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1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1903): 20182850, 2019 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138076

RESUMO

The seemingly transparent wings of many insects have recently been found to display unexpected structural coloration. These structural colours (wing interference patterns: WIPs) may be involved in species recognition and mate choice, yet little is known about the evolutionary processes that shape them. Furthermore, to date investigations of WIPs have not fully considered how they are actually perceived by the viewers' colour vision. Here, we use multispectral digital imaging and a model of Drosophila vision to compare WIPs of male and female Drosophila simulans from replicate populations forced to evolve with or without sexual selection for 68 generations. We show that WIPs modelled in Drosophila vision evolve in response to sexual selection and provide evidence that WIPs correlate with male sexual attractiveness. These findings add a new element to the otherwise well-described Drosophila courtship display and confirm that wing colours evolve through sexual selection.


Assuntos
Cor , Drosophila simulans/fisiologia , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Percepção Visual , Asas de Animais/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos
2.
J Evol Biol ; 30(10): 1821-1825, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28703322

RESUMO

The Y chromosome should degenerate because it cannot recombine. However, male-limited transmission increases selection efficiency for male-benefit alleles on the Y, and therefore, Y chromosomes should contribute significantly to variation in male fitness. This means that although the Drosophila Y chromosome is small and gene-poor, Y-linked genes are vital for male fertility in Drosophila melanogaster and the Y chromosome has large male fitness effects. It is unclear whether the same pattern is seen in the closely related Drosophila simulans. We backcrossed Y chromosomes from three geographic locations into five genetic backgrounds and found strong Y and genetic background effects on male fertility. There was a significant Y-background interaction, indicating substantial epistasis between the Y and autosomal genes affecting male fertility. This supports accumulating evidence that interactions between the Y chromosome and the autosomes are key determinants of male fitness.


Assuntos
Cromossomos/metabolismo , Drosophila simulans/genética , Aptidão Genética/genética , Cromossomo Y/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino
3.
J Evol Biol ; 30(2): 388-400, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27859860

RESUMO

Male fitness is dependent on sexual traits that influence mate acquisition (precopulatory sexual selection) and paternity (post-copulatory sexual selection), and although many studies have documented the form of selection in one or the other of these arenas, fewer have done it for both. Nonetheless, it appears that the dominant form of sexual selection is directional, although theoretically, populations should converge on peaks in the fitness surface, where selection is stabilizing. Many factors, however, can prevent populations from reaching adaptive peaks. Genetic constraints can be important if they prevent the development of highest fitness phenotypes, as can the direction of selection if it reverses across episodes of selection. In this study, we examine the evidence that these processes influence the evolution of the multivariate sex comb morphology of male Drosophila simulans. To do this, we conduct a quantitative genetic study together with a multivariate selection analysis to infer how the genetic architecture and selection interact. We find abundant genetic variance and covariance in elements of the sex comb. However, there was little evidence for directional selection in either arena. Significant nonlinear selection was detected prior to copulation when males were mated to nonvirgin females, and post-copulation during sperm offence (again with males mated to nonvirgins). Thus, contrary to our predictions, the evolution of the D. simulans sex comb is limited neither by genetic constraints nor by antagonistic selection between pre- and post-copulatory arenas, but nonlinear selection on the multivariate phenotype may prevent sex combs from evolving to reach some fitness maximizing optima.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fenótipo , Caracteres Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Copulação , Drosophila , Drosophila simulans , Feminino , Variação Genética , Masculino , Seleção Genética
4.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 118(4): 322-329, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27804964

RESUMO

Understanding selection in the wild remains a major aim of evolutionary ecology and work by Ford and colleagues on the meadow brown butterfly Maniola jurtina did much to ignite this agenda. A great deal of their work was conducted during the 1950s on the Isles of Scilly. They documented island-specific wing-spot patterns that remained consistent over about a decade, but patterns on some islands changed after environmental perturbation. It was suggested that these wing-spot patterns reflected island-specific selection and that there was little migration between islands. However, genetic studies to test the underlying assumption of restricted migration are lacking and it is also unknown whether the originally described wing-spot patterns have persisted over time. We therefore collected female butterflies from five of Ford's original study locations, including three large islands (St Mary's, St Martin's and Tresco) and two small islands (Tean and St Helen's). Wing-spot patterns had not changed appreciably over time on three of the islands (two large and one small), but were significantly different on the other two. Furthermore, analysis of 176 amplified fragment length polymorphisms revealed significant genome-wide differentiation among the five islands. Our findings are consistent with Ford's conclusions that despite the close proximity of these islands, there is restricted gene flow among them.


Assuntos
Borboletas/genética , Genética Populacional , Asas de Animais , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Feminino , Fluxo Gênico , Ilhas , Modelos Genéticos , Pigmentação/genética , Reino Unido
5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 283(1843)2016 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27881743

RESUMO

The BA allele of the Drosophila cytochrome P450 gene Cyp6g1 confers resistance to a range of insecticides. It is also subject to intralocus sexual conflict when introgressed into the Canton-S background, whose collection predates the widespread use of insecticides. In this genetic background, the allele confers a pleiotropic fitness benefit to females but a cost to males, and exhibits little sexual dimorphism in conferred insecticide resistance. It is unclear whether these sexually antagonistic effects also exist in current populations that have naturally evolved with insecticides, where genetic modifiers that offset male costs might be expected to evolve. Here, we explore these issues using Drosophila melanogaster caught recently from an Australian population in which the BA allele naturally segregates. While we find increased fecundity in insecticide-resistant BA females and no consistent evidence of fitness costs in males, experimental evolution indicates balancing selection at the locus. We suggest that this apparent discrepancy may be due to reduced investment in reproduction in resistant males. Our results at the population level are consistent with previous work, and suggest that individual-level fitness assays do not always capture sexually antagonistic fitness effects that emerge in a population context.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Aptidão Genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Alelos , Animais , Austrália , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Feminino , Fertilidade , Masculino
6.
J Evol Biol ; 29(12): 2464-2470, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27575647

RESUMO

The Fisherian sexual selection paradigm has been called the null model of sexual selection. At its heart is the expectation of a genetic correlation (rG ) between female preference and male trait. However, recent meta-analysis has shown estimated correlations are often extremely weak and not statistically significant. We show here that systematic failure of studies to reject the null hypothesis that rG  = 0 is almost certainly due to the low power of most experimental designs used. We provide an easy way to assess experimental power a priori and suggest that current data make it difficult to definitively test a key component of the Fisher effect.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Modelos Estatísticos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo , Seleção Genética , Comportamento Sexual , Comportamento Sexual Animal
7.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 115(1): 83-92, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25832817

RESUMO

Understanding of the movements of species at multiple scales is essential to appreciate patterns of population connectivity and in some cases, the potential for pathogen transmission. The serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) is a common and widely distributed species in Europe where it frequently harbours European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1), a virus causing rabies and transmissible to humans. In the United Kingdom, it is rare, with a distribution restricted to south of the country and so far the virus has never been found there. We investigated the genetic structure and gene flow of E. serotinus across the England and continental Europe. Greater genetic structuring was found in England compared with continental Europe. Nuclear data suggest a single population on the continent, although further work with more intensive sampling is required to confirm this, while mitochondrial sequences indicate an east-west substructure. In contrast, three distinct populations were found in England using microsatellite markers, and mitochondrial diversity was very low. Evidence of nuclear admixture indicated strong male-mediated gene flow among populations. Differences in connectivity could contribute to the high viral prevalence on the continent in contrast with the United Kingdom. Although the English Channel was previously thought to restrict gene flow, our data indicate relatively frequent movement from the continent to England highlighting the potential for movement of EBLV-1 into the United Kingdom.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Genética Populacional , Raiva/transmissão , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Quirópteros/virologia , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Europa (Continente) , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Lyssavirus , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Modelos Genéticos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise Multivariada , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Reino Unido
8.
J Evol Biol ; 27(4): 700-13, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24779049

RESUMO

Sexual selection is responsible for the evolution of many elaborate traits, but sexual trait evolution could be influenced by opposing natural selection as well as genetic constraints. As such, the evolution of sexual traits could depend heavily on the environment if trait expression and attractiveness vary between environments. Here, male Drosophila simulans were reared across a range of diets and temperatures, and we examined differences between these environments in terms of (i) the expression of male cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) and (ii) which male CHC profiles were most attractive to females. Temperature had a strong effect on male CHC expression, whereas the effect of diet was weaker. Male CHCs were subject to complex patterns of directional, quadratic and correlational sexual selection, and we found differences between environments in the combination of male CHCs that were most attractive to females, with clearer differences between diets than between temperatures. We also show that genetic covariance between environments is likely to cause a constraint on independent CHC evolution between environments. Our results demonstrate that even across the narrow range of environmental variation studied here, predicting the outcome of sexual selection can be extremely complicated, suggesting that studies ignoring multiple traits or environments may provide an over-simplified view of the evolution of sexual traits.


Assuntos
Drosophila/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Seleção Genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Drosophila/química , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal
9.
J Evol Biol ; 26(11): 2341-9, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24016061

RESUMO

Sperm length is extremely variable across species, but a general explanation for this variation is lacking. However, when the risk of sperm competition is high, sperm length is predicted to be less variable within species, and there is some evidence for this in birds and social insects. Here, we examined intraspecific variation in sperm length, both within and between males, and its potential associations with sperm competition risk and variation in female reproductive tract morphology across dung flies. We used two measures of variation in sperm size, and testis size was employed as our index of sperm competition risk. We found no evidence of associations between sperm length variation and sperm competition or female reproductive tract variation. These results suggest that variation in sperm competition risk may not always be associated with variation in sperm morphology, and the cause(s) of sperm length variation in dung flies remains unclear.


Assuntos
Dípteros/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/citologia , Animais , Tamanho Celular , Dípteros/citologia , Feminino , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Comportamento Sexual Animal
10.
J Evol Biol ; 26(1): 94-107, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23163514

RESUMO

Genotype-by-environment interactions (G × Es) describe genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity. Recent interest in the role of these interactions in sexual selection has identified G × Es across a diverse range of species and sexual traits. Additionally, theoretical work predicts that G × Es in sexual traits could help to maintain genetic variation, but could also disrupt the reliability of these traits as signals of mate quality. However, empirical tests of these theoretical predictions are scarce. We reared iso-female lines of Drosophila simulans across two axes of environmental variation (diet and temperature) in a fully factorial design and tested for G × Es in the expression of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), a multivariate sexual trait in this species. We find sex-specific environmental, genetic and G × E effects on CHC expression, with G × Es for diet in both male and female CHC profile and a G × E for temperature in females. We also find some evidence for ecological crossover in these G × Es, and by quantifying variance components, genetic correlations and heritabilities, we show the potential for these G × Es to help maintain genetic variation and cause sexual signal unreliability in D. simulans CHC profiles.


Assuntos
Drosophila/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Modelos Genéticos , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Dieta , Drosophila/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genótipo , Masculino , Fenótipo , Análise de Componente Principal , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Temperatura
11.
J Evol Biol ; 26(2): 311-24, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23206188

RESUMO

Sexual signals can be used to attract mates, but to be honest indicators of signaller quality they need to convey information reliably. However, environmental variation and genotype-by-environment (G × E) interactions have the potential to compromise the reliability of sexual signals. Here, we test the reliability of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) as signals of heritable aspects of male attractiveness in Drosophila simulans. We examined the heritability of male attractiveness and a measure of the difference between fathers' and sons' CHC profiles across dietary and temperature environments. Our results show that environmental heterogeneity disrupts the similarity of some components of father and son CHC profile. However, overall male attractiveness is heritable within and across environments, so that sire attractiveness is a good predictor of son attractiveness even with environmental heterogeneity. This suggests that although some male CHC signals are unreliable, attractive genotypes retain their attractiveness across environments on average.


Assuntos
Drosophila/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta , Drosophila/química , Drosophila/genética , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , Temperatura
12.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 109(4): 222-5, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22692269

RESUMO

The accessory gland proteins (Acps) that male Drosophila melanogaster produce and transfer to females during copulation are key to male and female fitness. One Acp, the sex peptide (SP), is largely responsible for a dramatic increase in female egg laying and decrease in female receptivity after copulation. While genetic variation in male SP expression levels correlate with refractory period duration in females, it is unknown whether male SP expression influences female egg laying or if any effect of SP is mediated by SP retention in the female reproductive tract. Here we measured the amount of SP retained in the female reproductive tract after mating and female egg laying after copulating with virgin males. We found no correlation between male SP expression levels and egg laying, or the amount of SP in the female reproductive tract after mating. Additionally, the amount of SP retained in the female did not influence egg laying. These finding suggests that additional factors, such as variation in other Acps, are important for the retention of SP in females and its quantitative effects on egg laying. It also shows that egg laying and refractory period response to SP is at least partially uncoupled.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Oviposição/fisiologia , Peptídeos/genética , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Copulação/fisiologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/análise , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Masculino , Oviposição/genética , Peptídeos/análise , Reprodução/genética , Reprodução/fisiologia , Atrativos Sexuais/análise , Atrativos Sexuais/genética
13.
J Evol Biol ; 24(6): 1351-62, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21507117

RESUMO

In Drosophila melanogaster, the DDT resistance allele (DDT-R) is beneficial in the presence of DDT. Interestingly, DDT-R also elevates female fitness in the absence of DDT and existed in populations before DDT use. However, DDT-R did not spread regardless of DDT-independent selective advantages in females. We ask whether sexual antagonism could explain why DDT-R did not spread before pesticide use. We tested pre- and post-copulatory male fitness correlates in two genetic backgrounds into which we backcrossed the DDT-R allele. We found costs to DDT-R that depended on the genetic background in which DDT-R was found and documented strong epistasis between genetic background and DDT-R that influenced male size. Although it remains unclear whether DDT-R is generally sexually antagonistic, or whether the fitness costs noted would be sufficient to retard the spread of DDT-R in the absence of DDT, general fitness advantages to DDT-R in the absence of DDT may be unlikely.


Assuntos
DDT , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Epistasia Genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Alelos , Animais , Tamanho Corporal/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/anatomia & histologia , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
14.
J Evol Biol ; 24(2): 363-71, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21091568

RESUMO

Inbreeding frequently leads to inbreeding depression, a reduction in the trait values of inbred individuals. Inbreeding depression has been documented in sexually selected characters in several taxa, and while there is correlational evidence that male fertility is especially susceptible to inbreeding depression, there have been few direct experimental examinations of this. Here, we assessed inbreeding depression in male fertility and a range of other male fitness correlates in Drosophila simulans. We found that male fertility and attractiveness were especially susceptible to inbreeding depression. Additionally, levels of testicular oxidative stress were significantly elevated in inbred males, although sperm viability did not differ between inbred and outbred males. Copulation duration, induction of oviposition, and the proportion of eggs hatching did not differ for females mated to inbred or outbred males. Nevertheless, our results clearly show that key male fitness components are impaired by inbreeding and provide evidence that aspects of male fertility are especially susceptible to inbreeding depression.


Assuntos
Drosophila/genética , Fertilidade/genética , Endogamia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Asas de Animais
15.
J Evol Biol ; 24(2): 449-56, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21126275

RESUMO

Males harm females during mating in a range of species. This harm is thought to evolve because it is directly or indirectly beneficial to the male, despite being costly to his mate. The resulting sexually antagonistic selection can cause sexual arms races. For sexually antagonistic co-evolution to occur, there must be genetic variation for traits involved in female harming and susceptibility to harm, but even then intersexual genetic correlations could facilitate or impede sexual co-evolution. Male Callosobruchus maculatus harm their mates during copulation by damaging the female's reproductive tract. However, there have been no investigations of the genetic variation in damage or in female susceptibility to damage, nor has the genetic covariance between these characters been assessed. Here, we use a full-sib/half-sib breeding design to show that male damage is heritable, whereas female susceptibility to damage is much less so. There is also a substantial positive genetic correlation between the two, suggesting that selection favouring damaging males will increase the prevalence of susceptible females. We also provide evidence consistent with intralocus sexual conflict in this species.


Assuntos
Besouros/anatomia & histologia , Besouros/fisiologia , Copulação/fisiologia , Genitália Masculina/anatomia & histologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/patologia , Masculino
16.
J Evol Biol ; 23(12): 2550-7, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20939836

RESUMO

Sexual selection is responsible for many of the most spectacular displays in nature, and female preference for certain males is central to much of this. However, female preference is relatively poorly understood, particularly the relative importance of a female's genes, the environment and their interaction on her preference. We investigated preference in a no-choice design using Drosophila melanogaster iso-female lines and find that there are genotype-by-environment interactions for female preference. Whereas the choosiness of some female genotypes differed little across environments, that of others differed greatly, so that the choosiness rank of females in one environment did not necessarily predict their rank in another. Furthermore, the genetic variance underlying preference also varied across environments. These findings have important consequences for the evolution of female preference and the male sexual traits preference targets.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Meio Ambiente , Genótipo , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino
17.
J Evol Biol ; 23(10): 2031-45, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20722891

RESUMO

Genotype-by-environment interactions (GxEs) in naturally selected traits have been extensively studied, but the impact of GxEs on sexual selection has only recently begun to receive attention. Here, we review recent models and consider how GxEs might affect the evolution of sexual traits through influencing sexual signal reliability and also how GxEs may influence variation in sexually selected traits and the process of reproductive isolation. We then assess the current empirical literature on GxEs in sexual selection and conclude by highlighting areas that need additional work. Research on GxEs and sexual selection is an important new area of study for the discipline, which has largely focused on relatively simple mate choice/competition scenarios to date. Investigators now need to apply this knowledge to more complex, but realistic, situations, to more fully explore the evolution of sexual traits, and in this review we suggest potentially useful directions for future research.


Assuntos
Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Fenótipo , Seleção Genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Genótipo , Modelos Genéticos
18.
Opt Express ; 18(13): 13673-8, 2010 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20588501

RESUMO

We describe an efficient Er:YAG laser that is resonantly pumped using continuous-wave (CW) laser diodes at 1470 nm. For CW lasing, it emits 6.1 W at 1645 nm with a slope efficiency of 36%, the highest efficiency reported for an Er:YAG laser that is pumped in this manner. In Q-switched operation, the laser produces diffraction-limited pulses with an average power of 2.5 W at 2 kHz PRF. To our knowledge this is the first Q-switched Er:YAG laser resonantly pumped by CW laser diodes.


Assuntos
Lasers Semicondutores , Lasers de Estado Sólido , Óptica e Fotônica/instrumentação , Óptica e Fotônica/métodos , Raios Infravermelhos , Modelos Teóricos
19.
J Evol Biol ; 23(8): 1672-9, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20546089

RESUMO

Female mate preference is central to sexual selection, and all indirect benefit models require that there is genetic variation in female preference. This has rarely been tested however, with relatively few studies documenting heritable variation in female preference and even fewer that have directly selected on mate preference to unequivocally show that it can evolve. Additionally, costs of mate preference are poorly understood even though these have implications for preference evolution. We selected on female preference for ebony-males in replicate Drosophila simulans lines, and generated a rapid evolutionary response in both replicates, with the proportion of females mating with ebony-males increasing from approximately 5% to 30% after five generations of selection. This increase was independent of changes in ebony-males as only females were included in our selection regime. We could detect no cost to mate preference itself other than that associated with the fitness consequences of mating with ebony males.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Drosophila/fisiologia , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Drosophila/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Seleção Genética
20.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 104(1): 61-6, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19639007

RESUMO

Sperm length shows considerable phenotypic variation both inter- and intra-specifically, but a general explanation for this variation is lacking. In addition, our understanding of the genetic variation underlying sperm length variation is also limited because there have been few studies on the genetics of sperm size. One factor that could explain the variation in sperm length is that length influences sperm competitiveness, and there is some evidence for this. However, in yellow dung flies (Scathophaga stercoraria), microevolutionary responses to experimental variation at levels of sperm competition indicate that sperm length does not influence sperm competitiveness, although this lack of response may simply indicate sperm length lacks evolutionary potential (that is, it is constrained in some way), in spite of evidence that sperm length is heritable. Here we report on a laboratory study, in which we artificially selected upwards and downwards on sperm length in S. stercoraria. We found that sperm length significantly diverged after four generations of selection, but the response to selection was asymmetrical: upward selection generated a rapid response, but downward did not. We estimated the realized heritability of sperm length to be approximately 50%, which is consistent with previous sire-son estimates. We also assessed the fertility of males from upward and downward lines and found they did not differ. Results are discussed in the context of sperm competition.


Assuntos
Dípteros/genética , Seleção Genética , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Animais , Dípteros/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
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