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1.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578528

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels cause gout and correlate with cardiometabolic diseases via poorly understood mechanisms. We performed a trans-ancestry genome-wide association study of serum urate in 457,690 individuals, identifying 183 loci (147 previously unknown) that improve the prediction of gout in an independent cohort of 334,880 individuals. Serum urate showed significant genetic correlations with many cardiometabolic traits, with genetic causality analyses supporting a substantial role for pleiotropy. Enrichment analysis, fine-mapping of urate-associated loci and colocalization with gene expression in 47 tissues implicated the kidney and liver as the main target organs and prioritized potentially causal genes and variants, including the transcriptional master regulators in the liver and kidney, HNF1A and HNF4A. Experimental validation showed that HNF4A transactivated the promoter of ABCG2, encoding a major urate transporter, in kidney cells, and that HNF4A p.Thr139Ile is a functional variant. Transcriptional coregulation within and across organs may be a general mechanism underlying the observed pleiotropy between urate and cardiometabolic traits.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4130, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511532

RESUMO

Increased levels of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) are associated with higher risk of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events, but underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we conduct trans-ethnic (n = 564,257) and European-ancestry specific meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies of UACR, including ancestry- and diabetes-specific analyses, and identify 68 UACR-associated loci. Genetic correlation analyses and risk score associations in an independent electronic medical records database (n = 192,868) reveal connections with proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, gout, and hypertension. Fine-mapping and trans-Omics analyses with gene expression in 47 tissues and plasma protein levels implicate genes potentially operating through differential expression in kidney (including TGFB1, MUC1, PRKCI, and OAF), and allow coupling of UACR associations to altered plasma OAF concentrations. Knockdown of OAF and PRKCI orthologs in Drosophila nephrocytes reduces albumin endocytosis. Silencing fly PRKCI further impairs slit diaphragm formation. These results generate a priority list of genes and pathways for translational research to reduce albuminuria.

3.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(11): 5621-5632, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361301

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Despite the emerging evidence on the role of oxytocin (OXT) in metabolic diseases, there is a lack of well-powered studies addressing the relationship of circulating OXT with obesity and diabetes. OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: Here, we measured OXT in a study cohort (n = 721; 396 women, 325 men; mean age ± SD, 47.7 ± 15.2 years) with subphenotypes related to obesity, including anthropometric traits such as body mass index [BMI (mean ± SD), 26.8 ± 4.6 kg/m2], waist-to-hip ratio (WHR; 0.88 ± 0.09), blood parameters (glucose, 5.32 ± 0.50 mmol/L; insulin, 5.3 ± 3.3 µU/mL), and oral glucose tolerance test to clarify the association with OXT. We also tested in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) whether the interindividual variation in OXT serum levels might be explained by genetic variation. RESULTS: The OXT concentration was increased in subjects with elevated BMI and positively correlated with WHR, waist circumference, and triglyceride levels. The OXT concentration in subjects with BMI <25 kg/m2 was significantly lower (n = 256; 78.6 pg/mL) than in subjects with a BMI between 25 and 30 kg/m2 (n = 314; 98.5 pg/mL, P = 6 × 10-6) and with BMI >30 kg/m2 (n = 137; 106.4 pg/mL, P = 8 × 10-6). OXT levels were also positively correlated with plasma glucose and insulin and were elevated in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (P = 4.6 × 10-3). Heritability of OXT was estimated at 12.8%. In a GWAS, two hits in linkage disequilibrium close (19 kb) to the OXT reached genome-wide significant association (top-hit rs12625893, P = 3.1 × 10-8, explained variance 3%). CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that OXT is genetically affected by a variant near OXT and is associated with obesity and impaired glucose tolerance.

4.
Nat Genet ; 51(6): 957-972, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152163

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is responsible for a public health burden with multi-systemic complications. Through trans-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and independent replication (n = 1,046,070), we identified 264 associated loci (166 new). Of these, 147 were likely to be relevant for kidney function on the basis of associations with the alternative kidney function marker blood urea nitrogen (n = 416,178). Pathway and enrichment analyses, including mouse models with renal phenotypes, support the kidney as the main target organ. A genetic risk score for lower eGFR was associated with clinically diagnosed CKD in 452,264 independent individuals. Colocalization analyses of associations with eGFR among 783,978 European-ancestry individuals and gene expression across 46 human tissues, including tubulo-interstitial and glomerular kidney compartments, identified 17 genes differentially expressed in kidney. Fine-mapping highlighted missense driver variants in 11 genes and kidney-specific regulatory variants. These results provide a comprehensive priority list of molecular targets for translational research.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Testes de Função Renal , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Uromodulina/urina
5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(11): 5008-5023, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169883

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Steroid hormones are important regulators of physiological processes in humans and are under genetic control. A link to coronary artery disease (CAD) is supposed. OBJECTIVE: Our main objective was to identify genetic loci influencing steroid hormone levels. As a secondary aim, we searched for causal effects of steroid hormones on CAD. DESIGN: We conducted genome-wide meta-association studies for eight steroid hormones: cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), estradiol, and testosterone in two independent cohorts (LIFE-Adult, LIFE-Heart, maximum n = 7667), and progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, and aldosterone in LIFE-Heart only (maximum n = 2070). All genome-wide significant loci were tested for sex interactions. Furthermore, we tested whether previously reported CAD single-nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with our steroid hormone panel and investigated causal links between hormone levels and CAD status using Mendelian randomization (MR) approaches. RESULTS: We discovered 15 novel associated loci for 17-hydroxyprogesterone, progesterone, DHEAS, cortisol, androstenedione, and estradiol. Five of these loci relate to genes directly involved in steroid metabolism, that is, CYP21A1, CYP11B1, CYP17A1, STS, and HSD17B12, almost completing the set of steroidogenic enzymes with genetic associations. Sexual dimorphisms were found for seven of the novel loci. Other loci correspond, for example, to the WNT4/ß-catenin pathway. MR revealed that cortisol, androstenedione, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and DHEA-S had causal effects on CAD. We also observed enrichment of cortisol and testosterone associations among known CAD hits. CONCLUSION: Our study greatly improves insight into genetic regulation of steroid hormones and their dependency on sex. These results could serve as a basis for analyzing sexual dimorphism in other complex diseases.

6.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 110, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CAP (Community acquired pneumonia) is frequent, with a high mortality rate and a high burden on health care systems. Development of predictive biomarkers, new therapeutic concepts, and epidemiologic research require a valid, reproducible, and quantitative measure describing CAP severity. METHODS: Using time series data of 1532 patients enrolled in the PROGRESS study, we compared putative measures of CAP severity for their utility as an operationalization. Comparison was based on ability to correctly identify patients with an objectively severe state of disease (death or need for intensive care with at least one of the following: substantial respiratory support, treatment with catecholamines, or dialysis). We considered IDSA/ATS minor criteria, CRB-65, CURB-65, Halm criteria, qSOFA, PSI, SCAP, SIRS-Score, SMART-COP, and SOFA. RESULTS: SOFA significantly outperformed other scores in correctly identifying a severe state of disease at the day of enrollment (AUC = 0.948), mainly caused by higher discriminative power at higher score values. Runners-up were the sum of IDSA/ATS minor criteria (AUC = 0.916) and SCAP (AUC = 0.868). SOFA performed similarly well on subsequent study days (all AUC > 0.9) and across age groups. In univariate and multivariate analysis, age, sex, and pack-years significantly contributed to higher SOFA values whereas antibiosis before hospitalization predicted lower SOFA. CONCLUSIONS: SOFA score can serve as an excellent operationalization of CAP severity and is proposed as endpoint for biomarker and therapeutic studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT02782013 , May 25, 2016, retrospectively registered.

7.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(5): e001992, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inhibition of PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) is a novel strategy to treat hypercholesterolemia and reduce cardiovascular events. However, the potential role of circulating plasma PCSK9 concentrations as a diagnostic and predictive biomarker remains uncertain as of now. Here, we aimed to identify genetic variants associated with plasma PCSK9 and investigate possible causal effects on atherosclerotic vascular disease phenotypes. METHODS: We performed the first genome-wide association study of plasma PCSK9 levels in a cohort of suspected and confirmed coronary artery disease (LIFE-Heart; n=3290). RESULTS: Several independent variants at the PCSK9 gene locus were associated with circulating PCSK9 levels at genome-wide significance (lead SNP rs11591147, PCSK9-R46L; P=1.94×10-17). We discovered 4 independent PCSK9 SNPs explaining 4.4% of the variance of plasma PCSK9. In addition, we identified a genome-wide significant locus at chromosome 7p22.1 (rs6957201; P=7.01×10-9) and 7 suggestive hits (P<1×10-6). Using MR (Mendelian Randomization), we detected significant causal effects of circulating PCSK9 on coronary artery disease status and severity, carotid plaques, and intima-media thickness. CONCLUSIONS: Variants at the PCSK9 gene locus seem to be the major genetic determinants of plasma PCSK9 levels with 4 independent variants at the PCSK9 gene locus expressing allelic heterogeneity. The detected MR estimates support the hypothesis of a causal effect of PCSK9 on coronary artery disease and other vascular phenotypes. Other observed genetic associations for PCSK9 require validation in independent cohorts. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT00497887.

8.
Atherosclerosis ; 259: 32-40, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28282560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Carotid artery plaque is an established marker of subclinical atherosclerosis and common patho-mechanisms with coronary artery disease (CAD) are hypothesized. We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with carotid plaque and to examine the potential shared genetic basis with CAD. METHODS: After investigating the reliability of plaque detection, we performed a genome-wide meta-association study in two independent cohorts (LIFE-Adult, n = 4037 and LIFE-Heart, n = 3152) for carotid plaque score (PS), defined as the sum of the plaque load of common carotid artery and carotid bulb. Further, we analyzed whether previously reported CAD and stroke loci were also associated with PS. RESULTS: We identified two loci with genome-wide significance for PS. One locus is the known CAD-locus at chromosome 9p21 (lead SNP rs9644862, p = 8.73 × 10-12). We also describe a novel locus on chromosome 10q24 within the SFXN2 gene as the most probable candidate (lead SNP rs2902548, p = 1.97 × 10-8). In addition, 17 out of 58 known CAD loci and six of 17 known stroke loci were associated with PS at a nominal level of significance. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that PS is a reliable trait to analyze genetics of atherosclerosis. Two new loci of genome-wide significant association with PS were found. The observed non-random overlap of CAD and PS associations strengthens the hypothesis of a shared genetic basis for these atherosclerotic manifestations.


Assuntos
Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/genética , Loci Gênicos , Placa Aterosclerótica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Idoso , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 10 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia
9.
Sci Rep ; 6: 34386, 2016 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27698363

RESUMO

A variety of modern software packages are available for genotype imputation relying on advanced concepts such as pre-phasing of the target dataset or utilization of admixed reference panels. In this study, we performed a comprehensive evaluation of the accuracy of modern imputation methods on the basis of the publicly available POPRES samples. Good quality genotypes were masked and re-imputed by different imputation frameworks: namely MaCH, IMPUTE2, MaCH-Minimac, SHAPEIT-IMPUTE2 and MaCH-Admix. Results were compared to evaluate the relative merit of pre-phasing and the usage of admixed references. We showed that the pre-phasing framework SHAPEIT-IMPUTE2 can overestimate the certainty of genotype distributions resulting in the lowest percentage of correctly imputed genotypes in our case. MaCH-Minimac performed better than SHAPEIT-IMPUTE2. Pre-phasing always reduced imputation accuracy. IMPUTE2 and MaCH-Admix, both relying on admixed-reference panels, showed comparable results. MaCH showed superior results if well-matched references were available (Nei's GST ≤ 0.010). For small to medium datasets, frameworks using genetically closest reference panel are recommended if the genetic distance between target and reference data set is small. Our results are valid for small to medium data sets. As shown on a larger data set of population based German samples, the disadvantage of pre-phasing decreases for larger sample sizes.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Software , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
J Sleep Res ; 25(6): 690-701, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27126917

RESUMO

The genetic basis of sleep is still poorly understood. Despite the moderate to high heritability of sleep-related phenotypes, known genetic variants explain only a small proportion of the phenotypical variance. However, most previous studies were based solely upon self-report measures. The present study aimed to conduct the first genome-wide association (GWA) of actigraphic sleep phenotypes. The analyses included 956 middle- to older-aged subjects (40-79 years) from the LIFE Adult Study. The SenseWear Pro 3 Armband was used to collect 11 actigraphic parameters of night- and daytime sleep and three parameters of rest (lying down). The parameters comprised measures of sleep timing, quantity and quality. A total of 7 141 204 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analysed after imputation and quality control. We identified several variants below the significance threshold of P ≤ 5× 10-8 (not corrected for analysis of multiple traits). The most significant was a hit near UFL1 associated with sleep efficiency on weekdays (P = 1.39 × 10-8 ). Further SNPs were close to significance, including an association between sleep latency and a variant in CSNK2A1 (P = 8.20 × 10-8 ), a gene known to be involved in the regulation of circadian rhythm. In summary, our GWAS identified novel candidate genes with biological plausibility being promising candidates for replication and further follow-up studies.


Assuntos
Actigrafia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sono/genética , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Caseína Quinase II/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Descanso , Autorrelato , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
11.
Hum Mol Genet ; 24(16): 4746-63, 2015 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26019233

RESUMO

Genetics of gene expression (eQTLs or expression QTLs) has proved an indispensable tool for understanding biological pathways and pathomechanisms of trait-associated SNPs. However, power of most genome-wide eQTL studies is still limited. We performed a large eQTL study in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 2112 individuals increasing the power to detect trans-effects genome-wide. Going beyond univariate SNP-transcript associations, we analyse relations of eQTLs to biological pathways, polygenetic effects of expression regulation, trans-clusters and enrichment of co-localized functional elements. We found eQTLs for about 85% of analysed genes, and 18% of genes were trans-regulated. Local eSNPs were enriched up to a distance of 5 Mb to the transcript challenging typically implemented ranges of cis-regulations. Pathway enrichment within regulated genes of GWAS-related eSNPs supported functional relevance of identified eQTLs. We demonstrate that nearest genes of GWAS-SNPs might frequently be misleading functional candidates. We identified novel trans-clusters of potential functional relevance for GWAS-SNPs of several phenotypes including obesity-related traits, HDL-cholesterol levels and haematological phenotypes. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation data for demonstrating biological effects. Yet, we show for strongly heritable transcripts that still little trans-chromosomal heritability is explained by all identified trans-eSNPs; however, our data suggest that most cis-heritability of these transcripts seems explained. Dissection of co-localized functional elements indicated a prominent role of SNPs in loci of pseudogenes and non-coding RNAs for the regulation of coding genes. In summary, our study substantially increases the catalogue of human eQTLs and improves our understanding of the complex genetic regulation of gene expression, pathways and disease-related processes.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino
12.
BMC Genet ; 15: 88, 2014 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25112433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Imputation of partially missing or unobserved genotypes is an indispensable tool for SNP data analyses. However, research and understanding of the impact of initial SNP-data quality control on imputation results is still limited. In this paper, we aim to evaluate the effect of different strategies of pre-imputation quality filtering on the performance of the widely used imputation algorithms MaCH and IMPUTE. RESULTS: We considered three scenarios: imputation of partially missing genotypes with usage of an external reference panel, without usage of an external reference panel, as well as imputation of completely un-typed SNPs using an external reference panel. We first created various datasets applying different SNP quality filters and masking certain percentages of randomly selected high-quality SNPs. We imputed these SNPs and compared the results between the different filtering scenarios by using established and newly proposed measures of imputation quality. While the established measures assess certainty of imputation results, our newly proposed measures focus on the agreement with true genotypes. These measures showed that pre-imputation SNP-filtering might be detrimental regarding imputation quality. Moreover, the strongest drivers of imputation quality were in general the burden of missingness and the number of SNPs used for imputation. We also found that using a reference panel always improves imputation quality of partially missing genotypes. MaCH performed slightly better than IMPUTE2 in most of our scenarios. Again, these results were more pronounced when using our newly defined measures of imputation quality. CONCLUSION: Even a moderate filtering has a detrimental effect on the imputation quality. Therefore little or no SNP filtering prior to imputation appears to be the best strategy for imputing small to moderately sized datasets. Our results also showed that for these datasets, MaCH performs slightly better than IMPUTE2 in most scenarios at the cost of increased computing time.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Algoritmos , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Software
13.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 5(7): e1000447, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19629161

RESUMO

The kinetics of label uptake and dilution in dividing stem cells, e.g., using Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) as a labeling substance, are a common way to assess the cellular turnover of all hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in vivo. The assumption that HSCs form a homogeneous population of cells which regularly undergo cell division has recently been challenged by new experimental results. For a consistent functional explanation of heterogeneity among HSCs, we propose a concept in which stem cells flexibly and reversibly adapt their cycling state according to systemic needs. Applying a mathematical model analysis, we demonstrate that different experimentally observed label dilution kinetics are consistently explained by the proposed model. The dynamically stabilized equilibrium between quiescent and activated cells leads to a biphasic label dilution kinetic in which an initial and pronounced decline of label retaining cells is attributed to faster turnover of activated cells, whereas a secondary, decelerated decline results from the slow turnover of quiescent cells. These results, which support our previous model prediction of a reversible activation/deactivation of HSCs, are also consistent with recent findings that use GFP-conjugated histones as a label instead of BrdU. Based on our findings we interpret HSC organization as an adaptive and regulated process in which the slow activation of quiescent cells and their possible return into quiescence after division are sufficient to explain the simultaneous occurrence of self-renewal and differentiation. Furthermore, we suggest an experimental strategy which is suited to demonstrate that the repopulation ability among the population of label retaining cells changes during the course of dilution.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Modelos Biológicos , Biologia de Sistemas/métodos , Animais , Bromodesoxiuridina/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Processos de Crescimento Celular/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Fase de Repouso do Ciclo Celular/fisiologia
14.
Blood ; 112(13): 4874-83, 2008 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18809760

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) show pronounced heterogeneity in self-renewal and differentiation behavior, which is reflected in their repopulation kinetics. Here, a single-cell-based mathematical model of HSC organization is used to examine the basis of HSC heterogeneity. Our modeling results, which are based on the analysis of limiting dilution competitive repopulation experiments in mice, demonstrate that small quantitative but clonally fixed differences of cellular properties are necessary and sufficient to account for the observed functional heterogeneity. The model predicts, and experimental data validate, that competitive pressures will amplify small clonal differences into large changes in the number of differentiated progeny. We further predict that the repertoire of HSC clones will evolve over time. Last, our results suggest that larger differences in cellular properties have to be assumed to account for genetically determined differences in HSC behavior as observed in different inbred mice strains. The model provides comprehensive systemic and quantitative insights into the clonal heterogeneity among HSCs with potential applications in predicting the behavior of malignant and/or genetically modified cells.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Clonais/citologia , Cinética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Teóricos
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