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1.
Dis Model Mech ; 15(2)2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722956

RESUMO

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with cranial nerve anomalies and disordered oropharyngeal function, including pediatric dysphagia. Using the LgDel 22q11DS mouse model, we investigated whether sensory neuron differentiation in the trigeminal ganglion (CNgV), which is essential for normal orofacial function, is disrupted. We did not detect changes in cranial placode cell translocation or neural crest migration at early stages of LgDel CNgV development. However, as the ganglion coalesces, proportions of placode-derived LgDel CNgV cells increase relative to neural crest cells. In addition, local aggregation of placode-derived cells increases and aggregation of neural crest-derived cells decreases in LgDel CNgV. This change in cell-cell relationships was accompanied by altered proliferation of placode-derived cells at embryonic day (E)9.5, and premature neurogenesis from neural crest-derived precursors, reflected by an increased frequency of asymmetric neurogenic divisions for neural crest-derived precursors by E10.5. These early differences in LgDel CNgV genesis prefigure changes in sensory neuron differentiation and gene expression by postnatal day 8, when early signs of cranial nerve dysfunction associated with pediatric dysphagia are observed in LgDel mice. Apparently, 22q11 deletion destabilizes CNgV sensory neuron genesis and differentiation by increasing variability in cell-cell interaction, proliferation and sensory neuron differentiation. This early developmental divergence and its consequences may contribute to oropharyngeal dysfunction, including suckling, feeding and swallowing disruptions at birth, and additional orofacial sensory/motor deficits throughout life.

2.
Surgery ; 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Black Americans have a higher incidence and mortality rate from colorectal cancer compared to their non-Hispanic White American counterparts. Even when controlling for sociodemographic differences between these 2 populations, Black Americans remain disproportionately affected by colorectal cancer. The purpose of our study was to determine if differences in gene expression between Black American and non-Hispanic White American colon cancer specimens could help explain differences in the incidence and mortality rate between these 2 populations. METHODS: Black Americans and non-Hispanic White Americans undergoing colon resection for stages I, II, or III colon cancer at a single institution were identified. Black American and non-Hispanic White American patients were matched for age, sex, and colon cancer stage to minimize the risk of confounding variables. Tissue samples were obtained at the time of colon resection and were analyzed using RNA sequencing to determine if there were differences in the expression of genes and biologic processes between the 2 groups. RESULTS: A total of 17 colon cancer specimens were analyzed; 8 (47.1%) patients were Black Americans. A total of 456 genes were identified as being expressed differently (ie, up or downregulated) in Black American compared to non-Hispanic White American colon cancer specimens. Moreover, 500 different genetic pathways were noted to be significantly over-represented with differentially expressed genes in our comparison of Black American and non-Hispanic White American colon cancer specimens, the majority of which plays a role in inflammation and immune cell function. CONCLUSION: Significant differences in gene expression and genetic pathways exist between Black Americans and non-Hispanic White Americans. Additional and multi-institutional and registry-based studies are needed to validate our findings and to further elucidate the contribution that these differences have to the overall incidence and mortality rate from colon cancer in these 2 patient populations.

3.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 40, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, pioneering expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies on single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data have revealed new and cell-specific regulatory single nucleotide variants (SNVs). Here, we present an alternative QTL-related approach applicable to transcribed SNV loci from scRNA-seq data: scReQTL. ScReQTL uses Variant Allele Fraction (VAFRNA) at expressed biallelic loci, and corelates it to gene expression from the corresponding cell. RESULTS: Our approach employs the advantage that, when estimated from multiple cells, VAFRNA can be used to assess effects of SNVs in a single sample or individual. In this setting scReQTL operates in the context of identical genotypes, where it is likely to capture RNA-mediated genetic interactions with cell-specific and transient effects. Applying scReQTL on scRNA-seq data generated on the 10 × Genomics Chromium platform using 26,640 mesenchymal cells derived from adipose tissue obtained from three healthy female donors, we identified 1272 unique scReQTLs. ScReQTLs common between individuals or cell types were consistent in terms of the directionality of the relationship and the effect size. Comparative assessment with eQTLs from bulk sequencing data showed that scReQTL analysis identifies a distinct set of SNV-gene correlations, that are substantially enriched in known gene-gene interactions and significant genome-wide association studies (GWAS) loci. CONCLUSION: ScReQTL is relevant to the rapidly growing source of scRNA-seq data and can be applied to outline SNVs potentially contributing to cell type-specific and/or dynamic genetic interactions from an individual scRNA-seq dataset. AVAILABILITY: https://github.com/HorvathLab/NGS/tree/master/scReQTL.


Assuntos
RNA Citoplasmático Pequeno , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Célula Única , Software
4.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 8: 1021, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042959

RESUMO

Variant allele frequencies (VAF) are an important measure of genetic variation that can be estimated at single-nucleotide variant (SNV) sites. RNA and DNA VAFs are used as indicators of a wide-range of biological traits, including tumor purity and ploidy changes, allele-specific expression and gene-dosage transcriptional response. Here we present a novel methodology to assess gene and chromosomal allele asymmetries and to aid in identifying genomic alterations in RNA and DNA datasets. Our approach is based on analysis of the VAF distributions in chromosomal segments (continuous multi-SNV genomic regions). In each segment we estimate variant probability, a parameter of a random process that can generate synthetic VAF samples that closely resemble the observed data. We show that variant probability is a biologically interpretable quantitative descriptor of the VAF distribution in chromosomal segments which is consistent with other approaches. To this end, we apply the proposed methodology on data from 72 samples obtained from patients with breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We compare DNA and RNA VAF distributions from matched RNA and whole exome sequencing (WES) datasets and find that both genomic signals give very similar segmentation and estimated variant probability profiles. We also find a correlation between variant probability with copy number alterations (CNA). Finally, to demonstrate a practical application of variant probabilities, we use them to estimate tumor purity. Tumor purity estimates based on variant probabilities demonstrate good concordance with other approaches (Pearson's correlation between 0.44 and 0.76). Our evaluation suggests that variant probabilities can serve as a dependable descriptor of VAF distribution, further enabling the statistical comparison of matched DNA and RNA datasets. Finally, they provide conceptual and mechanistic insights into relations between structure of VAF distributions and genetic events. The methodology is implemented in a Matlab toolbox that provides a suite of functions for analysis, statistical assessment and visualization of Genome and Transcriptome allele frequencies distributions. GeTallele is available at: https://github.com/SlowinskiPiotr/GeTallele.

5.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 363, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110066

RESUMO

Inhibition of the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) has been shown to decrease fear responses in both humans and rodents. These effects are attributed to modulation of extinction learning, however the contribution of AT1R to alternative memory processes remains unclear. Using classic Pavlovian conditioning combined with radiotelemetry and whole-genome RNA sequencing, we evaluated the effects of the AT1R antagonist losartan on fear memory reconsolidation. Following the retrieval of conditioned auditory fear memory, animals were given a single intraperitoneal injection of losartan or saline. In response to the conditioned stimulus (CS), losartan-treated animals exhibited significantly less freezing at 24 h and 1 week; an effect that was dependent upon memory reactivation and independent of conditioned cardiovascular reactivity. Using an unbiased whole-genome RNA sequencing approach, transcriptomic analysis of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) identified losartan-dependent differences in gene expression during the reconsolidation phase. These findings demonstrate that post-retrieval losartan modifies behavioral and transcriptomic markers of conditioned fear memory, supporting an important regulatory role for this receptor in reconsolidation and as a potential pharmacotherapeutic target for maladaptive fear disorders such as PTSD.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2464, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051464

RESUMO

Age-related macular degeneration is a major cause of vision impairment in the Western world among people of 55 years and older. Recently we have shown that autophagy is dysfunctional in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of the AMD donor eyes (AMD RPE). We also showed increased reactive oxygen (ROS) production, increased cytoplasmic glycogen accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and disintegration, and enlarged and annular LAMP-1-positive organelles in AMD RPE. However, the underlying mechanisms inducing these abnormalities remain to be elucidated. Here, by performing a comprehensive study, we show increased PAPR2 expression, deceased NAD+, and SIRT1, increased PGC-1α acetylation (inactive form), lower AMPK activity, and overactive mTOR pathway in AMD RPE as compared to normal RPE. Metabolomics and lipidomics revealed dysregulated metabolites in AMD RPE as compared to normal RPE, including glycerophospholipid metabolism, involved in autophagy, lipid, and protein metabolisms, glutathione, guanosine, and L-glutamic acid, which are implicated in protection against oxidative stress and neurotoxicity, further supporting our observations. Our data show dysregulated metabolic pathways as important contributors to AMD pathophysiology, and facilitate the development of new treatment strategies for this debilitating disease of the visual system.


Assuntos
Degeneração Macular/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Feminino , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Degeneração Macular/genética , Masculino , Metaboloma , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/genética , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/genética , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
8.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(6): 1002-1017, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047912

RESUMO

LgDel mice, which model the heterozygous deletion of genes at human chromosome 22q11.2 associated with DiGeorge/22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), have cranial nerve and craniofacial dysfunction as well as disrupted suckling, feeding and swallowing, similar to key 22q11DS phenotypes. Divergent trigeminal nerve (CN V) differentiation and altered trigeminal ganglion (CNgV) cellular composition prefigure these disruptions in LgDel embryos. We therefore asked whether a distinct transcriptional state in a specific population of early differentiating LgDel cranial sensory neurons, those in CNgV, a major source of innervation for appropriate oropharyngeal function, underlies this departure from typical development. LgDel versus wild-type (WT) CNgV transcriptomes differ significantly at E10.5 just after the ganglion has coalesced. Some changes parallel altered proportions of cranial placode versus cranial neural crest-derived CNgV cells. Others are consistent with a shift in anterior-posterior patterning associated with divergent LgDel cranial nerve differentiation. The most robust quantitative distinction, however, is statistically verifiable increased variability of expression levels for most of the over 17 000 genes expressed in common in LgDel versus WT CNgV. Thus, quantitative expression changes of functionally relevant genes and increased stochastic variation across the entire CNgV transcriptome at the onset of CN V differentiation prefigure subsequent disruption of cranial nerve differentiation and oropharyngeal function in LgDel mice.

9.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(3)2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106453

RESUMO

With the recent advances in single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) technologies, the estimation of allele expression from single cells is becoming increasingly reliable. Allele expression is both quantitative and dynamic and is an essential component of the genomic interactome. Here, we systematically estimate the allele expression from heterozygous single nucleotide variant (SNV) loci using scRNA-seq data generated on the 10×Genomics Chromium platform. We analyzed 26,640 human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (from three healthy donors), sequenced to an average of 150K sequencing reads per cell (more than 4 billion scRNA-seq reads in total). High-quality SNV calls assessed in our study contained approximately 15% exonic and >50% intronic loci. To analyze the allele expression, we estimated the expressed variant allele fraction (VAFRNA) from SNV-aware alignments and analyzed its variance and distribution (mono- and bi-allelic) at different minimum sequencing read thresholds. Our analysis shows that when assessing positions covered by a minimum of three unique sequencing reads, over 50% of the heterozygous SNVs show bi-allelic expression, while at a threshold of 10 reads, nearly 90% of the SNVs are bi-allelic. In addition, our analysis demonstrates the feasibility of scVAFRNA estimation from current scRNA-seq datasets and shows that the 3'-based library generation protocol of 10×Genomics scRNA-seq data can be informative in SNV-based studies, including analyses of transcriptional kinetics.

10.
Bioinformatics ; 36(5): 1351-1359, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589315

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: By testing for associations between DNA genotypes and gene expression levels, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses have been instrumental in understanding how thousands of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) may affect gene expression. As compared to DNA genotypes, RNA genetic variation represents a phenotypic trait that reflects the actual allele content of the studied system. RNA genetic variation at expressed SNV loci can be estimated using the proportion of alleles bearing the variant nucleotide (variant allele fraction, VAFRNA). VAFRNA is a continuous measure which allows for precise allele quantitation in loci where the RNA alleles do not scale with the genotype count. We describe a method to correlate VAFRNA with gene expression and assess its ability to identify genetically regulated expression solely from RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) datasets. RESULTS: We introduce ReQTL, an eQTL modification which substitutes the DNA allele count for the variant allele fraction at expressed SNV loci in the transcriptome (VAFRNA). We exemplify the method on sets of RNA-seq data from human tissues obtained though the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project and demonstrate that ReQTL analyses are computationally feasible and can identify a subset of expressed eQTL loci. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: A toolkit to perform ReQTL analyses is available at https://github.com/HorvathLab/ReQTL. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
RNA , Software , Humanos , Nucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Análise de Sequência de RNA
11.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(7): e1007907, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344124

RESUMO

HIV infection has a profound effect on "bystander" cells causing metabolic co-morbidities. This may be mediated by exosomes secreted by HIV-infected cells and containing viral factors. Here we show that exosomes containing HIV-1 protein Nef (exNef) are rapidly taken up by macrophages releasing Nef into the cell interior. This caused down-regulation of ABCA1, reduction of cholesterol efflux and sharp elevation of the abundance of lipid rafts through reduced activation of small GTPase Cdc42 and decreased actin polymerization. Changes in rafts led to re-localization of TLR4 and TREM-1 to rafts, phosphorylation of ERK1/2, activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, and increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The effects of exNef on lipid rafts and on inflammation were reversed by overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of Cdc42. Similar effects were observed in macrophages treated with exosomes produced by HIV-infected cells or isolated from plasma of HIV-infected subjects, but not with exosomes from cells and subjects infected with ΔNef-HIV or uninfected subjects. Mice injected with exNef exhibited monocytosis, reduced ABCA1 in macrophages, increased raft abundance in monocytes and augmented inflammation. Thus, Nef-containing exosomes potentiated pro-inflammatory response by inducing changes in cholesterol metabolism and reorganizing lipid rafts. These mechanisms may contribute to HIV-associated metabolic co-morbidities.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Produtos do Gene nef do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Efeito Espectador , Colesterol/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Exossomos/virologia , Células HEK293 , HIV-1 , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/virologia , Microdomínios da Membrana/metabolismo , Microdomínios da Membrana/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Biológicos , Células RAW 264.7 , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor Gatilho 1 Expresso em Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Proteína cdc42 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Produtos do Gene nef do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7735, 2018 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769535

RESUMO

Imbalanced expression of somatic alleles in cancer can suggest functional and selective features, and can therefore indicate possible driving potential of the underlying genetic variants. To explore the correlation between allele frequency of somatic variants and total gene expression of their harboring gene, we used the unique data set of matched tumor and normal RNA and DNA sequencing data of 5523 distinct single nucleotide variants in 381 individuals across 10 cancer types obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We analyzed the allele frequency in the context of the variant and gene functional features and linked it with changes in the total gene expression. We documented higher allele frequency of somatic variants in cancer-implicated genes (Cancer Gene Census, CGC). Furthermore, somatic alleles bearing premature terminating variants (PTVs), when positioned in CGC genes, appeared to be less frequently degraded via nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, indicating possible favoring of truncated proteins by the tumor transcriptome. Among the genes with multiple PTVs with high allele frequency, ARID1, TP53 and NSD1 were known key cancer genes. All together, our analyses suggest that high allele frequency of tumor somatic variants can indicate driving functionality and can serve to identify potential cancer-implicated genes.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Mutação , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transcriptoma , Alelos , Frequência do Gene , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos
13.
Gastroenterology ; 154(1): 195-210, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28918914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with alterations in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) signaling pathway, which regulates liver inflammation and can have tumor suppressor or promoter activities. Little is known about the roles of specific members of this pathway at specific of HCC development. We took an integrated approach to identify and validate the effects of changes in this pathway in HCC and identify therapeutic targets. METHODS: We performed transcriptome analyses for a total of 488 HCCs that include data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We also screened 301 HCCs reported in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer and 202 from Cancer Genome Atlas for mutations in genome sequences. We expressed mutant forms of spectrin beta, non-erythrocytic 1 (SPTBN1) in HepG2, SNU398, and SNU475 cells and measured phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and transcriptional activity of SMAD family member 3 (SMAD3). RESULTS: We found somatic mutations in at least 1 gene whose product is a member of TGF-ß signaling pathway in 38% of HCC samples. SPTBN1 was mutated in the largest proportion of samples (12 of 202, 6%). Unsupervised clustering of transcriptome data identified a group of HCCs with activation of the TGF-ß signaling pathway (increased transcription of genes in the pathway) and a group of HCCs with inactivation of TGF-ß signaling (reduced expression of genes in this pathway). Patients with tumors with inactivation of TGF-ß signaling had shorter survival times than patients with tumors with activation of TGF-ß signaling (P = .0129). Patterns of TGF-ß signaling correlated with activation of the DNA damage response and sirtuin signaling pathways. HepG2, SNU398, and SNU475 cells that expressed the D1089Y mutant or with knockdown of SPTBN1 had increased sensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents and reduced survival compared with cells that expressed normal SPTBN1 (controls). CONCLUSIONS: In genome and transcriptome analyses of HCC samples, we found mutations in genes in the TGF-ß signaling pathway in almost 40% of samples. These correlated with changes in expression of genes in the pathways; up-regulation of genes in this pathway would contribute to inflammation and fibrosis, whereas down-regulation would indicate loss of TGF-ß tumor suppressor activity. Our findings indicate that therapeutic agents for HCCs can be effective, based on genetic features of the TGF-ß pathway; agents that block TGF-ß should be used only in patients with specific types of HCCs.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/fisiologia , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 8287, 2017 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28811643

RESUMO

Asymmetric allele content in the transcriptome can be indicative of functional and selective features of the underlying genetic variants. Yet, imbalanced alleles, especially from diploid genome regions, are poorly explored in cancer. Here we systematically quantify and integrate the variant allele fraction from corresponding RNA and DNA sequence data from patients with breast cancer acquired through The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We test for correlation between allele prevalence and functionality in known cancer-implicated genes from the Cancer Gene Census (CGC). We document significant allele-preferential expression of functional variants in CGC genes and across the entire dataset. Notably, we find frequent allele-specific overexpression of variants in tumor-suppressor genes. We also report a list of over-expressed variants from non-CGC genes. Overall, our analysis presents an integrated set of features of somatic allele expression and points to the vast information content of the asymmetric alleles in the cancer transcriptome.


Assuntos
Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Elementos de Resposta , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Mutação , Transcriptoma
16.
N Engl J Med ; 377(8): 795-6, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28834484
17.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15921, 2017 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28665395

RESUMO

Clinical challenges exist in reducing prostate cancer (PCa) disparities. The RNA splicing landscape of PCa across racial populations has not been fully explored as a potential molecular mechanism contributing to race-related tumour aggressiveness. Here, we identify novel genome-wide, race-specific RNA splicing events as critical drivers of PCa aggressiveness and therapeutic resistance in African American (AA) men. AA-enriched splice variants of PIK3CD, FGFR3, TSC2 and RASGRP2 contribute to greater oncogenic potential compared with corresponding European American (EA)-expressing variants. Ectopic overexpression of the newly cloned AA-enriched variant, PIK3CD-S, in EA PCa cell lines enhances AKT/mTOR signalling and increases proliferative and invasive capacity in vitro and confers resistance to selective PI3Kδ inhibitor, CAL-101 (idelalisib), in mouse xenograft models. High PIK3CD-S expression in PCa specimens associates with poor survival. These results highlight the potential of RNA splice variants to serve as novel biomarkers and molecular targets for developmental therapeutics in aggressive PCa.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Processamento Alternativo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Idoso , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo
19.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 44(22): e161, 2016 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27576531

RESUMO

We introduce RNA2DNAlign, a computational framework for quantitative assessment of allele counts across paired RNA and DNA sequencing datasets. RNA2DNAlign is based on quantitation of the relative abundance of variant and reference read counts, followed by binomial tests for genotype and allelic status at SNV positions between compatible sequences. RNA2DNAlign detects positions with differential allele distribution, suggesting asymmetries due to regulatory/structural events. Based on the type of asymmetry, RNA2DNAlign outlines positions likely to be implicated in RNA editing, allele-specific expression or loss, somatic mutagenesis or loss-of-heterozygosity (the first three also in a tumor-specific setting). We applied RNA2DNAlign on 360 matching normal and tumor exomes and transcriptomes from 90 breast cancer patients from TCGA. Under high-confidence settings, RNA2DNAlign identified 2038 distinct SNV sites associated with one of the aforementioned asymetries, the majority of which have not been linked to functionality before. The performance assessment shows very high specificity and sensitivity, due to the corroboration of signals across multiple matching datasets. RNA2DNAlign is freely available from http://github.com/HorvathLab/NGS as a self-contained binary package for 64-bit Linux systems.


Assuntos
Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Software , Algoritmos , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Exoma , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Edição de RNA , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Transcriptoma
20.
Dev Biol ; 415(2): 228-241, 2016 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26988119

RESUMO

We compared apparent origins, cellular diversity and regulation of initial axon growth for differentiating cranial sensory neurons. We assessed the molecular and cellular composition of the developing olfactory and otic placodes, and cranial sensory ganglia to evaluate contributions of ectodermal placode versus neural crest at each site. Special sensory neuron populations-the olfactory and otic placodes, as well as those in vestibulo-acoustic ganglion- are entirely populated with cells expressing cranial placode-associated, rather than neural crest-associated markers. The remaining cranial sensory ganglia are a mosaic of cells that express placode-associated as well as neural crest-associated markers. We found two distinct populations of neural crest in the cranial ganglia: the first, as expected, is labeled by Wnt1:Cre mediated recombination. The second is not labeled by Wnt1:Cre recombination, and expresses both Sox10 and FoxD3. These populations-Wnt1:Cre recombined, and Sox10/Foxd3-expressing- are proliferatively distinct from one another. Together, the two neural crest-associated populations are substantially more proliferative than their placode-associated counterparts. Nevertheless, the apparently placode- and neural crest-associated populations are similarly sensitive to altered signaling that compromises cranial morphogenesis and differentiation. Acute disruption of either Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) or Retinoic acid (RA) signaling alters axon growth and cell death, but does not preferentially target any of the three distinct populations. Apparently, mosaic derivation and diversity of precursors and early differentiating neurons, modulated uniformly by local signals, supports early cranial sensory neuron differentiation and growth.


Assuntos
Nervos Cranianos/citologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/citologia , Animais , Apoptose , Axônios/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Nervos Cranianos/embriologia , Ectoderma/citologia , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Gânglios Sensitivos/citologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Proteínas Luminescentes/análise , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Crista Neural/citologia , Neurogênese , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Tretinoína/fisiologia , Proteína Wnt1/fisiologia
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