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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(9): 3940-3951, 2019 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715871

RESUMO

Here we describe the combination of an archetypal redox-active metal sulfide cluster, Fe4S4, with an organic linker, 1,4-benzenedithiolate, to prepare coordination polymers containing infinite chains of Fe4S4 clusters. The crystal structures of two solid materials have been solved from synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data using simulated annealing and refined by a least-squares Rietveld refinement procedure. The electronic properties of these chains have also been characterized by UV-visible and Mössbauer spectroscopies. Additional experiments demonstrated that these chains can be solubilized by variation of the countercation and that the chain structure is maintained in solution. The redox-activity of the Fe4S4 clusters can be accessed with chemical reagents. Introduction of charge carriers by reduction of the Fe4S4 clusters is found to increase the electrical conductivity of the materials by up to 4 orders of magnitude. These results highlight the utility of Fe4S4 clusters as redox-active building blocks in preparing new classes of coordination polymers.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(44): 15660-15663, 2017 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29072446

RESUMO

Controlling spin-spin interactions in multispin molecular assemblies is important for developing new approaches to quantum information processing. In this work, a covalent electron donor-acceptor-radical triad is used to probe spin-selective reduction of the stable radical to its diamagnetic anion. The molecule consists of a perylene electron donor chromophore (D) bound to a pyromellitimide acceptor (A), which is, in turn, linked to a stable α,γ-bisdiphenylene-ß-phenylallyl radical (R•) to produce D-A-R•. Selective photoexcitation of D within D-A-R• results in ultrafast electron transfer to form the D+•-A-•-R• triradical, where D+•-A-• is a singlet spin-correlated radical pair (SCRP), in which both SCRP spins are uncorrelated relative to the R• spin. Subsequent ultrafast electron transfer within the triradical forms D+•-A-R-, but its yield is controlled by spin statistics of the uncorrelated A-•-R• radical pair, where the initial charge separation yields a 3:1 statistical mixture of D+•-3(A-•-R•) and D+•-1(A-•-R•), and subsequent reduction of R• only occurs in D+•-1(A-•-R•). These findings inform the design of multispin systems to transfer spin coherence between molecules targeting quantum information processing using the agency of SCRPs.

3.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15171, 2017 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28516916

RESUMO

When molecular dimers, crystalline films or molecular aggregates absorb a photon to produce a singlet exciton, spin-allowed singlet fission may produce two triplet excitons that can be used to generate two electron-hole pairs, leading to a predicted ∼50% enhancement in maximum solar cell performance. The singlet fission mechanism is still not well understood. Here we report on the use of time-resolved optical and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to probe singlet fission in a pentacene dimer linked by a non-conjugated spacer. We observe the key intermediates in the singlet fission process, including the formation and decay of a quintet state that precedes formation of the pentacene triplet excitons. Using these combined data, we develop a single kinetic model that describes the data over seven temporal orders of magnitude both at room and cryogenic temperatures.

4.
J Phys Chem A ; 121(23): 4455-4463, 2017 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28531356

RESUMO

Photoexcitation of electron donor-acceptor molecules frequently produces radical ion pairs with well-defined initial spin-polarized states that have attracted significant interest for spintronics. Transfer of this initial spin polarization to a stable radical is predicted to depend on the rates of the radical ion pair recombination reactions, but this prediction has not been tested experimentally. In this study, a stable radical/electron donor/chromophore/electron acceptor molecule, BDPA•-mPD-ANI-NDI, where BDPA• is α,γ-bisdiphenylene-ß-phenylallyl, mPD is m-phenylenediamine, ANI is 4-aminonaphthalene-1,8-dicarboximide, and NDI is naphthalene-1,4:5,8-bis(dicarboximide), was synthesized. Photoexcitation of ANI produces the triradical BDPA•-mPD+•-ANI-NDI-• in which the mPD+•-ANI-NDI-• radical ion pair is spin coupled to the BDPA• stable radical. BDPA•-mPD+•-ANI-NDI-• and its counterpart lacking the stable radical are found to exhibit spin-selective charge recombination in which the triplet radical ion pair 3(mPD+•-ANI-NDI-•) is in equilibrium with the 3*NDI charge recombination product. Time-resolved EPR measurements show that this process is associated with an inversion of the sign of the polarization transferred to BDPA• over time. The polarization transfer rates are found to be strongly solvent dependent, as shifts in this equilibrium affect the spin dynamics. These results demonstrate that even small changes in electron transfer dynamics can have a large effect on the spin dynamics of photogenerated multispin systems.

5.
Nat Chem ; 9(5): 466-472, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28430197

RESUMO

Two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks often π stack into crystalline solids that allow precise spatial positioning of molecular building blocks. Inspired by the hydrogen-bonded G-quadruplexes found frequently in guanine-rich DNA, here we show that this structural motif can be exploited to guide the self-assembly of naphthalene diimide and perylene diimide electron acceptors end-capped with two guanine electron donors into crystalline G-quadruplex-based organic frameworks, wherein the electron donors and acceptors form ordered, segregated π-stacked arrays. Time-resolved optical and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies show that photogenerated holes and electrons in the frameworks have long lifetimes and display recombination kinetics typical of dissociated charge carriers. Moreover, the reduced acceptors form polarons in which the electron is shared over several molecules. The G-quadruplex frameworks also demonstrate potential as cathode materials in Li-ion batteries because of the favourable electron- and Li-ion-transporting capacity provided by the ordered rylene diimide arrays and G-quadruplex structures, respectively.

6.
J Phys Chem A ; 121(11): 2241-2252, 2017 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28257610

RESUMO

Photoinitiated subnanosecond electron transfer within covalently linked electron donor-acceptor molecules can result in the formation of a spin-correlated radical pair (SCRP) with a well-defined initial singlet spin configuration. Subsequent coherent mixing between the SCRP singlet and triplet ms = 0 spin states, the so-called zero quantum coherence (ZQC), is of potential interest in quantum information processing applications because the ZQC can be probed using pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (pulse-EPR) techniques. Here, pulse-EPR spectroscopy is utilized to examine the ZQC oscillation frequencies and ZQC dephasing in three structurally well-defined D-A systems. While transitions between the singlet and triplet ms = 0 spin states are formally forbidden (Δms = 0), they can be addressed using specific microwave pulse turning angles to map information from the ZQC onto observable single quantum coherences. In addition, by using structural variations to tune the singlet-triplet energy gap, the ZQC frequencies determined for this series of molecules indicate a stronger dependence on the electronic g-factor than on electron-nuclear hyperfine interactions.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(9): 3348-3351, 2017 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28222595

RESUMO

We present the stereoselective synthesis of a chiral covalent organic cage consisting of three redox-active naphthalene-1,4:5,8-bis(dicarboximide) (NDI) units by dynamic imine chemistry. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis shows that host-guest interactions and racemic cocrystallization allow for controlling the solid state structure. Electronic interactions between the NDI units probed by absorption and circular dichroism spectroscopies, electrochemistry and theoretical calculations are shown to be weak. Photoexcitation of NDI leads to intracage charge separation with a longer lifetime than observed in the corresponding monomeric NDI and dimeric NDI cyclophane imines. The EPR spectrum of the singly reduced cage shows that the electron is localized on a single NDI unit at ambient temperatures and transitions to rapid hopping among all three NDI units upon heating to 350 K. Dynamic covalent chemistry thus promises rapid access to covalent organic cages with well-defined architectures to study charge accumulation and electron transport phenomena.

8.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(18): 2841-53, 2016 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27108738

RESUMO

Photoinduced electron transfer reactions in organic donor-acceptor systems leading to long-lived radical ion pairs (RPs) have attracted broad interest for their potential applications in fields as diverse as solar energy conversion and spintronics. We present the photophysics and spin dynamics of an electron donor - electron acceptor - stable radical system consisting of a meta-phenylenediamine (mPD) donor covalently linked to a 4-aminonaphthalene-1,8-dicarboximide (ANI) electron-accepting chromophore as well as an α,γ-bisdiphenylene-ß-phenylallyl (BDPA) stable radical. Selective photoexcitation of ANI produces the BDPA-mPD(+•)-ANI(-•) triradical in which the mPD(+•)-ANI(-•) RP spins are strongly exchange coupled. The presence of BDPA is found to greatly increase the RP intersystem crossing rate from the initially photogenerated BDPA-(1)(mPD(+•)-ANI(-•)) to BDPA-(3)(mPD(+•)-ANI(-•)), resulting in accelerated RP recombination via the triplet channel to produce BDPA-mPD-(3*)ANI as compared to a reference molecule lacking the BDPA radical. The RP recombination rates observed are much faster than those previously reported for weakly coupled triradical systems. Time-resolved EPR spectroscopy shows that this process is also associated with strong spin polarization of the stable radical. Overall, these results show that RP intersystem crossing rates can be strongly influenced by stable radicals nearby strongly coupled RP systems, making it possible to use a third spin to control RP lifetimes down to a picosecond time scale.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(39): 12565-79, 2015 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26348281

RESUMO

As effective building blocks for high-mobility transistor polymers, oligothiophenes are receiving attention for polymer solar cells (PSCs) because the resulting polymers can effectively suppress charge recombination. Here we investigate two series of in-chain donor-acceptor copolymers, PTPDnT and PBTInT, based on thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD) or bithiopheneimide (BTI) as electron acceptor units, respectively, and oligothiophenes (nTs) as donor counits, for high-performance PSCs. Intramolecular S···O interaction leads to more planar TPD polymer backbones, however backbone torsion yields greater open-circuit voltages for BTI polymers. Thiophene addition progressively raises polymer HOMOs but marginally affects their band gaps. FT-Raman spectra indicate that PTPDnT and PBTInT conjugation lengths scale with nT catenation up to n = 3 and then saturate for longer oligomer. Furthermore, the effects of oligothiophene alkylation position are explored, revealing that the alkylation pattern greatly affects film morphology and PSC performance. The 3T with "outward" alkylation in PTPD3T and PBTI3T affords optimal π-conjugation, close stacking, long-range order, and high hole mobilities (0.1 cm(2)/(V s)). These characteristics contribute to the exceptional ∼80% fill factors for PTPD3T-based PSCs with PCE = 7.7%. The results demonstrate that 3T is the optimal donor unit among nTs (n = 1-4) for photovoltaic polymers. Grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements reveal that the terthiophene-based PTPD3T blend maintains high crystallinity with appreciable local mobility and long charge carrier lifetime. These results provide fundamental materials structure-device performance correlations and suggest guidelines for designing oligothiophene-based polymers with optimal thiophene catenation and appropriate alkylation pattern to maximize PSC performance.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(36): 11161-8, 2015 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26283386

RESUMO

The organization of trisradical rotaxanes within the channels of a Zr6-based metal-organic framework (NU-1000) has been achieved postsynthetically by solvent-assisted ligand incorporation. Robust Zr(IV)-carboxylate bonds are forged between the Zr clusters of NU-1000 and carboxylic acid groups of rotaxane precursors (semirotaxanes) as part of this building block replacement strategy. Ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-Vis-NIR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies all confirm the capture of redox-active rotaxanes within the mesoscale hexagonal channels of NU-1000. Cyclic voltammetry measurements performed on electroactive thin films of the resulting material indicate that redox-active viologen subunits located on the rotaxane components can be accessed electrochemically in the solid state. In contradistinction to previous methods, this strategy for the incorporation of mechanically interlocked molecules within porous materials circumvents the need for de novo synthesis of a metal-organic framework, making it a particularly convenient approach for the design and creation of solid-state molecular switches and machines. The results presented here provide proof-of-concept for the application of postsynthetic transformations in the integration of dynamic molecular machines with robust porous frameworks.

11.
J Phys Chem B ; 119(43): 13560-9, 2015 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26010882

RESUMO

We report on a novel small organic molecule comprising a perylene chromophore fused to a six-membered ring containing a persistent nitroxide radical to give a perylene-nitroxide, or PerNO(•). This molecule is a robust, compact molecule in which the radical is closely bound to the chromophore but separated by saturated carbon atoms, thus limiting the electronic coupling between the chromophore and radical. We present both ultrafast transient absorption experiments and time-resolved EPR (TREPR) studies to probe the spin dynamics of photoexcited PerNO(•) and utilize X-ray crystallography to probe the molecular structure and stacking motifs of PerNO(•) in the solid state. The ability to control both the structure and electronic properties of molecules having multiple spins as well as the possibility of assembling ordered solid state materials from them is important for implementing effective molecule-based spintronics.

12.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(22): 5587-96, 2015 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25961130

RESUMO

A covalent dyad was synthesized in which perylene-3,4,:9:10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI) is linked to ß-apocarotene (Car) using a biphenyl spacer. The dyad is monomeric in toluene and forms a solution aggregate in methylcyclohexane (MCH). Using femtosecond transient absorption (fsTA) spectroscopy, the monomeric dyad and its aggregates were studied both in solution and in thin films. In toluene, photoexcitation at 530 nm preferentially excites PDI, and the dyad undergoes charge separation in τ = 1.7 ps and recombination in τ = 1.6 ns. In MCH and in thin solid films, 530 nm excitation of the PDI-Car aggregate also results in charge transfer that competes with energy transfer from (1)*PDI to Car and with an additional process, rapid Car triplet formation in <50 ps. Car triplet formation is only observed in the aggregated PDI-Car dyad and is attributed to singlet exciton fission (SF) within the aggregated PDI, followed by rapid triplet energy transfer from (3)*PDI to the carotenoid. SF from ß-apocarotene aggregation is ruled out by direct excitation of Car films at 414 nm, where no triplet formation is observed. Time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance measurements on aggregated PDI-Car show the formation of (3)*Car with a spin-polarization pattern that rules out radical-pair intersystem crossing as the mechanism of triplet formation as well.

13.
Nano Lett ; 12(2): 1022-5, 2012 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22250864

RESUMO

We report the first method for synthesizing binary semiconductor materials by scanning probe block copolymer lithography (SPBCL) in desired locations on a surface. In this work, we utilize SPBCL to create polymer features containing a desired amount of Cd(2+), which is defined by the feature volume. When they are subsequently reacted in H(2)S in the vapor phase, a single CdS nanoparticle is formed in each block copolymer (BCP) feature. The CdS nanoparticles were shown to be both crystalline and luminescent. Importantly, the CdS nanoparticle sizes can be tuned since their diameters depend on the volume of the originally deposited BCP feature.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cádmio/química , Sondas Moleculares/química , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Polímeros/química , Sulfetos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Semicondutores , Propriedades de Superfície
14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 3(9): 1202-7, 2012 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26288056

RESUMO

We use electroabsorption spectroscopy to measure the change in built-in potential (VBI) across the polymer photoactive layer in diodes where indium tin oxide electrodes are systematically modified using dipolar phosphonic acid self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with various dipole moments. We find that VBI scales linearly with the work function (Φ) of the SAM-modified electrode over a wide range when using a solution-coated poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivative as the active layer. However, we measure an interfacial parameter of S = eΔVBI/ΔΦ < 1, suggesting that these ITO/SAM/polymer interfaces deviate from the Schottky-Mott limit, in contrast to what has previously been reported for a number of ambient-processed organic-on-electrode systems. Our results suggest that the energetics at these ITO/SAM/polymer interfaces behave more like metal/organic interfaces previously studied in UHV despite being processed from solution.

15.
ACS Nano ; 3(6): 1345-52, 2009 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19449837

RESUMO

We use photoluminescence (PL) quenching and photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectroscopy to study charge transfer in bulk heterojunction blends of PbSe quantum dots with the semiconducting polymers poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-para-phenylene vinylene] (MDMO-PPV). PIA spectra from the PbSe blends are compared to spectra from similar blends of the polymers with phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and blends with CdSe quantum dots. We find that the MDMO-PPV PL is quenched, and the PL lifetime is shortened upon addition of PbSe quantum dots, while the PL of the P3HT is unaffected upon blending. However, for PbSe blends with both polymers, the PIA spectra show very little polaronic signal, suggesting that few, if any, long-lived charges are being produced by photoinduced charge transfer.

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