suis and 2 as Helicobacter heilmanii/Helicobacter ailurogastricus. Helicobacter pylori-diagnostic tests were almost negative. However, anti-H. pylori antibody showed high-negative titer (3.0-9.9 U/ml) in 12. Of 50 patients (consisting of 49 men and 1 woman), almost all were asymptomatic, and 25 were keeping pets. Regarding EGD findings, in all 50 patients, "crack-like mucosa" and/or nodular gastritis was noted in gastric antrum, and regular arrangement of collecting venules (RAC) was noted in gastric corpus. None of the patients infected with NHPH were co-infected with H. pylori. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence was finally estimated to be approximately 3.35%. Helicobacter suis was the most common NHPH species. "Crack-like mucosa" and/or nodular gastritis in gastric antrum, RAC in gastric corpus, and H. pylori-negativity by H. pylori-diagnostic tests especially containing a high-negative titer of anti-H. pylori antibody may indicate NHPH infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Animais , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica , Gastroscopia , Helicobacter , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência
9.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(9): 2523-2530, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The small intestine plays a central role in gut immunity, and enhanced lymphocyte migration is involved in the pathophysiology of various enteropathy. Bile acid (BA) is closely related to lipid metabolism and gut microbiota and essential for gut homeostasis. However, the effects of BA on gut immunity have not been studied in detail, especially on the small intestine and lymphocyte migration. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of BA on small intestinal lymphocyte microcirculation. METHODS: The effect of deoxycholic acid (DCA), taurocholic acid (tCA), or cholic acid (CA) on the indomethacin (IND)-induced small intestinal enteropathy in mice was investigated. Lymphocyte movements were evaluated after exposure to BA using intravital microscopy. The effects of BA on surface expression of adhesion molecules on the vascular endothelium and lymphocytes through BA receptors were examined in vitro. RESULTS: IND-induced small intestinal enteropathy was histologically aggravated by DCA treatment alone. The expression of adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was significantly enhanced by DCA. Exposure to DCA increased lymphocyte adhesion in the microvessels of the ileum, which was partially blocked by anti-α4ß1 integrin antibody in vivo. The expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was significantly enhanced by DCA in vitro, which was partially suppressed by the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) antagonist. The S1PR2 antagonist significantly ameliorated IND-induced and DCA-exaggerated small intestinal injury. CONCLUSION: DCA exacerbated IND-induced small intestinal enteropathy. DCA directly acts on the vascular endothelium and enhances the expression levels of adhesion molecules partially via S1PR2, leading to enhanced small intestinal lymphocyte migration.

10.
Microcirculation ; 28(5): e12694, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742518

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are abundant in the intestinal mucosa, forming boundaries externally. Herein, ILCs were directly obtained from intestinal lymph using a lymph fistula rat model and analyzed under physiological and pathological conditions. METHODS: Thoracic duct (TD) lymphocytes were collected by cannulation with/without preceded mesenteric lymphadenectomy, which were comparable to lymphocytes flowing through mesenteric lymphatic vessels (MLVs) or TD, respectively. The collected ILCs were classified according to gene transcription factors and analyzed by flow cytometry. The effect of IL-25 or indomethacin was studied. RESULTS: The proportion of total ILCs in the MLVs (MLV-ILCs) was significantly higher than that in TD (TD-ILCs, 0.01% vs. 0.003%, respectively). Physiologically, there were several significant differences in the MLV-ILCs compared with TD-ILCs, including the proportion of ILC2 (42.3% vs. 70.9%) and ILC3 (33.3% vs. 13.8%), and the proportion of α4-integrin-positive cells (36.8% vs. 0.3%). IL-25 significantly increased the proportion of MLV-ILC2 after 3 days. Indomethacin-induced intestinal injury increased the proportion of MLV-ILC3 in the early phase within 12 h. CONCLUSION: Intestinal ILCs were found to migrate through MLVs. The altered mobilization of MLV-ILCs after stimuli suggests that ILCs play an important role in regulating the immune responses at the secondary lymph nodes.

11.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uric acid (UA) has anti- and pro-inflammatory properties. We previously revealed that elevated serum UA levels provide protection against murine small intestinal injury probably via luminal UA secreted in the small intestine. Luminal UA may act as an antioxidant, preventing microbiota vulnerability to oxidative stress. However, whether luminal UA is increased under hyperuricemia and plays a protective role in a dose-dependent manner as well as the mechanism by which luminal UA exerts its protective effects on enteropathy remains unknown. METHODS: Inosinic acid (IMP) (1000 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered to obtain high serum UA (HUA) and moderate serum UA (500 mg/kg IMP, i.p.) mice. UA concentrations and levels of oxidative stress markers in the serum and intestine were measured. Mice received indomethacin (20 mg/kg, i.p.) to evaluate the effects of UA on indomethacin-induced enteropathy. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the ileal mucosa were analyzed. The fecal microbiota of HUA mice was transplanted to investigate its effect on indomethacin-induced enteropathy. RESULTS: IMP increased luminal UA dose-dependently, with higher levels of luminal antioxidant markers. Indomethacin-induced enteropathy was significantly ameliorated in both UA-elevated groups, with decreased indomethacin-induced luminal ROS. The microbiota of HUA mice showed a significant increase in α-diversity and a significant difference in ß-diversity from the control. Fecal microbiota transplantation from HUA mice ameliorated indomethacin-induced enteropathy. CONCLUSIONS: The protective role of luminal UA in intestinal injury is likely exerted via oxidative stress elimination and microbiota composition modulation, preferably for gut immunity. Therefore, enhancing anaerobic conditions using antioxidants is a potential therapeutic target.

13.
Hepatol Res ; 51(5): 580-592, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247991

RESUMO

AIM: We recently reported that lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated free cholesterol (FC) accumulation in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) augmented liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The aim of the present study was to explore the role of angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4), an LPL inhibitor, in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis in NASH. METHODS: Angptl4-deficient or wild-type mice were used to investigate the role of Angptl4 in the pathogenesis of NASH induced by feeding a methionine- and choline-deficient diet. We also examined the effect of Angptl4 on FC accumulation in HSCs, and the subsequent activation of HSCs, using Angptl4-deficient HSCs. RESULTS: In the NASH model, Angptl4-deficient mice had significantly aggravated liver fibrosis and activated HSCs without enhancement of hepatocellular injury, liver inflammation, or liver angiogenesis. FC levels were significantly higher in HSCs from Angptl4-deficient mice than in those from wild-type mice. Treatment with Angptl4 reversed low-density lipoprotein-induced FC accumulation in HSCs through the inhibition of LPL. The Angptl4 deficiency-induced FC accumulation in HSCs suppressed HSC expression of the transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) pseudoreceptor, bone morphogenetic protein, and activin membrane-bound inhibitor, and sensitized HSCs to TGF-ß-induced activation in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Angptl4 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of FC accumulation in HSCs. In addition, regulation of FC levels in HSCs by Angptl4 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis in NASH. Thus, Angptl4 could represent a novel therapeutic option for NASH.

15.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658195

RESUMO

Naïve lymphocytes recirculate from the blood to the lymphoid tissues under physiological condition and it is commonly recognized as an important phenomenon in the gut immunity. The stroma of secondary lymphoid organs, such as Peyer's patches (PPs) or mesenteric lymph nodes, are where naïve lymphocytes sense antigens. Naïve lymphocytes circulate through the bloodstream to reach high endothelial venules, the portal of entry into PPs. Some immunomodulators are estimated to influence lymphocyte migration, but the precise evaluation of microcirculation dynamics is very difficult, and establishing a method to observe lymphocyte migration in vivo can contribute to the clarification of the precise mechanisms. We refined the method of collecting lymphocytes from the lymph duct and observing the detailed dynamics of gut-tropic lymphocytes in rat PPs. We chose confocal laser scanning microscopy to observe rat PPs in vivo and recorded it using time-lapse photography. We can now obtain clear images that can contribute to the analysis of lymphocyte dynamics.


Assuntos
Linfócitos/citologia , Microscopia Confocal , Nódulos Linfáticos Agregados/imunologia , Animais , Movimento Celular , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Ratos
16.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 35(1): 110-117, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Dietary emulsifiers are widely used in processed foods and officially approved as safe for intake. However, recent studies have demonstrated that some emulsifiers alter the colonic microbiota, leading to colonic low-grade inflammation, in mice. The effect of dietary emulsifiers on small-intestinal microbiota, which is important for gut immunity, has not been studied. We aimed to investigate the effect of a representative dietary emulsifier, polysorbate-80 (P80), on the small-intestinal microbiota in normal mice. METHODS: Some mice were pretreated with P80 for 8 weeks with or without indomethacin administration on the last 2 days, and intestinal damage was evaluated histologically. The ileal and colonic microbiota composition was assessed using 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Polysorbate-80 increased the Gammaproteobacteria abundance and decreased the α-diversity in the small intestine. No decrease in α-diversity was observed in the colon. P80 pretreatment exacerbated the indomethacin-induced small-intestinal lesions and significantly increased the interleukin-1ß expression. Culture of ileal content on deoxycholate hydrogen sulfide lactose agar showed that P80 significantly increased the colonies of the sulfide-producing bacteria Proteus spp. (genetically identified as Proteus mirabilis). Antibiotic pretreatment abolished the P80-induced aggravation of indomethacin-induced ileitis. Motility assay in semisolid agar showed that adding 0.02% P80 to the agar significantly increased the diameter of P. mirabilis colonies but not that of Escherichia coli colonies. CONCLUSIONS: Polysorbate-80 enhances the vulnerability of the small intestine to indomethacin-induced injury by inducing ileal dysbiosis. Direct enhancement of the motility of specific flagellated microbiota by P80 might be related to dysbiosis and intestinal injury.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Emulsificantes/efeitos adversos , Indometacina/efeitos adversos , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Polissorbatos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos
17.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 21: 353-356, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: NDM-1 is by far one of the most commonly prevalent carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii. This study presented an Acinetobacter pittii (A. pittii) isolate co-harboring blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-820 from a university hospital sink, where New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM) producers have not been found in either patients or their environments. METHODS: Whole-genome sequencing was performed on the HiSeq 4000 platform, and the reads were de novo assembled using the A5-miSeq Assembly pipeline. Annotation of the resulting scaffolds were performed by using the DDBJ Fast Annotation and Submission Tool (DFAST). The blaNDM-1-carrying plasmid was determined. RESULTS: The A. pittii ST220 strain SU1805 detected from a sink strainer in the treatment room was resistant to imipenem and meropenem. Antimicrobial resistance genes blaNDM-1, blaOXA-820, blaADC-43, and aphA6 were found in this strain. The blaNDM-1 was found to be located downstream of an ISAba125 element on a plasmid pSU1805NDM with a size of 41,022 bp, and GC content of 38.3% harbouring 48 protein-coding genes. The aphA6 gene was also located upstream of the ISAba125 on the same plasmid. The A. pittii intrinsic blaOXA-213-like gene blaOXA-820 was located between fxsA and yncA genes in the chromosome. The strain also harboured biofilm-associated genes such as ompA, the csu operon and their regulating genes bfmRS. CONCLUSION: This study described the first isolation of NDM-1-producing A. pittii in Japan, and highlighted the importance of proper implementation of measures against AMR for sink drainage systems, since NDM producers may have already been hidden in such environments in a non-endemic country of NDM.


Assuntos
Acinetobacter/isolamento & purificação , Hospitais , Infecções por Acinetobacter , Proteínas de Bactérias , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Humanos , Japão , Abastecimento de Água , beta-Lactamases
18.
Hepatol Commun ; 3(8): 1098-1112, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388630

RESUMO

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a central role in incorporating plasma lipids into tissues and regulates lipid metabolism and energy balance in the human body. Conversely, LPL expression is almost absent in normal adult livers. Therefore, its physiological role in the liver remains unknown. We aimed to elucidate the role of LPL in the pathophysiology of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a hepatic manifestation of obesity. Hepatic stellate cell (HSC)-specific LPL-knockout (LplHSC-KO ) mice, LPL-floxed (Lplfl/fl ) mice, or double-mutant toll-like receptor 4-deficient (Tlr4-/- ) LplHSC-KO mice were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet for 4 weeks to establish the nonalcoholic fatty liver model or an high-fat/high-cholesterol diet for 24 weeks to establish the NASH model. Human samples, derived from patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, were also examined. In human and mouse NASH livers, serum obesity-related factors, such as free fatty acid, leptin, and interleukin-6, dramatically increased the expression of LPL, specifically in HSCs through signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling, as opposed to that in hepatocytes or hepatic macrophages. In the NASH mouse model, liver fibrosis was significantly reduced in LplHSC-KO mice compared with that in Lplfl/fl mice. Nonenzymatic LPL-mediated cholesterol uptake from serum lipoproteins enhanced the accumulation of free cholesterol in HSCs, which amplified TLR4 signaling, resulting in the activation of HSCs and progression of hepatic fibrosis in NASH. Conclusion: The present study reveals the pathophysiological role of LPL in the liver, and furthermore, clarifies the pathophysiology in which obesity, as a background factor, exacerbates NASH. The LPL-mediated HSC activation pathway could be a promising therapeutic target for treating liver fibrosis in NASH.

19.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 95(3): 114865, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405631

RESUMO

We present a case of subcutaneous infection caused by Bordetella hinzii in a healthy male. The isolate was successfully identified by gyrB gene sequencing. B. hinzii cannot be distinctively identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing or by biochemical methods. The number of cases infected with B. hinzii might be underestimated owing to the difficulty in accurate identification, which can be achieved by gyrB gene sequencing to gain knowledge about the species.


Assuntos
Abscesso/microbiologia , Infecções por Bordetella/diagnóstico , Bordetella/fisiologia , Abscesso/diagnóstico , Abscesso/tratamento farmacológico , Abscesso/patologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bordetella/genética , Infecções por Bordetella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bordetella/microbiologia , Infecções por Bordetella/patologia , DNA Girase/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Pele/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Hepatol Res ; 49(11): 1316-1328, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250532

RESUMO

AIM: Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1), an 18-glycosyl hydrolase-related molecule, is a member of the enzymatically inactive chitinase-like protein family. Serum levels of CHI3L1 are strongly correlated with hepatic fibrosis progression during many liver diseases. Therefore, this protein could be involved in the development of hepatic fibrosis pathology; however, its role has not been elucidated. We aimed to elucidate its role in the pathophysiology of liver fibrosis. METHODS: Chitinase 3-like 1-deficient (Chi3l1-/- ) mice were given carbon tetrachloride twice per week for 4 weeks or fed a methionine choline-deficient diet for 12 weeks to generate mouse liver fibrosis models. Human fibrotic liver tissues were also examined immunohistochemically. RESULTS: In human and mouse fibrotic livers, CHI3L1 expression was mainly localized to hepatic macrophages, and the intrahepatic accumulation of CHI3L1+ macrophages was significantly enhanced compared to that in control livers. In the two mouse models, hepatic fibrosis was significantly ameliorated in Chi3l1-/- mice compared to that in wild-type mice, which was dependent on hepatic macrophages. The accumulation and activation of hepatic macrophages was also significantly suppressed in Chi3l1-/- mice compared to that in wild-type mice. Furthermore, apoptotic hepatic macrophages were significantly increased in Chi3l1-/- mice. Chitinase 3-like 1 was found to inhibit hepatic macrophage apoptosis by suppressing Fas expression and activating Akt signaling in an autocrine manner, which resulted in hepatic macrophage accumulation and activation, exaggerating liver fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Chitinase 3-like 1 exacerbates liver fibrosis progression by suppressing apoptosis in hepatic macrophages. Therefore, this might be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

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