Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 281
Filtrar
1.
Nat Neurosci ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619405

RESUMO

Human stem-cell-derived models provide the promise of accelerating our understanding of brain disorders, but not knowing whether they possess the ability to mature beyond mid- to late-fetal stages potentially limits their utility. We leveraged a directed differentiation protocol to comprehensively assess maturation in vitro. Based on genome-wide analysis of the epigenetic clock and transcriptomics, as well as RNA editing, we observe that three-dimensional human cortical organoids reach postnatal stages between 250 and 300 days, a timeline paralleling in vivo development. We demonstrate the presence of several known developmental milestones, including switches in the histone deacetylase complex and NMDA receptor subunits, which we confirm at the protein and physiological levels. These results suggest that important components of an intrinsic in vivo developmental program persist in vitro. We further map neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease risk genes onto in vitro gene expression trajectories to provide a resource and webtool (Gene Expression in Cortical Organoids, GECO) to guide disease modeling.

2.
J Neurovirol ; 2021 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554325

RESUMO

We recently demonstrated that adolescents perinatally infected with HIV-1 (PHIV+) have accelerated aging as measured by a highly accurate epigenetic biomarker of aging known as the epigenetic clock. However, whether epigenetic age acceleration in PHIV+ impacts brain development at the macro- and microstructural levels of brain anatomy has not been studied. We report on a cross-sectional study of PHIV+ enrolled in the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort (CTAAC). The Illumina Infinium Methylation EPIC array was used to generate DNA methylation data from the blood samples of 180 PHIV+ aged 9 to 12 years. The epigenetic clock software and method was used to estimate two measures, epigenetic age acceleration (AgeAccelerationResidual) and extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (EEAA). Each participant underwent T1 structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). In order to investigate the associations of chronological age, sex, epigenetic age acceleration and treatment variables (CNS penetration effectiveness score (CPE)) of antiretroviral regimen on brain structure in PHIV+, we developed stepwise multiple regression models in R (version 3.4.3, 2017) including grey and white matter volumes, cortical thickness, cortical surface area and DTI measures of white matter microstructural integrity. The mean DNAm age (16.01 years) of the participants was higher than their mean chronological age (10.77 years). Epigenetic age acceleration contributed more to regional alterations of brain volumes, cortical thickness, cortical surface areas and neuronal microstructure than chronological age, in a range of regions. CPE positively contributed to volume of the brain stem. Understanding the drivers of epigenetic age acceleration could lead to valuable insights into structural brain alterations, and the persistence of neurocognitive disorders in seen in PHIV+ .

3.
Dev Psychobiol ; 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given associations linking early life adversity, pubertal timing, and biological aging, we examined the direct and indirect effects of early life trauma on adult biological aging (via age of menarche). METHODS: Participants were premenopausal women (N = 183). Path models evaluated whether early life trauma predicted early pubertal timing and thereby, adult epigenetic age acceleration (indexed via four epigenetic clocks: Horvath DNAm Age, Hannum DNAm Age, DNAm PhenoAge, and DNAm GrimAge). Secondary analyses explored the effects of type of trauma (abuse and neglect) and adult chronic stress status (caregiver of child with autism and non-caregiver). RESULTS: Early life trauma and earlier age at menarche independently predicted accelerated aging based on one of the four epigenetic clocks, DNAm GrimAge, though early life trauma was not associated with age of menarche. Childhood abuse, but not neglect, predicted faster epigenetic aging; results did not differ by chronic stress status. CONCLUSIONS: Early trauma and early menarche appear to exert independent effects on DNAm GrimAge, which has been shown to be the strongest epigenetic predictor of mortality risk. This study identifies a potential correlate or determinant of accelerated epigenetic aging-menarcheal age. Future research should address the limitations of this study by using racially diverse samples.

4.
Nature ; 588(7836): 124-129, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268865

RESUMO

Ageing is a degenerative process that leads to tissue dysfunction and death. A proposed cause of ageing is the accumulation of epigenetic noise that disrupts gene expression patterns, leading to decreases in tissue function and regenerative capacity1-3. Changes to DNA methylation patterns over time form the basis of ageing clocks4, but whether older individuals retain the information needed to restore these patterns-and, if so, whether this could improve tissue function-is not known. Over time, the central nervous system (CNS) loses function and regenerative capacity5-7. Using the eye as a model CNS tissue, here we show that ectopic expression of Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1), Sox2 and Klf4 genes (OSK) in mouse retinal ganglion cells restores youthful DNA methylation patterns and transcriptomes, promotes axon regeneration after injury, and reverses vision loss in a mouse model of glaucoma and in aged mice. The beneficial effects of OSK-induced reprogramming in axon regeneration and vision require the DNA demethylases TET1 and TET2. These data indicate that mammalian tissues retain a record of youthful epigenetic information-encoded in part by DNA methylation-that can be accessed to improve tissue function and promote regeneration in vivo.

5.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet quality is a risk factor for chronic disease and mortality. Differential DNA methylation across the epigenome has been associated with chronic disease risk. Whether diet quality is associated with differential methylation is unknown. This study assessed whether diet quality was associated with differential DNA methylation measured across 445 548 loci in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and the TwinsUK cohort. DESIGN: The discovery cohort consisted of 4355 women from the WHI. The replication cohort consisted of 571 mono- and dizygotic twins from the TwinsUK cohort. DNA methylation was measured in whole blood using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 Beadchip. Diet quality was assessed using the Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010). A meta-analysis, stratified by study cohort, was performed using generalized linear models that regressed methylation on AHEI-2010, adjusting for cell composition, chip number and location, study characteristics, principal components of genetic relatedness, age, smoking status, race/ethnicity and body mass index (BMI). Statistical significance was defined as a false discovery rate < 0.05. Significant sites were tested for replication in the TwinsUK cohort, with significant replication defined by P < 0.05 and a consistent direction. RESULTS: Diet quality was significantly associated with differential DNA methylation at 428 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites in the discovery cohort. A total of 24 CpG sites were consistent with replication in the TwinsUK cohort, more than would be expected by chance (P = 2.7x10-4), with one site replicated in both the blood and adipose tissue (cg16379999 located in the body of SEL1L). CONCLUSIONS: Diet quality was associated with methylation at 24 CpG sites, several of which have been associated with adiposity, inflammation and dysglycaemia. These findings may provide insight into pathways through which diet influences chronic disease.

6.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(24): 24484-24503, 2020 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378272

RESUMO

Aging is emerging as a druggable target with growing interest from academia, industry and investors. New technologies such as artificial intelligence and advanced screening techniques, as well as a strong influence from the industry sector may lead to novel discoveries to treat age-related diseases. The present review summarizes presentations from the 7th Annual Aging Research and Drug Discovery (ARDD) meeting, held online on the 1st to 4th of September 2020. The meeting covered topics related to new methodologies to study aging, knowledge about basic mechanisms of longevity, latest interventional strategies to target the aging process as well as discussions about the impact of aging research on society and economy. More than 2000 participants and 65 speakers joined the meeting and we already look forward to an even larger meeting next year. Please mark your calendars for the 8th ARDD meeting that is scheduled for the 31st of August to 3rd of September, 2021, at Columbia University, USA.

7.
Transplant Direct ; 6(8): e576, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134500

RESUMO

Older kidney transplant recipients demonstrate increased rates of infection but decreased rates of rejection compared with younger recipients, suggesting that older transplant patients are functionally overimmunosuppressed. We hypothesized that this is a consequence of reduction in immunological activity due to biological aging and that an immune biological age, as determined by DNA methylation (DNAm), would be associated more strongly with incidence of infection than chronological age. Methods: DNAm analysis was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cell collected from 60 kidney transplant recipients representing older (≥age 60 y) and younger (aged 30-59 y) patients 3 months after transplantation. DNAm age was calculated based on methylation status of a panel of CpG sites, which have been previously identified as indicative of biological age. Results: Correlation was seen between chronological and DNAm age; however, there were many patients with significant differences (either acceleration or slowing) between DNAm age and chronological age. A statistically significant association was seen between increased DNAm age and incidence of infection in the first year after kidney transplantation, whereas no significant association was seen between chronological age and infection. Conclusions: Assessment of DNAm age holds promise as an approach for patient evaluation and individualization of immune suppression regimens. This analysis may provide insights into the immunological mechanism behind increased incidence of infection observed in older transplant patients. The ability to measure biological age would allow for patient risk stratification and individualization of immunosuppression, improving outcomes for the growing numbers of older patients undergoing kidney transplantation.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211845

RESUMO

The aging process is characterized by the presence of high interindividual variation between individuals of the same chronical age prompting a search for biomarkers that capture this heterogeneity. Epigenetic clocks measure changes in DNA methylation levels at specific CpG sites that are highly correlated with calendar age. The discrepancy resulting from the regression of DNA methylation age on calendar age is hypothesised to represent a measure of biological ageing with a positive/negative residual signifying age acceleration /deceleration respectively. The present study examines the associations of four epigenetic clocks - Horvath, Hannum, PhenoAge, GrimAge - with a wide range of clinical phenotypes (walking speed, grip strength, Fried frailty, polypharmacy, Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA), Sustained Attention Reaction Time, 2-choice reaction time), and with all-cause mortality at up to 10-year follow-up, in a sample of 490 participants in the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). Horvath Age Acceleration (AA) and HannumAA were not predictive of health; PhenoAgeAA was associated with 4/9 outcomes (walking speed, frailty MOCA, MMSE) in minimally adjusted models, but not when adjusted for other social and lifestyle factors. GrimAgeAA by contrast was associated with 8/9 outcomes (all except grip strength) in minimally adjusted models, and remained a significant predictor of polypharmacy, frailty, and mortality in fully adjusted models. Results indicate that the GrimAge clock represents a step-improvement in the predictive utility of the epigenetic clocks for identifying age-related decline in an array of clinical phenotypes promising to advance precision medicine.

9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(18): 17863-17894, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991324

RESUMO

DNA methylation (DNAm) age estimators are widely used to study aging-related conditions. It is not yet known whether DNAm age is associated with the accumulation of stochastic epigenetic mutations (SEMs), which reflect dysfunctions of the epigenetic maintenance system. Here, we defined epigenetic mutation load (EML) as the total number of SEMs per individual. We assessed associations between EML and DNAm age acceleration estimators using biweight midcorrelations in four population-based studies (total n = 6,388). EML was not only positively associated with chronological age (meta r = 0.171), but also with four measures of epigenetic age acceleration: the Horvath pan tissue clock, intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration, the Hannum clock, and the GrimAge clock (meta-analysis correlation ranging from r = 0.109 to 0.179). We further conducted pathway enrichment analyses for each participant's SEMs. The enrichment result demonstrated the stochasticity of epigenetic mutations, meanwhile implicated several pathways: signaling, neurogenesis, neurotransmitter, glucocorticoid, and circadian rhythm pathways may contribute to faster DNAm age acceleration. Finally, investigating genomic-region specific EML, we found that EMLs located within regions of transcriptional repression (TSS1500, TSS200, and 1stExon) were associated with faster age acceleration. Overall, our findings suggest a role for the accumulation of epigenetic mutations in the aging process.

10.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether accelerated aging develops over the course of chronic HIV infection or can be observed prior to significant immunosuppression on is unknown. We studied DNA methylation in blood to estimate cellular aging in persons living with HIV (PLWH) prior to the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: 378 antiretroviral therapy-naïve PLWH with CD4 T cell counts >500 cells/mm 3 enrolled in the Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Therapy trial (Pulmonary Substudy) were compared to 34 HIV-negative controls. DNA methylation was performed using the Illumina MethylationEPIC BeadChip. Differentially methylated positions (DMPs) and regions (DMRs) in PLWH compared to controls were identified using a robust linear model. Methylation age was calculated using a previously described epigenetic clock. RESULTS: There were a total of 56,639 DMPs and 6,103 DMRs at a false discovery rate<0.1. The top 5 DMPs corresponded to genes NLRC5, VRK2, B2M, and GPR6 and were highly enriched for cancer-related pathways. PLWH had significantly higher methylation age compared to HIV-negative controls (p=0.001), with black race, low CD4, high CD8 T cell counts, and duration of HIV being risk factors for age acceleration. CONCLUSIONS: PLWH prior to the initiation of antiretroviral therapy and with preserved immune status show evidence of advanced methylation aging.

11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4529, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913184

RESUMO

Although Huntington's disease (HD) is a well studied Mendelian genetic disorder, less is known about its associated epigenetic changes. Here, we characterize DNA methylation levels in six different tissues from 3 species: a mouse huntingtin (Htt) gene knock-in model, a transgenic HTT sheep model, and humans. Our epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of human blood reveals that HD mutation status is significantly (p < 10-7) associated with 33 CpG sites, including the HTT gene (p = 6.5 × 10-26). These Htt/HTT associations were replicated in the Q175 Htt knock-in mouse model (p = 6.0 × 10-8) and in the transgenic sheep model (p = 2.4 × 10-88). We define a measure of HD motor score progression among manifest HD cases based on multiple clinical assessments. EWAS of motor progression in manifest HD cases exhibits significant (p < 10-7) associations with methylation levels at three loci: near PEX14 (p = 9.3 × 10-9), GRIK4 (p = 3.0 × 10-8), and COX4I2 (p = 6.5 × 10-8). We conclude that HD is accompanied by profound changes of DNA methylation levels in three mammalian species.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Proteína Huntingtina/genética , Doença de Huntington/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Comportamento Animal , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Estudos Transversais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Doença de Huntington/sangue , Doença de Huntington/diagnóstico , Doença de Huntington/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ovinos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 115, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals of the same chronological age display different rates of biological ageing. A number of measures of biological age have been proposed which harness age-related changes in DNA methylation profiles. These measures include five 'epigenetic clocks' which provide an index of how much an individual's biological age differs from their chronological age at the time of measurement. The five clocks encompass methylation-based predictors of chronological age (HorvathAge, HannumAge), all-cause mortality (DNAm PhenoAge, DNAm GrimAge) and telomere length (DNAm Telomere Length). A sixth epigenetic measure of ageing differs from these clocks in that it acts as a speedometer providing a single time-point measurement of the pace of an individual's biological ageing. This measure of ageing is termed DunedinPoAm. In this study, we test the association between these six epigenetic measures of ageing and the prevalence and incidence of the leading causes of disease burden and mortality in high-income countries (n ≤ 9537, Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study). RESULTS: DNAm GrimAge predicted incidence of clinically diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), type 2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease after 13 years of follow-up (hazard ratios = 2.22, 1.52 and 1.41, respectively). DunedinPoAm predicted the incidence of COPD and lung cancer (hazard ratios = 2.02 and 1.45, respectively). DNAm PhenoAge predicted incidence of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio = 1.54). DNAm Telomere Length associated with the incidence of ischemic heart disease (hazard ratio = 0.80). DNAm GrimAge associated with all-cause mortality, the prevalence of COPD and spirometry measures at the study baseline. These associations were present after adjusting for possible confounding risk factors including alcohol consumption, body mass index, deprivation, education and tobacco smoking and surpassed stringent Bonferroni-corrected significance thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that epigenetic measures of ageing may have utility in clinical settings to complement gold-standard methods for disease assessment and management.

13.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 245(17): 1543-1551, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762265

RESUMO

IMPACT STATEMENT: Aging is associated with DNA methylation (DNAm) changes. Recent advancement of the whole-genome DNAm analysis technology allowed scientists to develop DNAm-based age estimators. A majority of these estimators use DNAm data from a single tissue type such as blood. In 2013, a multi-tissue age estimator using DNAm pattern of 353 CpGs was developed by Steve Horvath. This estimator was named "epigenetic clock", and the improved version using DNAm pattern of 391 CpGs was developed in 2018. The estimated age by epigenetic clock is named DNAmAge. DNAmAge can be used as a biomarker of aging predicting the risk of age-associated diseases and mortality. Although the DNAm-based age estimators were developed, the mechanism of epigenetic aging is still enigmatic. The biological significance of epigenetic aging is not well understood, either. This minireview discusses the current understanding of the mechanism of epigenetic aging and the future direction of aging research.

14.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 120, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced biological aging, as measured by epigenetic aging indices, is associated with early mortality and morbidity. Associations between maternal epigenetic aging indices in pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes, namely gestational length and birthweight, have not been assessed. The purpose of this study was to examine whether epigenetic age during pregnancy was associated with gestational length and birthweight. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 77 women from the Los Angeles, CA, area enrolled in the Healthy Babies Before Birth study. Whole blood samples for DNA methylation assay were obtained during the second trimester (15.6 ± 2.15 weeks gestation). Epigenetic age indices GrimAge acceleration (GrimAgeAccel), DNAm PAI-1, DNAm ADM, and DNAm cystatin C were calculated. Gestational length and birthweight were obtained from medical chart review. Covariates were maternal sociodemographic variables, gestational age at blood sample collection, and pre-pregnancy body mass index. In separate covariate-adjusted linear regression models, higher early second trimester GrimAgeAccel, b(SE) = - .171 (.056), p = .004; DNAm PAI-1, b(SE) = - 1.95 × 10-4 (8.5 × 10-5), p = .004; DNAm ADM, b(SE) = - .033 (.011), p = .003; and DNAm cystatin C, b(SE) = 2.10 × 10-5 (8.0 × 10-5), p = .012, were each associated with shorter gestational length. Higher GrimAgeAccel, b(SE) = - 75.2 (19.7), p < .001; DNAm PAI-1, b(SE) = - .079(.031), p = .013; DNAm ADM, b(SE) = - 13.8 (3.87), p = .001; and DNAm cystatin C, b(SE) = - .010 (.003), p = .001, were also associated with lower birthweight, independent of gestational length. DISCUSSION: Higher maternal prenatal GrimAgeAccel, DNAm PAI-1, DNAm ADM, and DNAm cystatin C were associated with shorter gestational length and lower birthweight. These findings suggest that biological age, as measured by these epigenetic indices, could indicate risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

16.
Metab Brain Dis ; 35(8): 1287-1298, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671535

RESUMO

The relationship between cognitive performance, macro and microstructural brain anatomy and accelerated aging as measured by a highly accurate epigenetic biomarker of aging known as the epigenetic clock in healthy adolescents has not been studied. Healthy adolescents enrolled in the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort Study were studied cross sectionally. The Illumina Infinium Methylation EPIC array was used to generate DNA methylation data from the blood samples of 44 adolescents aged 9 to 12 years old. The epigenetic clock software and method was used to estimate two measures, epigenetic age acceleration residual (AAR) and extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (EEAA). Each participant underwent neurocognitive testing, T1 structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Correlation tests were run between the two epigenetic aging measures and 10 cognitive functioning domains, to assess for differences in cognitive performance as epigenetic aging increases. In order to investigate the associations of epigenetic age acceleration on brain structure, we developed stepwise multiple regression models in R (version 3.4.3, 2017) including grey and white matter volumes, cortical thickness, and cortical surface area, as well as DTI measures of white matter microstructural integrity. In addition to negatively affecting two cognitive domains, visual memory (p = .026) and visual spatial acuity (p = .02), epigenetic age acceleration was associated with alterations of brain volumes, cortical thickness, cortical surface areas and abnormalities in neuronal microstructure in a range of regions. Stress was a significant predictor (p = .029) of AAR. Understanding the drivers of epigenetic age acceleration in adolescents could lead to valuable insights into the development of neurocognitive impairment in adolescents.

17.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(14): 14092-14124, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697766

RESUMO

DNA methylation has fundamental roles in gene programming and aging that may help predict mortality. However, no large-scale study has investigated whether site-specific DNA methylation predicts all-cause mortality. We used the Illumina-HumanMethylation450-BeadChip to identify blood DNA methylation sites associated with all-cause mortality for 12, 300 participants in 12 Cohorts of the Heart and Aging Research in Genetic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Over an average 10-year follow-up, there were 2,561 deaths across the cohorts. Nine sites mapping to three intergenic and six gene-specific regions were associated with mortality (P < 9.3x10-7) independently of age and other mortality predictors. Six sites (cg14866069, cg23666362, cg20045320, cg07839457, cg07677157, cg09615688)-mapping respectively to BMPR1B, MIR1973, IFITM3, NLRC5, and two intergenic regions-were associated with reduced mortality risk. The remaining three sites (cg17086398, cg12619262, cg18424841)-mapping respectively to SERINC2, CHST12, and an intergenic region-were associated with increased mortality risk. DNA methylation at each site predicted 5%-15% of all deaths. We also assessed the causal association of those sites to age-related chronic diseases by using Mendelian randomization, identifying weak causal relationship between cg18424841 and cg09615688 with coronary heart disease. Of the nine sites, three (cg20045320, cg07839457, cg07677157) were associated with lower incidence of heart disease risk and two (cg20045320, cg07839457) with smoking and inflammation in prior CHARGE analyses. Methylation of cg20045320, cg07839457, and cg17086398 was associated with decreased expression of nearby genes (IFITM3, IRF, NLRC5, MT1, MT2, MARCKSL1) linked to immune responses and cardiometabolic diseases. These sites may serve as useful clinical tools for mortality risk assessment and preventative care.

18.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 229: 113569, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pyrethroid pesticide use is increasing worldwide, although the full extent of associated health effects is unknown. An epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) with exploratory pathway analysis may help identify potential pyrethroid-related health effects. METHODS: We performed an exploratory EWAS of chronic ambient pyrethroid exposure using control participants' blood in the Parkinson's Environment and Genes Study in the Central Valley of California (N = 237). We estimated associations of living and working near agricultural pyrethroid pesticide applications in the past 5 years (binary) with site-specific differential methylation, and used a false discovery rate (FDR) cut off of 0.05 for significance. We controlled for age, sex, education, cell count, and an ancestral marker for Hispanic ethnicity. We normalized methylation values for Type I/II probe bias using Beta-Mixture Quantile (BMIQ) normalization, filtered out cross-reactive probes, and evaluated for remaining bias with Surrogate Variable Analysis (SVA). We also evaluated the effects of controlling for cell count and normalizing for Type I/II probe bias by comparing changes in effect estimates and p-values for the top hits across BMIQ and GenomeStudio normalization methods, and controlling for cell count. To facilitate broader interpretation, we annotated genes to the CpG sites and performed gene set overrepresentation analysis, using genes annotated to CpG sites that were associated with pyrethroids at a raw p < 0.05, and controlling for background representation of CpG sites on the chip. We did this for both a biological process context (Gene Ontology terms) using missMethyl, and a disease set context using WebGestalt. For these gene set overrepresentation analyses we also used an FDR cut off of 0.05 for significance of gene sets. RESULTS: After controlling for cell count and applying BMIQ normalization, 4 CpG sites were differentially methylated in relation to pyrethroid exposures. When using GenomeStudio's Illumina normalization, 415 CpG sites were differentially methylated, including all four identified with the BMIQ method. In the gene set overrepresentation analyses, we identified 6 GO terms using BMIQ normalization, and 76 using Illumina normalization, including the 6 identified by BMIQ. For disease sets, we identified signals for Alzheimer's disease, leukemia and several other cancers, diabetes, birth defects, and other diseases, for both normalization methods. We identified minimal changes in effect estimates after controlling for cell count, and controlling for cell count generally weakened p-values. BMIQ normalization, however, resulted in different beta coefficients and weakened p-values. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic ambient pyrethroid exposure is associated with differential methylation at CpG sites that annotate to a wide variety of disease states and biological mechanisms that align with prior research. However, this EWAS also implicates several novel diseases for future investigation, and highlights the relative importance of different background normalization methods in identifying associations.

19.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 23, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566744

RESUMO

Survival has increased in early stage breast cancer (BC), and the late effects of treatment persist for decades. Molecular mechanisms underlying the acceleration of age-related diseases after chemotherapy and radiotherapy are poorly understood. We examined epigenetic changes in peripheral whole blood cells in early stage BC patients undergoing surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy, or surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. DNA methylation experiments were performed on whole blood samples collected before and after adjuvant therapy. Methylation profiles were used to estimate four measures of epigenetic age acceleration-intrinsic, extrinsic, phenotypic, and Grim-and cell counts. We found significant increases in extrinsic, phenotypic, and Grim epigenetic age acceleration and in estimated proportions of senescent T lymphocytes from pre- to post-treatment. When examining differential effects by treatment category, most of these increases were significant only in women undergoing radiation alone. Further studies are needed to examine whether these effects are related to the risk of cognitive and functional decline in BC survivors.

20.
J Neurovirol ; 26(4): 496-508, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394397

RESUMO

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) describe a spectrum of neuropsychological impairment caused by HIV-1 infection. While the sequence of cellular and physiological events that lead to HAND remains obscure, it likely involves chronic neuroinflammation. Host genetic markers that increase the risk for HAND have been reported, but replication of such studies is lacking, possibly due to inconsistent application of a behavioral phenotype across studies. In the current study, we used histopathologic phenotypes in order to validate putative risk alleles for HAND. The National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium, a longitudinal study of the neurologic manifestations of HIV. Data and specimens were obtained from 175 HIV-infected adults. After determining several potential covariates of neurocognitive functioning, we quantified levels of six histopathological markers in the frontal lobe in association with neurocognitive functioning: SYP, MAP 2, HLA-DR, Iba1, GFAP, and ß-amyloid. We then determined alleles of 15 candidate genes for their associations with neurocognitive functioning and histopathological markers. Finally, we identified the most plausible causal pathway based on our data using a multi-stage linear regression-based mediation analysis approach. None of the genetic markers were associated with neurocognitive functioning. Of the histopathological markers, only MAP 2 and SYP were associated with neurocognitive functioning; however, MAP 2 and SYP did not vary as a function of genotype. Mediation analysis suggests a causal pathway in which presynaptic degeneration (SYP) leads to somatodendritic degeneration (MAP 2) and ultimately neurocognitive impairment. This study did not support the role of host genotype in the histopathology underlying HAND. The findings lend further support for synaptodendritic degeneration as the proximal underlying neuropathological substrate of HAND.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA