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1.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009075

RESUMO

AIM: The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident dramatically changed the lifestyle of residents who lived near the plant. We evaluated the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with specific lifestyle- and disaster-related factors in residents following the accident. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 20,920 residents who underwent both the Comprehensive Health Check and the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey from June 2011 to March 2012. Associations between MetS and lifestyle- and disaster-related factors, including psychological distress (post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), were estimated using logistic regression analysis, adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors, in 2019. RESULTS: MetS was present in 30.4% of men and 11.5% of women. There were significant differences in smoking, drinking status, and PTSD prevalence between subjects with and without MetS. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that age, quitting smoking, light to moderate drinking, and low physical activity were significantly associated with MetS. Moreover, PTSD was also significantly associated with MetS in women. CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle- and disaster-related factors, including PTSD, were associated with MetS among subjects who lived near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

2.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034420

RESUMO

During the 2018-2019 influenza seasons, we detected reduced baloxavir marboxil (baloxavir) susceptible variants with I38S or I38T amino acid substitutions on the PA subunit of influenza virus RNA polymerase in 7 of 18 baloxavir treated children and found that virus titer rebounded in some of these children with variants. We also found fever durations to be similar between patients with or without the variants, but the patients with variants shed the virus 3 days longer and took longer to improve clinical symptoms than those without variants. The emergence of these variants should be monitored during future influenza seasons.

3.
Pediatr Int ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to determine the longer-term trends in childhood obesity and hyperlipidemia among residents of Fukushima Prefecture 5 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. METHODS: We evaluated the changes in height, weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI SD score, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-CHO), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CHO), and triglyceride (TG) in residents aged 7 to 15 years who had lived in the evacuation zone between 2011 and 2015. RESULTS: 1) The mean BMI SD score in all residents in 2011 was 0.113, and the mean BMI SD score in all residents gradually decreased from 2011 to 2015. 2) Serum LDL-CHO levels and TG levels in all residents with a BMI value≧+2SD in 2011 were higher than those in residents with a BMI value < +2SD. 3) The frequency of residents with an LDL-CHO level ≧140 mg/dl in 2012, 2013, 2014 did not decrease in comparison with that in 2011, whereas the frequency of residents with an LDL-CHO level ≧140 mg/dl in 2015 was lower than that in 2011. The frequency of residents with a TG level ≧120 mg/dl increased over the 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a number of pediatric residents suffered from obesity and hyperlipidemia. Furthermore, the long-term observation indicated an improvement in obesity, although the improvement in lipid abnormalities was delayed compared with that in obesity. Thus, it is necessary to continue with health checks for these residents with obesity and/or hyperlipidemia.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18486, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895781

RESUMO

We have been examining the Comprehensive Health Check of the Fukushima Health Management Survey of residents of 13 municipalities who were forced by the government to evacuate due to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE). Our findings showed that evacuation is a risk factor for polycythemia and suggested that experiencing an unprecedented disaster and exposure to chronic stress due to evacuation might be a cause of polycythemia.We analyzed the relationship between the prevalence of polycythemia and the following factors observed in the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey in an observational study with a cross-sectional design: traumatic symptoms, depression status, socioeconomic factors such as residential environment, and working situation after the GEJE. Target population of the survey included men and women who were at least 15 years of age and who lived in the evacuation zones specified by the government. Participants analyzed consisted of 29,474 persons (12,379 men and 16,888 women) who had participated in both the 2011 Comprehensive Health Check and Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey from June 2011 through March 2012.The prevalence of polycythemia was not associated with mental states associated with traumatic symptoms (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Scale ≥ 44) and depression status (Kessler 6-item Scale ≥ 13). Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that there was a tendency for males to develop polycythemia, with characteristics such as being aged 65 years and older, highly educated, obese (body mass index ≥ 25), hypertensive, diabetic, having liver dysfunction, and a smoker being significantly related to the prevalence of polycythemia.Our findings conclusively demonstrated that polycythemia was not significantly related to psychological factors, but was significantly related to the onset of lifestyle-related disease after the GEJE.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Policitemia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causalidade , Comorbidade , Terremotos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Policitemia/etiologia , Policitemia/psicologia , Prevalência , Tsunamis , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 447, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) is a life-threating complication in the field of obstetrics. Sometimes we face with unexpected PAS cases which is potentially higher maternal mortality and morbidity compared with expected cases. The present study was conducted to examine the prevalence of PAS and to elucidate its risk factors using a large Japanese birth cohort study. METHODS: We reviewed the results of a nationwide prospective birth cohort study in Japan, and identified 90,554 participants treated from 2011 to 2014 in 15 regional centers. Multiple regression models were created to identify the risk factors for PAS. These data were obtained from self-reported questionnaires or patient medical records. RESULTS: This analysis consisted of 202 cases of PAS (18 with placenta previa and 184 without placenta previa) and 90,352 cases without PAS. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that placenta previa (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 12.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.70-21.45, P < 0.001), assisted reproductive technology-related pregnancies (aOR: 6.78, 95% CI 4.54-10.14, P < 0.001), smoking during pregnancy (aOR: 1.95, 95% CI 1.15-3.31, P = 0.013), more than two previous cesarean sections (aOR: 2.51, 95% CI 1.35-4.67, P = 0.004), and uterine anomalies (aOR: 3.97, 95% CI 1.24-12.68, P = 0.020) increased the risk of PAS. CONCLUSION: In general population, placenta previa, assisted reproductive technology-related pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy, repeated cesarean sections, and uterine anomalies were risk factors for PAS in the Japanese population.

6.
Matern Child Nutr ; : e12899, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747484

RESUMO

The daily diet plays a role in systematic inflammation and may be one of the causes of preterm birth. We aimed to examine the effect of a daily proinflammatory diet before pregnancy on gestational age and birthweight using a large birth cohort in Japan. We used data of singleton pregnancies in the Japan Environment and Children's Study involving live birth from 2011 to 2014 to calculate the dietary inflammatory index. We used individual meals with 30 food parameters from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, which assessed diet intake before pregnancy. Participants were categorized according to the quartile of dietary inflammatory index. A multiple logistic regression model was used to estimate the risk of a proinflammatory diet on preterm birth (PTB) before 37 or 34 weeks and low birthweight (LBW) less than 2,500 or 1,500 g, accounting for maternal age, body mass index before pregnancy, smoking status, education, and household income. After applying our inclusion criteria, 89,329 participants were eligible for the present study. Multiple regression analysis showed that the proinflammatory diet had an increased risk of PTB < 34 weeks (adjusted odds ratio: 1.29, 95% confidence interval [1.07, 1.55]) and <2,500-g LBW (adjusted odds ratio: 1.08, 95% confidence interval [1.01, 1.16]) compared with the control. In conclusion, a proinflammatory diet before pregnancy was a risk factor for PTB < 34 weeks and LBW < 2,500 g. Therefore, proinflammatory diet needs to be controlled to improve perinatal prognosis.

7.
Radiol Case Rep ; 14(11): 1325-1329, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31516647

RESUMO

Pneumorrhachis refers to the clinical presentation of air within the spinal canal, and it is rarely associated with pneumomediastinum, particularly in young children. Pneumorrhachis associated with pneumomediastinum is generally asymptomatic. Here we report 2 unusual cases involving very young children with pneumorrhachis secondary to pneumomediastinum and present a review of the relevant literature. Case 1 involved a 4-year-old girl who presented with wheezing, violent coughing, and dyspnea associated with bronchiolitis. Case 2 involved a 3-year-old boy who presented with wheezing, violent coughing, and dyspnea associated with interstitial pneumonia possibly caused by graft-versus-host disease with human herpesvirus 6 infection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In both cases, pneumorrhachis improved with oxygen inhalation therapy and treatment of the underlying disease. Pneumorrhachis is rarely associated with neurological problems; however, decompressive laminectomy may be indicated to relieve the air block. Because pneumorrhachis is rare in children and neurological sequelae may be difficult to identify, close clinical, and radiographic observations are necessary. Plain radiography is not sufficient, and computed tomography should be performed to rule out intraspinal air.

8.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 317(6): F1420-F1429, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482731

RESUMO

Typical hemolytic uremic syndrome is caused by Shiga toxin (Stx2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia coli and leads to acute kidney injury. The role of innate immunity in this pathogenesis is unclear. We analyzed the role of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) at the onset of disease in a murine model. C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally administered saline (group A), anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (group B), Stx2 and LPS to elicit severe disease (group C), or Stx2, LPS, and anti-HMGB1 antibody (group D). While all mice in group C died by day 5 of the experiment, all mice in group D survived. Anemia and thrombocytopenia were pronounced and plasma creatinine levels were significantly elevated in group C only at 72 h. While at 72 h after toxin administration the glomerulus tissue in group C showed pathology similar to that of humans, mesangial cell proliferation was seen in group D. Plasma HMGB1 levels in group C peaked 3 h after administration and were higher than those in other groups. Expression of the receptor of advanced glycation end products and NF-κB, involved in HMGB1 signaling, was significantly elevated in group C but not in group D. Administration of anti-HMGB1 antibody in a murine model of severe disease inhibited plasma HMGB1 and promoted amelioration of tissue damage. HMGB1 was found to be involved in the disease pathology; therefore, controlling HMGB1 activity might inhibit disease progression.

9.
Pediatr Int ; 61(8): 802-806, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the epidemiology and clinical course of children with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated encephalopathy. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data for 280 patients from a questionnaire survey of acute encephalitis/encephalopathy (AE/E) in Fukushima Prefecture. We enrolled six patients diagnosed with RSV-associated encephalopathy from these 280 patients, and retrospectively investigated the clinical features and prognosis. RESULTS: Six (2.1%) of the 280 patients with AE/E were found to have RSV-associated encephalopathy. The age at onset and male-to-female ratio were 1.3 ± 0.5 years and 2:4, respectively. The mean duration of fever and the duration of loss of consciousness were 3.7 ± 1.5 days (range, 2-6 days), and 3.3 ± 2.3 days (range, 2-8 days), respectively. Four patients had leukocytosis and two patients had high serum C-reactive protein. On admission, one child presented with normal renal and hepatic function, but, high serum ferritin, renal and hepatic dysfunction, and disseminated intravascular coagulation were observed along with progressive multiple organ failure, with the patient dying on the second day of hospitalization. On computed tomography of the brain, five patients had brain edema and one patient had a low-density area. Two of the six children had sequelae while three children had no sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of RSV-associated encephalopathy in all AE/E patients was 2.1% Given that half of the children with RSV-associated encephalopathy had sequelae or death, the prognosis for RSV-associated encephalopathy is not particularly good and it is necessary to pay careful attention to patients with RSV-associated encephalopathy.

11.
Pediatr Neurol ; 98: 61-67, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute encephalitis and encephalopathy are life-threatening diseases in children. However, no laboratory examinations are performed for their early diagnosis and treatment. Alpha 2-macroglobulin (α2M) is a blood glycoprotein that increases during the early stages of inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the role of α2M levels in acute encephalitis and encephalopathy. METHODS: We analyzed the cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, infection-related acute encephalopathy, febrile status epilepticus, and febrile seizure simplex type. Samples were collected from the pediatric department of hospitals throughout the Fukushima Prefecture between January 1, 1999, and May 31, 2012. RESULTS: α2M levels in the cerebrospinal fluid were 4.7 (3.8-8.4) µg/mL for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, 2.1 (1.1-2.3) µg/mL for infection-related acute encephalopathy, 1.1 (0.9-6.4) µg/mL for febrile status epilepticus, and 1.0 (0.8-1.1) µg/mL for febrile seizure simplex type. α2M levels in patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were significantly higher than those in patients with infection-related acute encephalopathy and febrile seizure simplex type (P = 0.019 and P = 0.002, respectively). The ratio of α2M level in the cerebrospinal fluid to that in the serum in patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis was significantly higher than the ratio in patients with febrile status epilepticus (P = 0.04). In patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, α2M levels in the cerebrospinal fluid decreased with treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that α2M levels in the cerebrospinal fluid reflect the neuroinflammatory status of patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

12.
Pediatr Res ; 86(4): 485-491, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Animal models of nephrotic syndrome (NS) revealed that tight junction (TJ)-like structures are generated together with a concomitant decrease in slit diaphragms (SDs). Claudins (CLDNs) are capable of forming TJ strands and thereby the backbone of TJs. We showed the ectopic expression of CLDN2 in podocytes in pediatric NS, and detected its localization. METHODS: Renal frozen specimens were obtained by biopsy from 49 pediatric patients: 21 subjects with MCD, 18 with FSGS, and 10 with IgA nephritis (IgA-N). CLDN2 expression was observed by immunohistochemistry and the CLDN2-positive area was calculated. Moreover, its localization was detected using immunoelectron microscopy. RESULTS: CLDN2 is ectopically detected in cases with MCD and FSGS before remission. The CLDN2-stained region in MCD and FSGS glomeruli before remission was significantly greater than that after remission as well as in IgA-N patients. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that CLDN2 was concentrated along newly formed TJs in podocytes. CONCLUSION: The same pathological findings in terms of ectopic CLDN2 expression in podocytes were shown in cases with MCD and FSGS before remission. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron studies of CLDN2 appear to afford a powerful tool for the diagnosis of primary NS. In addition, CLDN2 expression level may be related to disease status.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parechovirus A3 (PeV-A3) is a pathogen that causes severe infectious diseases such as sepsis and meningoencephalitis in neonates and young infants. In this study, we aimed to measure the neutralizing antibody titer (NAT) against PeV-A3 in paired maternal and cord blood samples and to clarify the serum epidemiology of PeV-A3 and the association between the NAT and perinatal factors. METHODS: NATs against PeV-A3 were measured in 1033 mothers (maternal and cord blood pairs; total of 2066 samples) who delivered their infant in Fukushima Prefecture between December 2013 and June 2014. RD-18S cells were used to measure NATs against PeV-A3. The association between NATs against PeV-A3 in maternal and cord blood and perinatal factors was determined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The median gestational age of the infants was 39 weeks 4 days (interquartile range, 38 weeks 4 days to 40 weeks 3 days). The NATs against PeV-A3 in maternal blood and in cord blood were almost the same. The proportion of samples assigned to the low-titer group (NAT ≤ 1:16) was approximately 70%, and the proportion of samples assigned to the high-titer group tended to increase with gestational age. The high-titer rate and geometric mean titers decreased with increased maternal age. CONCLUSIONS: Cord blood indicates that neonates born at a lower gestational age and older mothers have a low NAT against PeV-A3. Thus, more attention should be paid to the onset of severe PeV-A3 disease in such neonates and young infants.

14.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 459(1-2): 49-59, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098783

RESUMO

Glucocorticoid (GC) resistance is associated with poor response to the following chemotherapy in lymphoid malignancies, such as lymphoma and leukemia. However, it remains unclear whether GCs interfere with the cytotoxic effects of anti-cancer drugs on GC-resistant cells. In this study, we examined whether GCs affected the sensitivities to vincristine (VCR)/doxorubicin (DOX) and the expression of drug transporters in GC-resistant cells. The dexamethasone (DEX)/prednisolone (PSL)-resistant lymphoid and non-lymphoid cell lines Raji and HL60 were cultured with DEX for 7 days and then treated with VCR or DOX for 3 days. Seven days of DEX treatment increased the IC50s of both VCR and DOX in Raji cells but not in HL60 cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels of organic cation/carnitine transporter (OCTN) 2, one of the drug uptake transporters expressed in both cell lines, were decreased only in Raji cells. When Raji cells were cultured with PSL, the IC50 of DOX but not VCR increased as the expression of OCTN2 decreased. No significant increases in efflux transporter expression were induced by DEX or PSL. When siRNA against OCTN2 was introduced into Raji cells, the IC50 of DOX but not VCR increased significantly. These data suggested that both DEX and PSL decreased the sensitivity of the DEX/PSL-resistant Raji cells to DOX, a change that was at least partially due to reductions in OCTN2. Thus, the continuous usage of GCs may interfere with the effects of chemotherapy on GC-resistant lymphoid cells.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Prednisolona/farmacologia , Membro 5 da Família 22 de Carreadores de Soluto/metabolismo , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia/metabolismo , Leucemia/patologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Linfoma/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma/metabolismo , Linfoma/patologia
15.
Case Rep Emerg Med ; 2019: 3591258, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032123

RESUMO

Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by sustained muscle tone. Antipsychotic agents sometimes cause acute dystonia that can rapidly worsen within a few hours or days. Because healthy children rarely receive antipsychotic agents, it is unusual to see antipsychotic agent-induced dystonia in pediatric emergency departments. We report a rare case of a 12-year-old healthy boy who presented with acute dystonia after administration of haloperidol for sedation. He was suspected of laryngeal dystonia because stridor and desaturation were present. The symptoms disappeared with the administration of hydroxyzine. Rapid diagnosis was important in this case because laryngeal dystonia is a potential life-threatening complication due to upper airway obstruction. Considering the risk of side effects, doctors who are not accustomed to administering pediatric anesthesia should consult a pediatrician and/or an anesthesiologist prior to administration of anesthetics to pediatric patients.

16.
Am J Perinatol ; 36(14): 1464-1470, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703808

RESUMO

To date, few studies have investigated whether perinatal factors affect coagulation parameters at birth in preterm and term neonates. We retrospectively investigated coagulation factors on day 1 in 609 consecutive neonates admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit between January 2010 and December 2017. We measured coagulation factors on day 1 using peripheral blood samples. Multivariate analysis revealed that prothrombin time-international normalized ratio correlated with intraventricular hemorrhage (p = 0.000; ß = 0.180) and placental abruption (PA; p = 0.000; ß = 0.142). Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) correlated with birth weight (BW; p = 0.000; ß = - 0.217), gestational age (GA; p = 0.000; ß = - 0.282), and PA (p = 0.000; ß = 0.181). Fibrinogen concentration was associated with respiratory distress syndrome (p = 0.007; ß = - 0.114), pregnancy-induced hypertension (p = 0.000; ß = - 0.141), and Apgar score at 1 minute (p = 0.043; ß = 0.147). Furthermore, the level of d-dimer inversely correlated with Apgar score at 5 minutes (p = 0.049). Finally, antithrombin III levels positively correlated with GA (p = 0.000) and BW (p = 0.000). Thus, maternal and neonatal complications affect coagulation parameters in preterm and term neonates.

17.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 98(3): 359-364, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367455

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the risk of preterm birth, low birthweight and small-for-gestational-age neonates born to mothers with adenomyosis during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used the results of a Japanese nationwide prospective birth cohort study, identifying 93 668 singleton deliveries from 2011 to 2014. We identified 314 pregnancies with adenomyosis using self-reported questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine whether adenomyosis was associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Maternal age, smoking status, method of conception, history of parity, fibroids, endometriosis and body mass index before pregnancy were analyzed as confounding factors. RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that pregnancy with adenomyosis was a risk factor for preterm birth at less than 37 weeks (adjusted odds ratio [aOR: 2.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.89-3.41), preterm birth at less than 34 weeks (aOR 1.91, 95% CI 1.02-3.55), low birthweight <2500 g (aOR 1.83, 95% CI 1.36-2.45), low birthweight <1500 g (aOR 2.39, 95% CI 1.20-4.77) and small-for-gestational-age neonates (aOR 1.68, 95% CI 1.13-2.51). CONCLUSIONS: This study found that pregnancy with adenomyosis was associated with preterm birth, low birthweight and small-for-gestational-age neonates.


Assuntos
Adenomiose/complicações , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
18.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(5): 496-499, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a slow virus infectious disease resulting from persistent infection with mutant measles virus. At present, there is no effective treatment for SSPE. Interferon-α and inosine pranobex have both been used for the treatment of SSPE, and partial success has been reported for the antiviral drug, ribavirin (RBV). The standardization of dosage method is necessary to carry out treatment with RBV more safely and effectively. In this study, RBV concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were monitored during the intraventricular administration using a subcutaneous continuous infusion pump. METHODS: Three patients with new-onset SSPE were treated with RBV using a subcutaneous continuous infusion pump. On days 3-10 after the start of RBV infusion, CSFs were obtained by lumbar tap, and the concentration of RBV in the CSF was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: RBV concentration increased in a dose-dependent manner in all 3 patients, and the target concentration could be generally maintained without any severe side effects. We observed that the clinical symptoms were temporarily relieved in each case. In the 2 cases for whom treatment is continuing, the patients remain in stage III, while the patient who discontinued the therapy progressed to stage IV. CONCLUSION: The target RBV concentration in the CSF could be maintained continuously by intraventricular administration using a subcutaneous continuous infusion pump. The accumulation of further cases is necessary to confirm the safety and efficacy of this medical treatment.

19.
Arch Dis Child ; 104(1): 53-57, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29871900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Healthy-weight children tend to gain weight during winter but lose weight during summer. However, overweight elementary school children have shown accelerated summertime weight gain. Whether this seasonal growth variation occurs during preschool period is of substantial interest. METHODS: Data were derived from a nationwide retrospective cohort of nursery school children. Eight consecutive sets of longitudinal measurements on height and weight were obtained from 15 259 preschool children. Thereafter, growth in height, weight and body mass index (BMI) over a period of 6 months was calculated. Summertime growth was defined as that from April to October, whereas wintertime growth was defined as that from October to April of the following year. Longitudinal growth seasonality was analysed by classifying children according to their BMI status at the age of elementary school entry. RESULTS: Accelerated summertime weight and BMI gain were observed among children with obesity. This distinctive growth seasonality was detected from around age 2. Children having this growth seasonality at approximately 2 years of age tended to be obese at the age of elementary school entry (OR: 3.7; 95% CI: 2.9 to 4.6; p<0.0001). In height gain, obese children were growing apparently faster than those in the other groups at all ages. CONCLUSION: Early excessive growth with distinct seasonality was observed in preschool obese children. These findings suggest that individuals involved in child healthcare should pay closer attention to early excessive growth with distinct seasonality in preschool obesity.


Assuntos
Estatura/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica , Estações do Ano , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar
20.
J Epidemiol ; 29(5): 187-191, 2019 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30078812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Japan, mean maternal age at first childbirth is increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal age at the first childbirth is a risk factor for preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and small for gestational age (SGA). METHODS: We used the results of Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) who gave birth in 2011-2014. Cases of primiparous singleton pregnancies where the subject was ≥20 years and delivered after 22 weeks were included. All subjects were categorized into five groups according to maternal age: 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for PTB (before 37 and 34 weeks), LBW (<2,500 g and <1,500 g), and SGA were calculated using a logistic regression model, with the 20-24-year age group as reference. RESULTS: We analyzed 38,412 singleton primiparous pregnancies. The aORs of all outcomes increased in parallel with each maternal age group >30 years. The aORs of PTB before 37 and 34 weeks, LBW <2,500 g, LBW <1,500 g, and SGA in the 30-34-year age group were 1.39 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.67), 2.23 (95% CI, 1.45-3.41), 1.34 (95% CI, 1.18-1.53), 2.30 (95% CI, 1.35-3.94), and 1.24 (95% CI, 1.05-1.46), respectively. CONCLUSION: The present study showed that higher maternal age (>30 years) at the first childbirth was an independent risk factor for PTB, LBW, and SGA.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Idade Materna , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Paridade , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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