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Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361733


Biocomposites comprising a combination of natural fibres and bio-based polymers are good alternatives to those produced from synthetic components in terms of sustainability and environmental issues. However, it is well known that water or aqueous chemical solutions affect natural polymers/fibres more than the respective synthetic components. In this study the effects of water, salt water, acidic and alkali solutions ageing on water uptake, mechanical properties and flammability of natural fibre-reinforced polypropylene (PP) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites were compared. Jute, sisal and wool fibre- reinforced PP and PLA composites were prepared using a novel, patented nonwoven technology followed by the hot press method. The prepared composites were aged in water and chemical solutions for up to 3 week periods. Water absorption, flexural properties and the thermal and flammability performances of the composites were investigated before and after ageing each process. The effect of post-ageing drying on the retention of mechanical and flammability properties has also been studied. A linear relationship between irreversible flexural modulus reduction and water adsorption/desorption was observed. The aqueous chemical solutions caused further but minor effects in terms of moisture sorption and flexural modulus changes. PLA composites were affected more than the respective PP composites, because of their hydrolytic sensitivity. From thermal analytical results, these changes in PP composites could be attributed to ageing effects on fibres, whereas in PLA composite changes related to both those of fibres present and of the polymer. Ageing however, had no adverse effect on the flammability of the composites.

Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Fibras Minerais/análise , Poliésteres/química , Polipropilenos/química , Água/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/análise , Fibra de Algodão/análise , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Poliésteres/análise , Polipropilenos/análise , Soluções , Fibra de Lã/análise
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971820


This review considers the challenge of developing sustainable organobromine flame retardants (BrFRs) and alternative synergists to the predominantly used antimony III oxide. Current BrFR efficiencies are reviewed for textile coatings and back-coatings with a focus on furnishing and similar fabrics covering underlying flammable fillings, such as flexible polyurethane foam. The difficulty of replacing them with non-halogen-containing systems is also reviewed with major disadvantages including their extreme specificity with regard to a given textile type and poor durability.The possibility of replacing currently used BrFRs for textiles structures that mimic naturally occurring organobromine-containing species is discussed, noting that of the nearly 2000 such species identified in both marine and terrestrial environments, a significant number are functionalised polybrominated diphenyl ethers, which form part of a series of little understood biosynthetic biodegradation cycles.The continued use of antimony III oxide as synergist and possible replacement by alternatives, such as the commercially available zinc stannates and the recently identified zinc tungstate, are discussed. Both are effective as synergists and smoke suppressants, but unlike Sb203, they have efficiencies dependent on BrFR chemistry and polymer matrix or textile structure. Furthermore, their effectiveness in textile coatings has yet to be more fully assessed.In conclusion, it is proposed that the future of sustainable BrFRs should be based on naturally occurring polybrominated structures developed in conjunction with non-toxic, smoke-suppressing synergists such as the zinc stannates or zinc tungstate, which have been carefully tailored for given polymeric and textile substrates.

Polymers (Basel) ; 12(7)2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668613


While environmental concerns have caused polymeric brominated primary flame retardants (PolyBrFRs) to be effective replacement monomeric species, few alternatives for antimony trioxide (ATO) have been developed beyond the zinc stannates (ZnSs). Previous research, which explored the interactions of aluminium (AlW), tin (II) (SnW) and zinc (ZnW) tungstates with several phosphorus-containing flame retardants in polyamide 6.6 (PA66), is extended to two PolyBrFRs: brominated polystyrene (BrPS), and poly(pentabromobenzyl acrylate) (BrPBz). On assessing the effect of each tungstate on the thermal degradation and flammability in combination with each PolyBrFR using TGA, UL94, LOI, cone calorimetry and TGA-FTIR, only ZnW and SnW showed significant increases in LOI (>26 vol.%). Both ZnW-BrPS- and ZnW-BrPBz-containing formulations yielded average UL94 ratings ≥ V-2 and TGA char residues (corrected for metals content at 500 °C) in air > 15 wt.%. BrPS-containing samples, especially those containing ZnW and SnW, generated peak heat release rates approximately 50% lower than the equivalent BrPBz samples. These reductions did not correlate with respective increases in LOI, suggesting that tungstate-PolyBrFR combinations influence pre-ignition differently to post-ignition behaviour. Calculated synergistic effectivities indicate that ZnW functions as a synergist in both pre- and post-ignition stages, especially with BrPS. TGA-FTIR and char analyses showed that, in addition to the vapour-phase activity normally associated with PolyBrFRs, condensed-phase processes occurred, especially for the ZnW-PolyBrFR combinations. Additionally, ZnW demonstrated significant smoke-suppressing properties comparable with zinc stannate (ZnS).