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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 212: 111999, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550078

RESUMO

Tramadol is a widely used analgesic with additional antidepressant and anxiolytic effects. This compound has been reported in continental waters reaching concentrations of µg/L as a consequence of its inefficient removal in sewage treatment plants and increasing use over time. In this study, European chubs (Squalius cephalus) were exposed to 1 µg/L of tramadol in water for 42 days with a subsequent 14 days of depuration. Our results revealed that chubs exposed to this analgesic underwent changes in their behaviour as compared to the control group. The behavioural outcome was also influenced by the individual concentration of tramadol in brain tissue. In particular, experimental fish presented anxiolytic-like effects, characterized by less bold and less social individuals. Exposed animals were less frequently out of the shelter and moved a shorter distance, indicating that they explored the new environment less during the boldness test. In the novel object recognition experiment, although they distinguished the new item, they examined it less and displayed a reduced activity. Shoal cohesion was disrupted as observed in an increased distance between individuals. After the depuration phase, this alteration remained whereas the boldness effect disappeared. Moreover, the degree of behavioural changes was correlated with the concentration of the substance in brain. According to our findings, chronic presence of tramadol in the environment can impact the fitness of exposed aquatic fauna by altering evolutionary crucial behaviours.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Tramadol/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Água Doce/química , Tramadol/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
2.
Toxics ; 9(2)2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546233

RESUMO

Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are fast becoming a key instrument in several applications such as medicine or nutrition. Questions have been raised about the safety of their use. Male rats were fed for 28 days on a monodiet containing 0.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 5.0 mg Se/kg. Se content in blood and liver, liver panel tests, blood glucose, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were analysed. Liver and duodenum were subjected to histopathology examination. The weight gain of rats showed no differences between tested groups. Se content in blood was higher in all treated groups compared to the control group. The liver concentration of Se in the treated groups varied in the range from 222 to 238 ng/g. No differences were observed in the activity of AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALP (alkaline phosphatase) and TAS (total antioxidant status). A significant decrease in ALT activity compared to the control group was observed in the treated groups. GPx activity varied from 80 to 88 U/mL through tested groups. SOD activity in liver was decreased in the SeNP-treated group with 5 mg Se/kg (929 ± 103 U/mL). Histopathological examination showed damage to the liver parenchyma and intestinal epithelium in a dose-dependent manner. This study suggests that short-term SeNP supplementation can be safe and beneficial in Se deficiency or specific treatment.

3.
Chem Rec ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274843

RESUMO

Polysaccharide nanoparticles are promising materials in the wide range of disciplines such as medicine, nutrition, food production, agriculture, material science and others. They excel not only in their non-toxicity and biodegradability but also in their easy preparation. As well as inorganic particles, a protein corona (PC) around polysaccharide nanoparticles is formed in biofluids. Moreover, it has been considered that the overall response of the organism to nanoparticles presence depends on the PC. This review summarises scientific publications about the structural chemistry of polysaccharide nanoparticles and their impact on theranostic applications. Three strategies of implementation of the PC in theranostics have been discussed: I) Utilisation of the PC in therapy; II) How the composition of the PC is analysed for specific disease markers; III) How the formed PC can interact with the immune system and enhances the immunomodulation or immunoelimination. Thus, the findings from this review can contribute to improve the design of drug delivery systems. However, it is still necessary to elucidate the mechanisms of nano-bio interactions and discover new connections in nanoscale research.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244017, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382718

RESUMO

Hormonal changes such as increased cortisol level in blood plasma in response to stress and social environmental stimuli are common among vertebrates including humans and typically accompanied by other physiological processes, such as changes in body pigmentation and/or pupil dilatation. The role of pupil size variation (PSV) as a response to stress have yet to be investigated in fish. We exposed albino and pigmented European catfish to short-term stress and measured changes in pupil size and cortisol level. Albinos showed lower pupil dilatation and higher cortisol levels than did pigmented conspecifics. A clear positive relationship between pupil dilatation and cortisol concentrations was observed for both pigmented and albino specimens, suggesting that PSV can be used as a stress indicator in fish, irrespective of albino's inability to express social communication by coloring. During the follow-up, we investigated whether a penultimate contest between albino individuals would impact contestants' social stress during subsequent contact. We observed PSV during the contact of unfamiliar albino catfish with different penultimate experiences (winner (W) and/or loser (L)). Then, the following treatment combinations were tested: WW, WL and LL. Twenty-four-hour contact of two unfamiliar catfish resulted in higher pupil dilatation among individuals with previous winner experience. Among treatment combinations, a WL contest displayed the highest pupil dilatation for winners. PSV reflected socially induced stress in individuals that was accompanied by the "winner" experience and dominancy in albinos. To conclude, the present study validates pupil dilatation as a non-invasive method to evaluate stress level in pigmented as well as albino fish in various contexts.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Animais , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Pigmentação da Pele , Estresse Psicológico/sangue
5.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143108, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162133

RESUMO

Reservoirs are known to alter temperature and flow regimes, shift nutrient cycles, reduce downstream species diversity and enable a predominantly upstream spread of non-native species. However, information about the seasonal dynamics of the spread of non-natives from a reservoir to its tributaries and the further consequences regarding the spatial distribution of native species is rare. We observed the occurrence of fish in the Vltava River and its tributaries (Elbe catchment area, central Europe) upstream of the Lipno Reservoir for five consecutive years. We radio-tagged two non-native and four native species. To detect assemblage spatial variability, we sampled sites in the study area by electrofishing twice per year (spring and autumn). We expected seasonal trends in non-native species appearance in upstream reservoir tributaries and, conversely, low motivation of native fishes to descend to the reservoir. By analysing nearly 3000 individuals of 21 species from the longitudinal profile of the study area, we observed an effect of reservoir distance on the native species ratio in the upper Vltava catchment area, i.e., an increase in distance increased the native species proportion, and the opposite was observed for non-native species. Analyses of 3798 tracking positions of 193 tagged individuals showed massive spring dispersal of non-native species from the reservoir to the main tributary, the Vltava River, and their return to the reservoir for wintering. Their upstream movement positively correlated with an increase in flow rate. Native Salmo trutta showed a specific shift from the Vltava River to smaller streams during the summer, when the presence of non-native species in the Vltava River was most significant. These findings indicate that non-native species repeatedly spread from the reservoir to the upstream river stretch and its tributaries and potentially compete with native species for resources.

6.
Conserv Physiol ; 8(1): coaa088, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005421

RESUMO

A simple and low-cost method of monitoring and collecting particulate matter detaching from (or interacting with) aquatic animals is described using a novel device based on an airlift pump principle applied to floating cages. The efficiency of the technique in particle collection is demonstrated using polyethylene microspheres interacting with a cyprinid fish (Carassius carassius) and a temporarily parasitic stage (glochidia) of an endangered freshwater mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) dropping from experimentally infested host fish (Salmo trutta). The technique enables the monitoring of temporal dynamics of particle detachment and their continuous collection both in the laboratory and in situ, allowing the experimental animals to be kept under natural water quality regimes and reducing the need for handling and transport. The technique can improve the representativeness of current experimental methods used in the fields of environmental parasitology, animal feeding ecology and microplastic pathway studies in aquatic environments. In particular, it makes it accessible to study the physiological compatibility of glochidia and their hosts, which is an essential but understudied autecological feature in mussel conservation programs worldwide. Field placement of the technique can also aid in outreach programs with pay-offs in the increase of scientific literacy of citizens concerning neglected issues such as the importance of fish hosts for the conservation of freshwater mussels.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239479, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966310

RESUMO

Mycotoxin management in agriculture is an essential challenge for maintaining the health of both animals and humans. Choosing the right adsorbent is still a question for many breeders and an important criterion for feed manufacturers. New adsorbents are still being sought. Graphene oxide is a promising material in the field of nanotechnology, which excels in its adsorption properties. Presented in vitro study investigates graphene oxide for the binding of mycotoxins from crushed wheat. The results show that graphene oxide has an adsorption capacity for aflatoxin 0.045 mg/g, zearalenone 0.53 mg/g and deoxynivalenol 1.69 mg/g at 37° C. In vitro simulation of crushed wheat digestion showed rapid adsorption during the gastric phase. Of the minerals, Mg, Cu and Zn were the most adsorbed. The applied dose of graphene oxide of 10 mg/g caused only a slight inhibition of the digestive enzymes α-amylase and trypsin compared to pepsin and gastric lipase. In vitro results indicated the suitability of graphene oxide in the adsorption of the aflatoxin, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol.


Assuntos
Grafite/química , Micotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Aflatoxina B1/isolamento & purificação , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Animais , Digestão , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Absorção Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Nanoestruturas/química , Tricotecenos/isolamento & purificação , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Triticum/química , Triticum/toxicidade , Zearalenona/isolamento & purificação , Zearalenona/toxicidade
8.
PeerJ ; 8: e9356, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714655

RESUMO

Background: The aquatic environment has been contaminated with various anthropogenic pollutants, including psychoactive compounds that may alter the physiology and behavior of free-living organisms. The present study focused on the condition and related mortality of the juvenile chub (Squalius cephalus). The aim of the study was to test whether the adverse effects of the antidepressants sertraline and citalopram, the analgesic tramadol and the illicit drug methamphetamine, on fish condition exist under environmentally relevant concentrations and whether these effects persist after a depuration period. Innovative analyses of the fish brain concentrations of these compounds were performed with the aim to show relationship between compound brain tissue concentration and fish condition. Methods: The laboratory experiment consisted of 42 days of exposure and a subsequent 14-day depuration period with regular monitoring of the condition and mortality of exposed and control fish. Identical methodology, including individual brain concentration analyses for the tested compounds, was applied for all substances. Additional study on feeding under sertraline exposure was also conducted. The feeding was measured from the 28th day of the exposure, three times in a week, by observation of food intake during 15 minutes in social environment. Results: The effects of particular psychoactive compounds on chub condition varied. While sertraline induced a lower condition and increased mortality, the effects of methamphetamine were inverse, and tramadol and citalopram had no significant effect at all. Individual brain concentrations of the tested compounds showed that the effects of sertraline and methamphetamine on fish condition were increased with brain concentration increases. Additionally, the food intake was reduced in case of sertraline. In contrast, there was no relationship between tramadol and citalopram brain tissue concentration and fish condition, suggesting that the concentration-dependent effect is strongly compound-specific. Methamphetamine was the only compound with a persistent effect after the depuration period. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the brain concentration evidence approach and suggest that changes in fish condition and other related parameters can be expected in freshwater ecosystems polluted with specific psychoactive compounds.

9.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 11: 59, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528676

RESUMO

Background: The high doses of zinc oxide (ZnO) administered orally to piglets for the prevention of diarrhea and increase of growth rate can contaminate pig farms and the surrounding environment. Therefore, there is a need to find a replacement of high doses of dietary ZnO with an equally effective alternative. In the present study, the effect of two formulations of zinc phosphate-based nanoparticles (ZnA and ZnC NPs) on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, antioxidant status, and intestinal and liver morphology was evaluated. A total of 100 weaned piglets were randomly divided into 10 equal groups with the base diet (control) or the base diet supplemented with ZnA, ZnC, or ZnO at concentrations 500, 1000, and 2000 mg Zn per kilogram of diet. Supplements were given to animals for 10 days. Fecal samples were collected on day 0, 5, 10 and 20. At the end of the treatment (day 10), three piglets from each group were sacrificed and analyzed. Results: Comparing to that of control, the significantly higher piglet weight gain was observed in all piglet groups fed with ZnA (P < 0.05). Differences in the total aerobic bacteria and coliform counts in piglet feces after NPs supplementation compared to that of control and ZnO groups were also found (P < 0.05). The majority of aerobic culturable bacteria from the feces represented Escherichia (28.57-47.62%), Enterococcus (3.85-35.71%), and Streptococcus (3.70-42.31%) spp. A total of 542 Escherichia coli isolates were screened for the virulence genes STa, STb, Stx2, F4, and F18. The substantial occurrence of E. coli virulence factors was found on day 5, mainly in fimbrillary antigen and thermostable toxins, except for piglets fed by ZnC. Zn treatment decreased Zn blood levels in piglets fed with ZnO and ZnA (500 mg/kg) and increased in ZnC (2000 mg/kg) compared to that of control (P < 0.05). The antioxidant status of piglets was affected only by ZnA. While some changes in the liver and the intestinal morphology of piglets with NPs were observed, none were serious as reflected by the normal health status and increased weigh gain performance. Conclusions: Our results indicate that ZnA NPs have a positive effect on the piglet growth performance even at the lowest concentration. The prevalence of E. coli virulence factors was lowest in pigs supplemented with ZnC. Zinc phosphate-based nanoparticles may be an effective alternative to ZnO.

10.
Aggress Behav ; 46(5): 412-424, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542801

RESUMO

Aggressiveness has been one of the behavioral traits most examined with various standard testing methods. We used two distinct methods (the mirror and the real opponent tests) to evaluate individual aggression and relate it to the activity and individual stress of chub (Squalius cephalus L.). Three hypotheses were formulated and tested: (a) there is a significant positive relationship between the aggressiveness of individuals measured with the mirror and the real opponent tests, indicating their convergent validity; (b) the irregularities in response to the aggressiveness and activity tests lead to the context-specific expression of the behavioral syndromes; and (c) there is a significant positive relationship between the stress induced in individuals by both tests of aggressiveness, demonstrating individually consistent stress-coping strategies. The first and the second hypothesis were confirmed, while the third hypothesis was rejected. Our results suggest that particular tests of aggressiveness could act as a situation with high strength, leaving little variation between individual responses. Thus, we propose that for the proper interpretation of various studies using different tests to study identical behavioral traits, it is important to consider the convergent validity of not only the tested behavioral traits but also the individual stress responses. The chub also showed stress relieve through aggressiveness, suggesting the species as a prospective animal model to the study interaction between the stress and the aggressiveness. A detailed aggression ethogram of chub was provided to facilitate the use of this specie in future studies.


Assuntos
Agressão , Cyprinidae , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome
11.
Biomolecules ; 10(3)2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155912

RESUMO

Flavonoids are abundant polyphenols in nature. They are extensively biotransformed in enterocytes and hepatocytes, where conjugated (methyl, sulfate, and glucuronide) metabolites are formed. However, bacterial microflora in the human intestines also metabolize flavonoids, resulting in the production of smaller phenolic fragments (e.g., hydroxybenzoic, hydroxyacetic and hydroxycinnamic acids, and hydroxybenzenes). Despite the fact that several colonic metabolites appear in the circulation at high concentrations, we have only limited information regarding their pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacokinetic interactions. Therefore, in this in vitro study, we investigated the interactions of 24 microbial flavonoid metabolites with human serum albumin and cytochrome P450 (CYP2C9, 2C19, and 3A4) enzymes. Our results demonstrated that some metabolites (e.g., 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone, pyrogallol, O-desmethylangolensin, and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid) form stable complexes with albumin. However, the compounds tested did not considerably displace Site I and II marker drugs from albumin. All CYP isoforms examined were significantly inhibited by O-desmethylangolensin; nevertheless, only its effect on CYP2C9 seems to be relevant. Furthermore, resorcinol and phloroglucinol showed strong inhibitory effects on CYP3A4. Our results demonstrate that, besides flavonoid aglycones and their conjugated derivatives, some colonic metabolites are also able to interact with proteins involved in the pharmacokinetics of drugs.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(5)2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151081

RESUMO

It is generally believed that antibacterial essential oils have the potential to become one of the alternatives in preventing diarrheal diseases of monogastric animals. The disadvantage is their low efficiency per oral due to easy degradation during digestion in the stomach. This study compares the efficacy of chitosan, alginate-chitosan, guar gum-chitosan, xanthan gum-chitosan and pectin-chitosan nanocapsules to the synthesis of pH-responsive biopolymeric nanocapsule for Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis and Syzygium aromaticum essential oils. Using spectrophotometric approach and gas chromatography, release kinetics were determined in pH 3, 5.6 and 7.4. The growth rates of S. aureus and E. coli, as well as minimal inhibition concentration of essential oils were studied. The average encapsulation efficiency was 60%, and the loading efficiency was 70%. The size of the nanocapsules ranged from 100 nm to 500 nm. Results showed that chitosan-guar gum and chitosan-pectin nanocapsules released 30% of essential oils (EOs) at pH 3 and 80% at pH 7.4 during 3 h. Similar release kinetics were confirmed for thymol, eugenol and α-pinene. Minimal inhibition concentrations of Thymus vulgaris and Syzygium aromaticum essential oils ranged from 0.025 to 0.5%. Findings of this study suggest that the suitable pH-responsive nanocapsule for release, low toxicity and antibacterial activity is based on chitosan-guar gum structure.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanocápsulas/administração & dosagem , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Polímeros/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/química , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanocápsulas/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 386: 114831, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756431

RESUMO

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)-validated transactivation assay using the human estrogen receptor alpha (hERα) Hela9903 cell line is used for activity evaluation of hERα agonists and antagonists. Due to many advantages, this assay is broadly used as an initial screening process. However, response significantly higher from that of 17-ß estradiol (E2) was observed with phytoestrogens for concentrations commonly above 1 µM in previous studies. The main aim of this study was thus to ascertain the applicability of OECD protocol 455 for evaluation of estrogenic activity of natural flavonoids, including known phytoestrogens. The estrogenic activities of aglycones as well as of O-methylated and glycosylated flavonoids were evaluated. Supra-maximal luciferase activity was seen for most of the flavonoids tested at concentrations even below 1 µM. hERα-mediated luciferase expression was confirmed with the competition assay specified in OECD protocol 455. However, at concentrations above 1 µM, non-specific interactions were also observed. Instead of EC50 values, which could not be determined for most of the isoflavonoids tested, the concentrations corresponding to 10% (PC10) and 50% (PC50) of the maximum activity of the positive control, E2, were used for quantitative determination of estrogenic activities. Appropriate evaluation of the data obtained with the current OECD protocol 455 validated assay represents a valuable tool for initial screening of natural flavonoids for estrogenic activity.


Assuntos
Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/agonistas , Flavonoides/toxicidade , Fitoestrógenos/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Luminescência , Fitoestrógenos/farmacologia , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Testes de Toxicidade/normas
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(31): 31812-31821, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487008

RESUMO

Various types of micropollutants, e.g., pharmaceuticals and their metabolites and resistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms, are usually found in hospital wastewaters. The aim of this paper was to study the presence of 74 frequently used pharmaceuticals, legal and illegal drugs, and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in 5 hospital wastewaters in Slovakia and Czechia and to compare the efficiency of several advanced oxidations processes (AOPs) for sanitation and treatment of such highly polluted wastewaters. The occurrence of micropollutants and antibiotic-resistant bacteria was investigated by in-line SPE-LC-MS/MS technique and cultivation on antibiotic and antibiotic-free selective diagnostic media, respectively. The highest maximum concentrations were found for cotinine (6700 ng/L), bisoprolol (5200 ng/L), metoprolol (2600 ng/L), tramadol (2400 ng/L), sulfamethoxazole (1500 ng/L), and ranitidine (1400 ng/L). In the second part of the study, different advanced oxidation processes, modified Fenton reaction, ferrate(VI), and oxidation by boron-doped diamond electrode were tested in order to eliminate the abovementioned pollutants. Obtained results indicate that the modified Fenton reaction and application of boron-doped diamond electrode were able to eliminate almost the whole spectrum of selected micropollutants with efficiency higher than 90%. All studied methods achieved complete removal of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria present in hospital wastewaters.


Assuntos
Ferro/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Boro , Cromatografia Líquida , República Tcheca , Diamante , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Eletrodos , Hospitais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Drogas Ilícitas/análise , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Oxirredução , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Eslováquia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/instrumentação , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Phytomedicine ; 62: 152974, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isoflavonoids seem to possess positive cardiovascular and other beneficial effects in humans. HYPOTHESIS: Their low bioavailability, however, indicates that small isoflavonoid metabolites formed by human microflora can significantly contribute to these activities. STUDY DESIGN: Testing antiplatelet activity ex vivo in human blood and interaction with transition metals in vitro. METHODS: The effect on platelet aggregation induced by different triggers (arachidonic acid, collagen, ADP, TRAP-6), and interactions with transition metals (iron and copper chelation/reduction) were evaluated against four isoflavonoid-specific metabolites: S-equol; O-desmethylangolensin; 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid (HPPA); and 4-ethylphenol. RESULTS: S-equol, 4-ethylphenol and O-desmethylangolensin blocked platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid and collagen. S-equol even matched the potency of acetylsalicylic acid in the case of collagen, which is the most physiological inducer of aggregation. Moreover, their effects in general seemed to be biologically relevant and attainable at achievable plasma concentrations, with the exception of HPPA which was ineffective. While only O-desmethylangolensin mildly chelated iron and copper, all four compounds markedly reduced cupric ions. Their direct free radical scavenging effects seem to have little clinical relevance. CONCLUSION: This study has shown that S-equol, O-desmethylangolensin and 4-ethylphenol, arising from isoflavonoid intake, can have biologically relevant effects on platelet aggregation.


Assuntos
Cobre/metabolismo , Equol/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Fenóis/metabolismo , Aspirina/farmacologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Masculino , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(6)2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200591

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) are now a hot topic in finding modern substitutes for antibiotics. Many studies have shown positive results and confirmed their high antibacterial activity both in vitro and in vivo. Deservedly, there is an attempt to use EOs as a substitute for antibiotics, which are currently limited by legislation in animal breeding. Given the potential of EOs, studies on their fate in the body need to be summarized. The content of EO's active substances varies depending on growing conditions and consequently on processing and storage. Their content also changes dynamically during the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and their effective concentration can be noticeably diluted at their place of action (small intestine and colon). Based on the solubility of the individual EO's active substances, they are eliminated from the body at different rates. Despite a strong antimicrobial effect, some oils can be toxic to the body and cause damage to the liver, kidneys, or gastrointestinal tissues. Reproductive toxicity has been reported for Origanum vulgare and Mentha arvensis. Several publications also address the effect on the genome. It has been observed that EOs can show both genoprotective effects (Syzygium aromaticum) and genotoxicity, as is the case of Cinnamomum camphor. This review shows that although oils are mainly studied as promising antimicrobials, it is also important to assess animal safety.

17.
Aquat Toxicol ; 211: 173-180, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991163

RESUMO

Interspecific relationships frequently determine the effect a pollutant can have on an organism, and this is especially true in closely interacting species such as hosts and parasites. The high spatial and temporal variability of contaminant concentrations combined with the movement of aquatic biota can further influence the consequences that are associated with contamination. We used a full factorial design for the exposed and unexposed partners of the relationship between the parasitic larvae (glochidia) of the European freshwater mussel (Anodonta anatina) and its host fish (Squalius cephalus) to identify the sources of variation in the sublethal endpoints of species interaction (the intensity of parasite attachment, the spatial position of glochidia on the host body, and encapsulation success). We used the water-borne human pharmaceutical compounds methamphetamine (a central nervous system stimulant) and tramadol (an opioid) at environmentally relevant concentrations (˜ 6.7 and 3.8 nmol L-1 of methamphetamine and tramadol, respectively) as a proxy for contaminant exposure because these compounds are emerging aquatic stressors that are known for high spatial and temporal variability in their detected concentration levels. The relationship between the bivalve and the fish species was influenced by the preceding contact with both methamphetamine and tramadol, but this effect was highly asymmetric. Our experimental design enabled us to identify the specific changes in the relationship outcome that are elicited by the exposure of individual partners, such as the significant increase in glochidia infection success rate from 59.6 ± 3.9% to 78.7 ± 2.8% (means ± s.e.) that was associated with host exposure to methamphetamine. Additionally, the significant interaction effect of the exposure was demonstrated by the lowered proportion of glochidia attached to gills after the coexposure of both partners to tramadol. The impact of pharmaceuticals on wild aquatic host-parasite relationships provides an example of the risks that are associated with the unintentional discharge of biologically active compounds into freshwater habitats. Given the increasing evidence showing the ecological impact of waste pharmaceuticals, the use of multitrophic interaction endpoints after joint and unilateral exposures provides an important step towards the realistic risk assessment of these compounds.


Assuntos
Anodonta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cyprinidae/parasitologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Anodonta/efeitos dos fármacos , Água Doce/química , Brânquias/parasitologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Toxicidade
18.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 10: 17, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805185

RESUMO

Background: Development of new nanomaterials that inhibit or kill bacteria is an important and timely research topic. For example, financial losses due to infectious diseases, such as diarrhea, are a major concern in livestock productions around the world. Antimicrobial nanoparticles (NPs) represent a promising alternative to antibiotics and may lower antibiotic use and consequently spread of antibiotic resistance traits among bacteria, including pathogens. Results: Four formulations of zinc nanoparticles (ZnA, ZnB, ZnC, and ZnD) based on phosphates with spherical (ZnA, ZnB) or irregular (ZnC, ZnD) morphology were prepared. The highest in vitro inhibitory effect of our NPs was observed against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibitory concentration values, IC50, ranged from 0.5 to 1.6 mmol/L), followed by Escherichia coli (IC50 0.8-1.5 mmol/L). In contrast, methicillin resistant S. aureus (IC50 1.2-4.7 mmol/L) was least affected and this was similar to inhibitory patterns of commercial ZnO-based NPs and ZnO. After the successful in vitro testing, the in vivo study with rats based on dietary supplementation with zinc NPs was conducted. Four groups of rats were treated by 2,000 mg Zn/kg diet of ZnA, ZnB, ZnC, and ZnD, for comparison two groups were supplemented by 2,000 mg Zn/kg diet of ZnO-N and ZnO, and one group (control) was fed only by basal diet. The significantly higher (P < 0.05) Zn level in liver and kidney of all treated groups was found, nevertheless Zn NPs did not greatly influence antioxidant status of rats. However, the total aerobic and coliform bacterial population in rat feces significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in all zinc groups after 30 d of the treatment. Furthermore, when compared to the ZnO group, ZnA and ZnC nanoparticles reduced coliforms significantly more (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that phosphate-based zinc nanoparticles have the potential to act as antibiotic agents.

19.
J Exp Biol ; 222(Pt 1)2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352825

RESUMO

Parasites alter their host behaviour and vice versa as a result of mutual adaptations in the evolutionary arms race. One of these adaptations involves changes in host thermoregulation, which has the potential to harm the parasite and thereby act as a defence mechanism. We used a model of the brown trout (Salmo trutta) experimentally parasitised with glochidia ectoparasitic larvae from the endangered freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) to reveal whether parasitisation alters fish behavioural thermoregulation. A study using radiotelemetry temperature sensors was performed during almost one year of the M. margaritifera parasitic stage. Glochidia-infested S. trutta altered their thermoregulation through active searching for habitats with different thermal regimes. The general preference for temperatures in infested fish varied and was either above or below the temperature preferred by uninfested individuals. Infested fish also preferred different temperatures across localities, whereas uninfested fish maintained their thermal preference no matter which stream they inhabited. Glochidia further induced the expression of a behavioural syndrome among S. trutta personality traits, suggesting that it might increase the probability that the fish host would occur in the glochidia temperature optimum. Our findings present the first evidence that thermoregulation plays a fundamental role in the relationship of affiliated mussels and their fish hosts. Incorporating thermoregulation as a factor in the study of this relationship can help to interpret results from previous behavioural studies, as well as to optimise management measures related to endangered mussels.


Assuntos
Bivalves/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Truta , Aclimatação , Animais , Bivalves/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia
20.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 8(9)2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30223519

RESUMO

Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain filamentous fungi. The occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed causes negative health impacts on both humans and animals. Clay binders, yeast cell walls, or antioxidant additives are the most widely used products for mycotoxin elimination to reduce their impact. Although conventional methods are constantly improving, current research trends are looking for innovative solutions. Nanotechnology approaches seem to be a promising, effective, and low-cost way to minimize the health effects of mycotoxins. This review aims to shed light on the critical knowledge gap in mycotoxin elimination by nanotechnology. There are three main strategies: mold inhibition, mycotoxin adsorption, and reducing the toxic effect via nanoparticles. One of the most promising methods is the use of carbon-based nanomaterials. Graphene has been shown to have a huge surface and high binding capacity for mycotoxins. Attention has also been drawn to polymeric nanoparticles; they could substitute adsorbents or enclose any substance, which would improve the health status of the organism. In light of these findings, this review gives new insights into possible future research that might overcome challenges associated with nanotechnology utilization for mycotoxin elimination from agricultural products.

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