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1.
J Cancer Educ ; 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377987

RESUMO

How health care providers select topics and activities for learning is key to meeting their needs. The goal of this study was to investigate how oncology providers identify knowledge gaps and choose learning activities. An online focus group within a larger longitudinal study was conducted between November 2015 and August 2016. Participants were chosen by convenience and stratified random sampling of diverse types of oncology providers. Providers were asked monthly to identify learning needs, explain how they identified those needs, and describe the learning activity they chose to meet those needs. Thirty-two oncology providers recorded 201 learning needs via online journal entries (mean 6 entries per person). Needs were associated with practice setting and professional role (p < .05). Colleague recommendation predicted learning needs for advanced practice providers (APPs) (p = .003). Patient cases drove > 50% of identified learning needs across groups. Learning activity preferences were associated with practice setting (p < .05). Choice of learning activity was associated with practice setting, professional role, and geographic location. Colleague recommendation was important for APPs (p = .025). Over 75% of learner responses identify convenience and content quality as important factors in choosing an activity. This study represents a quantitative assessment of learning behaviors for oncology providers and shows that identification of learning needs and activity selection differ by provider demographics. Limitations include small size and underrepresentation of some groups. Our findings should be confirmed with larger samples. Future research should focus on assessment of cohort versus individual needs and learning priorities.

2.
Lancet Oncol ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phase 3 clinical data has shown higher proportions of patients with objective response, longer response duration, and longer overall survival with nivolumab versus docetaxel in patients with previously treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to evaluate the long-term benefit of nivolumab and the effect of response and disease control on subsequent survival. METHODS: We pooled data from four clinical studies of nivolumab in patients with previously treated NSCLC (CheckMate 017, 057, 063, and 003) to evaluate survival outcomes. Trials of nivolumab in the second-line or later setting with at least 4 years follow-up were included. Comparisons of nivolumab versus docetaxel included all randomised patients from the phase 3 CheckMate 017 and 057 studies. We did landmark analyses by response status at 6 months to determine post-landmark survival outcomes. We excluded patients who did not have a radiographic tumour assessment at 6 months. Safety analyses included all patients who received at least one dose of nivolumab. FINDINGS: Across all four studies, 4-year overall survival with nivolumab was 14% (95% CI 11-17) for all patients (n=664), 19% (15-24) for those with at least 1% PD-L1 expression, and 11% (7-16) for those with less than 1% PD-L1 expression. In CheckMate 017 and 057, 4-year overall survival was 14% (95% CI 11-18) in patients treated with nivolumab, compared with 5% (3-7) in patients treated with docetaxel. Survival subsequent to response at 6 months on nivolumab or docetaxel was longer than after progressive disease at 6 months, with hazard ratios for overall survival of 0·18 (95% 0·12-0·27) for nivolumab and 0·43 (0·29-0·65) for docetaxel; for stable disease versus progressive disease, hazard ratios were 0·52 (0·37-0·71) for nivolumab and 0·80 (0·61-1·04) for docetaxel. Long-term data did not show any new safety signals. INTERPRETATION: Patients with advanced NSCLC treated with nivolumab achieved a greater duration of response compared with patients treated with docetaxel, which was associated with a long-term survival advantage. FUNDING: Bristol-Myers Squibb.

3.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446141

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite initial effectiveness of ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in patients with ALK+ non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), therapeutic resistance will ultimately develop. Serial tracking of genetic alterations detected in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) can be an informative strategy to identify response and resistance. This study evaluated the utility of analyzing ctDNA as a function of response to ensartinib, a potent second-generation ALK TKI. METHODS: Pre-treatment plasma was collected from 76 patients with ALK+ NSCLC who were ALK TKI naïve or had received prior ALK TKI, and analyzed for specific genetic alterations. Longitudinal plasma samples were analyzed from a subset (N=11) of patients. Analysis of pre-treatment tumor biopsies from 22 patients was compared with plasma. RESULTS: Disease-associated genetic alterations were detected in 74% (56/76) of patients, the most common being EML4-ALK. Concordance of ALK fusion between plasma and tissue was 91% (20/22). Twenty-four ALK kinase domain mutations were detected in 15 patients, all had previously received an ALK TKI; G1269A was the most prevalent (4/24). Patients with a detectable EML4-ALK variant 1 (V1) fusion had improved response (9/17, 53%) to ensartinib compared to patients with EML4-ALK V3 fusion (1/7, 14%). Serial changes in ALK alterations were observed during therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical utility of ctDNA was demonstrated, both at pre-treatment by identifying a potential subgroup of ALK+ NSCLC patients that may derive more benefit from ensartinib and longitudinally by tracking resistance. Prospective application of this technology may translate to improved outcomes for NSCLC patients treated with ALK TKIs.

4.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(26): 2360-2367, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361535

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pemetrexed or bevacizumab is used for maintenance therapy of advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The combination of bevacizumab and pemetrexed has also demonstrated efficacy. We conducted a randomized study to determine the optimal maintenance therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC and no prior systemic therapy received carboplatin (area under the curve, 6), paclitaxel (200 mg/m2), and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) for up to four cycles. Patients without progression after four cycles were randomly assigned to maintenance therapy with bevacizumab (15 mg/kg), pemetrexed (500 mg/m2), or a combination of the two agents. The primary end point was overall survival, with bevacizumab serving as the control group. RESULTS: Of the 1,516 patients enrolled, 874 (57%) were randomly assigned after induction therapy to one of the three maintenance therapy groups. With a median follow-up of 50.6 months, median survival with pemetrexed was 15.9 months, compared with 14.4 months with bevacizumab (hazard ratio [HR], 0.86; P = .12); median survival with pemetrexed and bevacizumab was 16.4 months (HR, 0.9; P = .28); median progression-free survival was 4.2, 5.1 (HR, 0.85; P = .06), and 7.5 months (HR, 0.67; P < .001) for the three groups, respectively. Incidence of worst grade 3 to 4 toxicity was 29%, 37%, and 51%, respectively, for bevacizumab, pemetrexed, and the combination regimen. CONCLUSION: Single-agent bevacizumab or pemetrexed is efficacious as maintenance therapy for advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. Because of a lack of survival benefit and higher toxicity, the combination of bevacizumab and pemetrexed cannot be recommended.

5.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1900934, 2019 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154919

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pembrolizumab monotherapy has demonstrated durable antitumor activity in advanced programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) -expressing non‒small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We report 5-year outcomes from the phase Ib KEYNOTE-001 study. These data provide the longest efficacy and safety follow-up for patients with NSCLC treated with pembrolizumab monotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had confirmed locally advanced/metastatic NSCLC and provided a contemporaneous tumor sample for PD-L1 evaluation by immunohistochemistry using the 22C3 antibody. Patients received intravenous pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks or 10 mg/kg every 2 or 3 weeks. Investigators assessed response per immune-related response criteria. The primary efficacy end point was objective response rate. Overall survival (OS) and duration of response were secondary end points. RESULTS: We enrolled 101 treatment-naive and 449 previously treated patients. Median follow-up was 60.6 months (range, 51.8 to 77.9 months). At data cutoff-November 5, 2018-450 patients (82%) had died. Median OS was 22.3 months (95% CI, 17.1 to 32.3 months) in treatment-naive patients and 10.5 months (95% CI, 8.6 to 13.2 months) in previously treated patients. Estimated 5-year OS was 23.2% for treatment-naive patients and 15.5% for previously treated patients. In patients with a PD-L1 tumor proportion score of 50% or greater, 5-year OS was 29.6% and 25.0% in treatment-naive and previously treated patients, respectively. Compared with analysis at 3 years, only three new-onset treatment-related grade 3 adverse events occurred (hypertension, glucose intolerance, and hypersensitivity reaction, all resolved). No late-onset grade 4 or 5 treatment-related adverse events occurred. CONCLUSION: Pembrolizumab monotherapy provided durable antitumor activity and high 5-year OS rates in patients with treatment-naive or previously treated advanced NSCLC. Of note, the 5-year OS rate exceeded 25% among patients with a PD-L1 tumor proportion score of 50% or greater. Pembrolizumab had a tolerable long-term safety profile with little evidence of late-onset or new toxicity.

6.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 39: e187-e197, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099642

RESUMO

Personalized therapy based on actionable molecular markers has completely transformed the therapeutic landscape in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In less than 15 years, multiple molecular targets, led by EGFR and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), have been identified, and myriad oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are now available to target these oncogenic drivers, with the expectation that the majority of patients will respond to treatment and that progression-free survival (PFS) will exceed 10 to 30 months, far better than we observed historically with chemotherapy alone. As a result, prognosis has improved dramatically in this subset of patients. Osimertinib has largely displaced first- and second-generation EGFR TKIs, including gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib, in the management of EGFR-mutated NSCLC. PFS now exceeds 18 months, and central nervous system penetrance is enhanced. Dacomitinib has the distinction of being the first EGFR TKI to demonstrate a survival advantage compared with older TKIs. Recent data suggest therapeutic additivity, if not synergy, for the concurrent use of chemotherapy, as well as monoclonal antibodies targeting angiogenesis, with EGFR TKIs. Alectinib and brigatinib, very specific ALK inhibitors, have proven superior to the erstwhile standard crizotinib in treatment-naive ALK+ NSCLC; PFS now routinely exceeds 2 to 3 years. In addition, these newer agents have far superior central nervous system penetration. As a result, many patients with ALK+ advanced NSCLC with brain metastases, even some who are symptomatic, can defer or indefinitely avoid brain irradiation. Mechanisms of resistance in ALK are complicated, with multiple new agents being developed in this arena. Although many patients with molecular targets can reasonably expect to live 5 years or more, the emergence of molecular resistance is virtually inevitable. In this regard, systemic platinum-based chemotherapy is the final common therapeutic pathway for virtually all patients with oncogenic drivers. Standard regimens include pemetrexed and carboplatin, as well as the E4599 regimen, combination solvent-based paclitaxel, carboplatin, and bevacizumab. Checkpoint inhibitors, as single agents, have not yielded much benefit, even in those with high levels of PD-L1 expression. However, in a subanalysis of patients with ALK and EGFR mutations enrolled in IMpower150, the addition of atezolizumab to the E4599 regimen led to a major overall survival benefit (hazard ratio < 0.40). In the absence of systemic chemotherapy, combining checkpoint inhibitors with TKIs in this setting remains investigational; several studies have demonstrated untoward pulmonary and hepatic toxicity.

7.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(9): 1628-1639, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121324

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: CheckMate 153 (NCT02066636) is a phase 3B/4 study assessing nivolumab in previously treated patients with advanced NSCLC. Eligibility criteria allowed enrollment of patients with poor prognostic features of advanced age or diminished Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS), which are typically underrepresented in or excluded from randomized controlled trials. METHODS: Patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC and an ECOG PS of 0 to 2 with disease progression after at least one systemic therapy received nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks) until progression, unacceptable toxicity, or consent withdrawal. The primary end point was the incidence of grade 3 to 5 select treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs). RESULTS: Among 1426 treated patients, 556 (39%) were aged 70 years or older and 128 (9%) had an ECOG PS of 2. The median treatment duration was 3.2 months. Across subgroups and the overall population, the incidences of select grade 3 to 5 TRAEs (6%-9%) and grade 3 or 4 TRAEs (12%-14%) were similar. One grade 5 TRAE was documented. The median overall survival time was comparable in the overall population (9.1 months) and patients aged 70 years or older (10.3 months) but shorter in patients with an ECOG PS of 2 (4.0 months). Patient-reported outcomes generally improved. CONCLUSIONS: Data from this large predominantly community-based study, which included patients aged 70 years or older and with an ECOG PS of 2, are consistent with registrational studies. As expected, the median overall survival for patients with an ECOG PS of 2 was lower than for the overall population but comparable with historical data.

8.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(4): 339-346, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite widespread recommendation and supportive policies, screening with low-dose CT (LDCT) is incompletely implemented in the US healthcare system. Low provider knowledge of the lung cancer screening (LCS) guidelines represents a potential barrier to implementation. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that low provider knowledge of guidelines is associated with less provider-reported screening with LDCT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed in a large academic medical center and affiliated Veterans Health Administration in the Mid-South United States that comprises hospital and community-based practices. Participants included general medicine providers and specialists who treat patients aged >50 years. The primary exposure was LCS guideline knowledge (US Preventive Services Task Force/Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services). High knowledge was defined as identifying 3 major screening eligibility criteria (55 years as initial age of screening eligibility, smoking status as current or former smoker, and smoking history of ≥30 pack-years), and low knowledge was defined as not identifying these 3 criteria. The primary outcome was self-reported LDCT order/referral within the past year, and the secondary outcome was screening chest radiograph. Multivariable logistic regression evaluated the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of screening by knowledge. RESULTS: Of 625 providers recruited, 407 (65%) responded, and 378 (60.5%) were analyzed. Overall, 233 providers (62%) demonstrated low LCS knowledge, and 224 (59%) reported ordering/referring for LDCT. The aOR of ordering/referring LDCT was less among providers with low knowledge (0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.71) than among those with high knowledge. More providers with low knowledge reported ordering screening chest radiographs (aOR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-5.0) within the past year. CONCLUSIONS: Referring provider knowledge of LCS guidelines is low and directly proportional to the ordering rate for LDCT in an at-risk US population. Strategies to advance evidence-based LCS should incorporate provider education and system-level interventions to address gaps in provider knowledge.

9.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 20(3): e291-e298, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early palliative care (PC) improves quality of life and prolongs survival for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite these benefits, patient- and provider-specific barriers lead to underutilization of PC. To investigate these barriers, this 2 part study surveyed United States oncologists and patients with NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Oncologists in the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer membership directory were surveyed on referral practice and attitudes regarding the role of PC for patients with NSCLC. Patients with advanced NSCLC at the Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center were surveyed separately regarding their understanding of PC and factors influencing them to seek referral. RESULTS: Of 279 oncologists, 93 responded. Eighty-three percent believe definitive evidence exists supporting early PC; however, in practice, oncologists only refer an average of 19% of patients at diagnosis. Reasons for not referring included lack of symptoms (56%), belief that oncologists can manage PC independently (46%), not wanting to burden patients with appointments (41%), concern that referral may not be well received (38%), and long wait times (20%). Of 100 patients with NSCLC, 64% were unfamiliar with PC. Six percent had seen a PC provider. Ninety-eight percent of patients would accept referral if recommended by their oncologist. Patients desired referral for uncontrolled pain (95%), weak support system (86%), other cancer-related symptoms (85%), goals of care discussion (76%), and depression/anxiety (76%). CONCLUSION: Although most oncologists acknowledge benefits of early PC for patients with metastatic NSCLC, a minority of patients are referred. Few patients with NSCLC are familiar with PC, but most are interested in referral.

10.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(4): 347-357, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The anti-programmed death 1 monoclonal antibody pembrolizumab has shown antitumour activity and is a first-line and second-line treatment option for patients with programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-expressing advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. We report updated 3-year safety and efficacy outcomes from the phase 1 study, KEYNOTE-001. METHODS: KEYNOTE-001 is a multicohort, open-label, phase 1 study of pembrolizumab (2 mg/kg every 3 weeks or 10 mg/kg every 2 or 3 weeks) in treatment naive or previously treated patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer with measurable disease at baseline. Two cohorts were randomly assigned to a pembrolizumab dose by use of a computer-generated randomisation schedule at cohort-dependent ratios, and a further four cohorts were assigned to a pembrolizumab dose without randomisation. We present 3-year outcomes for the full analysis set of patients who received at least one dose of study treatment, pooled for all pembrolizumab doses. The primary efficacy endpoint was proportion of patients with objective response, analysed here as investigator-assessed response according to immune-related response criteria. Secondary efficacy endpoints included overall survival, duration of response, and progression-free survival. Safety endpoints included incidence of adverse events. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01295827, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between May 8, 2012 and July 13, 2014, 550 patients (101 treatment naive and 449 previously treated) were enrolled. Median follow-up was 34·5 months at data cutoff (Sept 1, 2016). At 36 months, investigator-assessed objective response according to immune-related response criteria was achieved for 41 of 101 treatment naive patients (41% [95% CI 30·9-50·8]; median duration of response was 16·7 months [95% CI 12·6-not reached]) and 102 of 449 previously treated patients (23% [18·9-26·9]; 33·3 ([22·5-not reached]). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival at 36 months was 26·4% (95% CI 14·3-40·1) for treatment naive patients and 19·0% (15·0-23·4) for previously treated patients, with median overall survival of 22·3 months (95% CI 17·1-31·5) and 10·5 months (8·6-13·2). PD-L1 tumour proportion score ≥50% was associated with longer median overall survival (95% CI) versus tumour proportion score 1-49% (treatment naive: 34·9 [20·3-not reached] vs 19·5 [10·7-26·3] months; previously treated: 15·4 [10·5-18·5] vs 8·5 [6·0-12·7] months). Grade 3-5 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 66 patients (12%), and 30 (6%) discontinued owing to a treatment-related adverse event. The most frequent grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were pneumonitis (10 [2%] of 550) and fatigue (5 [1%] of 550). Overall, 227 patients (41%) of 550 had serious adverse events, of which 50 (9%) were treatment related. INTERPRETATION: Pembrolizumab provides durable response and long-term effects on overall survival, with tolerable safety, for treatment naive and previously treated patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer expressing PD-L1. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.

11.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(5): 933-939, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763730

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Osimertinib is a third-generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). Durvalumab is an anti-programmed death ligand 1 monoclonal antibody. The phase III open-label CAURAL trial (NCT02454933) investigated osimertinib plus durvalumab versus osimertinib monotherapy in patients with EGFR-TKI sensitizing and EGFR T790M mutation-positive advanced NSCLC and disease progression after EGFR-TKI therapy. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive orally administered osimertinib (80 mg once daily) with or without durvalumab (10 mg/kg administered intravenously every 2 weeks) until progression. Treatment could continue beyond progression, providing clinical benefit continued (judged by the investigator). The amended primary objective was to assess the safety and tolerability of osimertinib plus durvalumab; efficacy was an exploratory objective. RESULTS: CAURAL recruitment was terminated early because of increased incidence of interstitial lung disease-like events in the osimertinib plus durvalumab arm from the separate phase Ib TATTON trial (NCT02143466). At termination of CAURAL recruitment, 15 patients had been randomly assigned to treatment with osimertinib and 14 to treatment with osimertinib plus durvalumab. The most common AEs were diarrhea (53% [grade ≥3 in 6% of patients]) in the osimertinib arm and rash (67% [grade ≥3 in 0 patients]) in the combination arm. One patient who had been randomized to the combination arm reported grade 2 interstitial lung disease while receiving osimertinib monotherapy (after discontinuing durvalumab therapy after one dose). The objective response rates were 80% in the osimertinib arm and 64% in the combination arm. CONCLUSION: Limited patient numbers preclude formal safety and efficacy comparisons between the two treatment arms. The combination of programmed cell death 1/programmed death ligand 1 inhibitors and EGFR-TKIs as therapy for NSCLC is not well understood, but it requires a careful approach if considered in the future.

12.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(12): 992-1000, 2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785829

RESUMO

PURPOSE: CheckMate 568 is an open-label phase II trial that evaluated the efficacy and safety of nivolumab plus low-dose ipilimumab as first-line treatment of advanced/metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We assessed the association of efficacy with programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and tumor mutational burden (TMB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred eighty-eight patients with previously untreated, recurrent stage IIIB/IV NSCLC received nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg every 6 weeks. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR) in patients with 1% or more and less than 1% tumor PD-L1 expression. Efficacy on the basis of TMB (FoundationOne CDx assay) was a secondary end point. RESULTS: Of treated patients with tumor available for testing, 252 patients (88%) of 288 were evaluable for PD-L1 expression and 98 patients (82%) of 120 for TMB. ORR was 30% overall and 41% and 15% in patients with 1% or greater and less than 1% tumor PD-L1 expression, respectively. ORR increased with higher TMB, plateauing at 10 or more mutations/megabase (mut/Mb). Regardless of PD-L1 expression, ORRs were higher in patients with TMB of 10 or more mut/Mb (n = 48: PD-L1, ≥ 1%, 48%; PD-L1, < 1%, 47%) versus TMB of fewer than 10 mut/Mb (n = 50: PD-L1, ≥ 1%, 18%; PD-L1, < 1%, 5%), and progression-free survival was longer in patients with TMB of 10 or more mut/Mb versus TMB of fewer than 10 mut/Mb (median, 7.1 v 2.6 months). Grade 3 to 4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 29% of patients. CONCLUSION: Nivolumab plus low-dose ipilimumab was effective and tolerable as a first-line treatment of advanced/metastatic NSCLC. TMB of 10 or more mut/Mb was associated with improved response and prolonged progression-free survival in both tumor PD-L1 expression 1% or greater and less than 1% subgroups and was thus identified as a potentially relevant cutoff in the assessment of TMB as a biomarker for first-line nivolumab plus ipilimumab.

14.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(4): 701-711, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677506

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This phase II study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the pan-cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor roniciclib with platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with extensive-disease SCLC. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind study, unselected patients with previously untreated extensive-disease SCLC received roniciclib, 5 mg, or placebo twice daily according to a 3 days-on, 4 days-off schedule in 21-day cycles, with concomitant cisplatin or carboplatin on day 1 and etoposide on days 1 to 3. The primary end point was progression-free survival. Other end points included overall survival, objective response rate, and safety. RESULTS: A total of 140 patients received treatment: 70 with roniciclib plus chemotherapy and 70 with placebo plus chemotherapy. Median progression-free survival times was 4.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.2-5.5) with roniciclib plus chemotherapy and 5.5 months (95% CI: 4.6-5.6) with placebo plus chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.242, 95% CI: 0.820-1.881, p = 0.8653). Median overall survival times was 9.7 months (95% CI: 7.9-11.1) with roniciclib plus chemotherapy and 10.3 months (95% CI: 8.7-11.9) with placebo plus chemotherapy (HR = 1.281, 95% CI: 0.776-1.912, p = 0.7858). The objective response rates were 60.6% with roniciclib plus chemotherapy and 74.6% with placebo plus chemotherapy. Common treatment-emergent adverse events in both groups included nausea, vomiting, and fatigue. Serious treatment-emergent adverse events were more common with roniciclib plus chemotherapy (57.1%) than with placebo plus chemotherapy (38.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Roniciclib combined with chemotherapy demonstrated an unfavorable risk-benefit profile in patients with extensive-disease SCLC, and the study was prematurely terminated.

15.
Lung Cancer ; 128: 74-90, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642457

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clinical outcomes data on BRAF-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated in routine practice is limited. To address this gap, we described treatment patterns and survival in a cohort of these patients evaluated/treated at 7 US academic cancer centers during 2009-2016. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review. Patients with BRAF V600-mutated metastatic NSCLC were selected. Current/previous participants in BRAF-related trials were excluded. Onset of metastatic NSCLC defined a patient's index date, which had to occur ≥6 months before the chart review date. Analyses were descriptive, including Kaplan-Meier analyses for overall survival (OS). RESULTS: The study included 72 patients. At index, median age (range) was 65 (44-90) years; 61.1% were female. Fifty-two patients received ≥1 line of systemic therapy for metastatic disease. Platinum-based doublet chemotherapy was the most common first-line (1 L) regimen (76.9% of 1 l recipients); no patient received 1 l targeted therapy (TT) with a BRAF/MEK inhibitor. In total, 20 patients received TT in any treatment line (2 l or later). At time of review, 38 patients were deceased. Median (95%CI) OS from index for all patients was 31.0 (14.5, 63.8) months. Median (95%CI) OS was 56.5 (13.4, 89.1) months from index for TT recipients and 27.2 (10.6, 64.6) months in patients not treated with TT. CONCLUSION: Survival time in BRAF V600-mutated metastatic NSCLC patients studied here was higher than expected based on indirect comparisons with historical NSCLC cohorts for whom no oncogenic driver (BRAF or otherwise) was present. TT recipients had a numerically longer OS from metastatic onset than patients receiving usual care, further highlighting the importance of TT in BRAF V600-mutant NSCLC.

17.
JCI Insight ; 3(24)2018 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568030

RESUMO

Immunotherapies targeting the PD-1 pathway produce durable responses in many cancers, but the tumor-intrinsic factors governing response and resistance are largely unknown. MHC-II expression on tumor cells can predict response to anti-PD-1 therapy. We therefore sought to determine how MHC-II expression by tumor cells promotes PD-1 dependency. Using transcriptional profiling of anti-PD-1-treated patients, we identified unique patterns of immune activation in MHC-II+ tumors. In patients and preclinical models, MHC-II+ tumors recruited CD4+ T cells and developed dependency on PD-1 as well as Lag-3 (an MHC-II inhibitory receptor), which was upregulated in MHC-II+ tumors at acquired resistance to anti-PD-1. Finally, we identify enhanced expression of FCRL6, another MHC-II receptor expressed on NK and T cells, in the microenvironment of MHC-II+ tumors. We ascribe this to what we believe to be a novel inhibitory function of FCRL6 engagement, identifying it as an immunotherapy target. These data suggest a MHC-II-mediated context-dependent mechanism of adaptive resistance to PD-1-targeting immunotherapy.

18.
Cancer ; 2018 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platinum and etoposide with thoracic radiation followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation constitute the standard treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). Many patients with LS-SCLC are elderly with comorbidities. METHODS: Individual patient data were collected from 11 phase 2 or 3 trials for LS-SCLC conducted by the National Clinical Trials Network and activated from 1990 to 2010. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS); the secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), the rate of severe adverse events, and off-treatment reasons. The outcomes were compared for patients 70 years old or older (elderly patients) and patients younger than 70 years (younger patients). RESULTS: Individual patient data from 1049 younger patients (81%) and 254 elderly patients (19%) were analyzed. In the multivariate model, elderly patients, in comparison with younger patients, had worse OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-1.63; median OS for elderly patients, 17.8 months; OS for younger patients, 23.5 months) and worse PFS (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03-1.39; median PFS for elderly patients, 10.6 months; median PFS for younger patients, 12.3 months). Elderly patients, in comparison with younger patients, experienced more grade 5 adverse events (8% vs 3%; P < .01) and more grade 3 or higher dyspnea (11% vs 7%; P = .03) but less grade 3 or higher esophagitis/dysphagia (14% vs 19%; P = .04) and less grade 3 or higher vomiting (11% vs 17%; P = .01). Elderly patients completed treatment less often, discontinued treatment because of adverse events and patient refusal more frequently, and died during treatment more frequently. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly patients with LS-SCLC have worse PFS and OS and more difficulty in tolerating therapy. Future trials should incorporate assessments of elderly patients, novel monitoring of adverse events, and more tolerable radiation and systemic therapies.

19.
N Engl J Med ; 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enhancing tumor-specific T-cell immunity by inhibiting programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-programmed death 1 (PD-1) signaling has shown promise in the treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer. Combining checkpoint inhibition with cytotoxic chemotherapy may have a synergistic effect and improve efficacy. METHODS: We conducted this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial to evaluate atezolizumab plus carboplatin and etoposide in patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer who had not previously received treatment. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive carboplatin and etoposide with either atezolizumab or placebo for four 21-day cycles (induction phase), followed by a maintenance phase during which they received either atezolizumab or placebo (according to the previous random assignment) until they had unacceptable toxic effects, disease progression according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1, or no additional clinical benefit. The two primary end points were investigator-assessed progression-free survival and overall survival in the intention-to-treat population. RESULTS: A total of 201 patients were randomly assigned to the atezolizumab group, and 202 patients to the placebo group. At a median follow-up of 13.9 months, the median overall survival was 12.3 months in the atezolizumab group and 10.3 months in the placebo group (hazard ratio for death, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.91; P=0.007). The median progression-free survival was 5.2 months and 4.3 months, respectively (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.96; P=0.02). The safety profile of atezolizumab plus carboplatin and etoposide was consistent with the previously reported safety profile of the individual agents, with no new findings observed. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of atezolizumab to chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer resulted in significantly longer overall survival and progression-free survival than chemotherapy alone. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech; IMpower133 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02763579 .).

20.
JAMA Oncol ; 2018 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30242316

RESUMO

Importance: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are now a mainstay of cancer treatment. Although rare, fulminant and fatal toxic effects may complicate these otherwise transformative therapies; characterizing these events requires integration of global data. Objective: To determine the spectrum, timing, and clinical features of fatal ICI-associated toxic effects. Design, Setting, and Participants: We retrospectively queried a World Health Organization (WHO) pharmacovigilance database (Vigilyze) comprising more than 16 000 000 adverse drug reactions, and records from 7 academic centers. We performed a meta-analysis of published trials of anti-programmed death-1/ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) and anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) to evaluate their incidence using data from large academic medical centers, global WHO pharmacovigilance data, and all published ICI clinical trials of patients with cancer treated with ICIs internationally. Exposures: Anti-CTLA-4 (ipilimumab or tremelimumab), anti-PD-1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab), or anti-PD-L1 (atezolizumab, avelumab, durvalumab). Main Outcomes and Measures: Timing, spectrum, outcomes, and incidence of ICI-associated toxic effects. Results: Internationally, 613 fatal ICI toxic events were reported from 2009 through January 2018 in Vigilyze. The spectrum differed widely between regimens: in a total of 193 anti-CTLA-4 deaths, most were usually from colitis (135 [70%]), whereas anti-PD-1/PD-L1-related fatalities were often from pneumonitis (333 [35%]), hepatitis (115 [22%]), and neurotoxic effects (50 [15%]). Combination PD-1/CTLA-4 deaths were frequently from colitis (32 [37%]) and myocarditis (22 [25%]). Fatal toxic effects typically occurred early after therapy initiation for combination therapy, anti-PD-1, and ipilimumab monotherapy (median 14.5, 40, and 40 days, respectively). Myocarditis had the highest fatality rate (52 [39.7%] of 131 reported cases), whereas endocrine events and colitis had only 2% to 5% reported fatalities; 10% to 17% of other organ-system toxic effects reported had fatal outcomes. Retrospective review of 3545 patients treated with ICIs from 7 academic centers revealed 0.6% fatality rates; cardiac and neurologic events were especially prominent (43%). Median time from symptom onset to death was 32 days. A meta-analysis of 112 trials involving 19 217 patients showed toxicity-related fatality rates of 0.36% (anti-PD-1), 0.38% (anti-PD-L1), 1.08% (anti-CTLA-4), and 1.23% (PD-1/PD-L1 plus CTLA-4). Conclusions and Relevance: In the largest evaluation of fatal ICI-associated toxic effects published to date to our knowledge, we observed early onset of death with varied causes and frequencies depending on therapeutic regimen. Clinicians across disciplines should be aware of these uncommon lethal complications.

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