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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273119

RESUMO

What are the ground states of an interacting, low-density electron system? In the absence of disorder, it has long been expected that as the electron density is lowered, the exchange energy gained by aligning the electron spins should exceed the enhancement in the kinetic (Fermi) energy, leading to a (Bloch) ferromagnetic transition. At even lower densities, another transition to a (Wigner) solid, an ordered array of electrons, should occur. Experimental access to these regimes, however, has been limited because of the absence of a material platform that supports an electron system with very high quality (low disorder) and low density simultaneously. Here we explore the ground states of interacting electrons in an exceptionally clean, two-dimensional electron system confined to a modulation-doped AlAs quantum well. The large electron effective mass in this system allows us to reach very large values of the interaction parameter [Formula: see text], defined as the ratio of the Coulomb to Fermi energies. As we lower the electron density via gate bias, we find a sequence of phases, qualitatively consistent with the above scenario: a paramagnetic phase at large densities, a spontaneous transition to a ferromagnetic state when [Formula: see text] surpasses 35, and then a phase with strongly nonlinear current-voltage characteristics, suggestive of a pinned Wigner solid, when [Formula: see text] exceeds [Formula: see text] However, our sample makes a transition to an insulating state at [Formula: see text], preceding the onset of the spontaneous ferromagnetism, implying that besides interaction, the role of disorder must also be taken into account in understanding the different phases of a realistic dilute electron system.

2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(22): 11977-11981, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275275

RESUMO

Researchers have found many similarities between the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus and SARS-CoV-19 through existing data that reveal the SARS's cause. Artificial intelligence (AI) learning models can be created to predict drug structures that can be used to treat COVID-19. Despite the effectively demonstrated repurposed drugs, more repurposed drugs should be recognized. Furthermore, technological advancements have been helpful in the battle against COVID-19. Machine intelligence technology can support this procedure by rapidly determining adequate and effective drugs against COVID-19 and by overcoming any barrier between a large number of repurposed drugs, laboratory/clinical testing, and final drug authorization. This paper reviews the proposed vaccines and medicines for SARS-CoV-2 and the current application of AI in drug repurposing for COVID-19 treatment.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243106, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among the prisoner population is most frequently associated with sharing of non-sterile injecting equipment. Other blood-to-blood contacts such as tattooing and physical violence are also common in the prison environment, and have been associated with HCV transmission. The context of such non-injecting risk behaviours, particularly violence, is poorly studied. The modified social-ecological model (MSEM) was used to examine HCV transmission risk and violence in the prison setting considering individual, network, community and policy factors. METHODS: The Australian Hepatitis C Incidence and Transmission Study in prisons (HITS-p) cohort enrolled HCV uninfected prisoners with injecting and non-injecting risk behaviours, who were followed up for HCV infection from 2004-2014. Qualitative interviews were conducted within 23 participants; of whom 13 had become HCV infected. Deductive analysis was undertaken to identify violence as risk within prisons among individual, network, community, and public policy levels. RESULTS: The risk context for violence and HCV exposure varied across the MSEM. At the individual level, participants were concerned about blood contact during fights, given limited scope to use gloves to prevent blood contamination. At the network level, drug debt and informing on others to correctional authorities, were risk factors for violence and potential HCV transmission. At the community level, racial influence, social groupings, and socially maligned crimes like sexual assault of children were identified as possible triggers for violence. At the policy level, rules and regulations by prison authority influenced the concerns and occurrence of violence and potential HCV transmission. CONCLUSION: Contextual concerns regarding violence and HCV transmission were evident at each level of the MSEM. Further evidence-based interventions targeted across the MSEM may reduce prison violence, provide opportunities for HCV prevention when violence occurs and subsequent HCV exposure.

4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 144-151, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nipah virus (NiV) infection, often fatal in humans, is primarily transmitted in Bangladesh through the consumption of date palm sap contaminated by Pteropus bats. Person-to-person transmission is also common and increases the concern of large outbreaks. This study aimed to characterize the molecular epidemiology, phylogenetic relationship, and the evolution of the nucleocapsid gene (N gene) of NiV. METHODS: We conducted molecular detection, genetic characterization, and Bayesian time-scale evolution analyses of NiV using pooled Pteropid bat roost urine samples from an outbreak area in 2012 and archived RNA samples from NiV case patients identified during 2012-2018 in Bangladesh. RESULTS: NiV-RNA was detected in 19% (38/456) of bat roost urine samples and among them; nine N gene sequences were recovered. We also retrieved sequences from 53% (21 out of 39) of archived RNA samples from patients. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all Bangladeshi strains belonged to NiV-BD genotype and had an evolutionary rate of 4.64 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year. The analyses suggested that the strains of NiV-BD genotype diverged during 1995 and formed two sublineages. CONCLUSION: This analysis provides further evidence that the NiV strains of the Malaysian and Bangladesh genotypes diverged recently and continue to evolve. More extensive surveillance of NiV in bats and human will be helpful to explore strain diversity and virulence potential to infect humans through direct or person-to-person virus transmission.

5.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(4): 829-837, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116084

RESUMO

Acute myocardial infarction has many risk factors and etiologies. Different factors are responsible for adverse in-hospital outcome after acute MI. Status of plasma vitamin D level has been found to be a good predictor of future adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute MI. Plasma vitamin D level has been considered as a potential marker for identifying individuals under risk of CAD and associated events. This study was done to investigate the role of plasma vitamin D level in predicting in-hospital adverse cardiac events in patients with acute MI. This cross sectional descriptive type of study was conducted in the cardiology department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from October 2017 to March 2019. Total 257 patients of first attack of acute MI were included considering inclusion and exclusion criteria. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for plasma vitamin D level. Sample population were grouped at first into two, normal and low vitamin D level, taking 30ng/ml as cut-off value, low vitamin D level is further subdivided into insufficiency (21-29ng/ml), deficiency (10-20ng/ml) and severe deficiency (<10ng/ml). Adverse in-hospital cardiac outcomes were observed. In-hospital adverse outcomes occurred in 42.9% patients having normal vitamin D level (>30ng/ml), 66.2% of patients having vitamin D insufficiency (21-29ng/ml), 78.2% of patients having vitamin D deficiency (10-20ng/ml) and 94.4% patients having severe vitamin D deficiency (<10ng/ml), which was statistically significant (p<0.05). Heart failure (30.3%, 47.7%, 63.6% and 77.8%, p<0.05), cardiogenic shock (12.6%, 27.7%, 34.5% and 33.3%, p<0.05), Arrhythmias (14.3%, 21.5%, 23.6% and 22.2%, p>0.05), death (2.5%, 0%, 3.6% and 11.1%, p>0.05) occurred more in low vitamin D groups. Mean vitamin D level was significantly different between Group I and Group II (42.59±10.08 vs. 18.64±6.54, p<0.0001). Multivariate regression analysis showed vitamin D is an independent predictor of in-hospital adverse cardiac events (p=0.001). Age (p=0.001) and obesity (p=0.048) were also other predictors of in-hospital adverse cardiac events. Low plasma vitamin D level is an important predictor for in-hospital adverse cardiac events in patients hospitalized with first attack of acute MI.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Vitamina D , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Vitaminas
6.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(4): 852-858, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116087

RESUMO

It has been widely reported that vitamin D deficiency is associated with Coronary heart disease (CHD), especially acute Myocardial infarction (MI). Many factors are responsible for reduced Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and acute Left ventricular fraction (LVF) after acute MI. This cross sectional descriptive type of study was conducted in the Cardiology department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital from October 2017 to March 2019 to investigate the relationship of plasma vitamin D with LVEF in patients with first attack of acute MI. Total 185 patients of first attack of acute MI were included considering inclusion and exclusion criteria. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for plasma vitamin D level. Sample population were grouped at first into two, normal and low vitamin D level, taking 30ng/ml as cut-off value, low vitamin D level is further subdivided into insufficiency (21-29ng/ml), deficiency (10-20ng/ml) and severe deficiency (<10ng/ml). LVEF among the patients was observed. LVEF was found 49.88±8.58% patients having normal vitamin D level (>30ng/ml), 47.60±8.24% of patients having vitamin D insufficiency (21-29ng/ml), 44.38±8.12% of patients having vitamin D deficiency (10-20ng/ml) and 40.61±8.64% patients having severe vitamin D deficiency (<10ng/ml), which was statistically significant (p<0.05). So, low plasma vitamin D level is associated with reduced LVEF in patients hospitalized with first attack of acute MI.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Vitamina D , Vitaminas
7.
Data Brief ; 32: 106111, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32904423

RESUMO

Data examines the effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) HPMC15 cP, and HPMC 5 cP polymer composition on the physicochemical traits of encapsulated oil made using lab scale spray drying (180 °C). The data found showed that the properties of the reconstituted fish oil powder are significantly affected by the polymer's composition and ratio (p < 0.05). In this experiment, powder with the particle sizes below 60 µm was produced and it was observed that HPMC is a good emulsifier for all formulations and the encapsulation efficiency is high with 75.21% for AF1 formulation. It was also observed that the process of fish oil encapsulation employed by HPMC 5 cP produce a more volatile oil powder, while encapsulation with HPMC 15 cP produced a more stable fish oil powder. These finding shows that the utilisation of HPMC as a polymer to encapsulate fish oil can produce a more efficient and stable compound.

8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 99: 69-74, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is recognized as a major cause of encephalitis in Bangladesh. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends human immunization as the most effective means to control JE. Several WHO-prequalified vaccines are available to prevent JE but no vaccination program has been implemented in Bangladesh. METHODS: We conducted hospital-based surveillance for acute meningitis-encephalitis syndrome (AMES) to describe JE epidemiology and help inform policy decisions about possible immunization strategies for Bangladesh. RESULTS: During 2007-2016, a total of 6543 AMES patients were identified at four tertiary hospitals. Of the 6525 patients tested, 548 (8%) were classified as JE cases. These 548 patients resided in 36 (56%) out of 64 districts of Bangladesh, with the highest proportion of JE cases among AMES patients (12% and 7%) presenting at two hospitals in the northwestern part of the country. The median age of JE cases was 30 years, and 193 (35%) were aged ≤15 years. The majority of JE cases (80%) were identified from July through November. CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance results suggest that JE continues to be an important cause of meningo-encephalitis in Bangladesh. Immunization strategies including JE vaccine introduction into the routine childhood immunization program or mass vaccination in certain age groups or geographic areas need to be examined, taking into consideration the cost-effectiveness ratio of the approach and potential for decreasing disease burden.

9.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1121: 11-16, 2020 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493584

RESUMO

In this experiment, a highly effective electrochemical sensor based on a molecularly imprinted polymer has been developed for ultrasensitive detection of dimetridazole. The sensor was made by incorporating of dimetridazole as a template molecule during the electropolymerization of poly-arginine on a glassy carbon electrode. The modified electrode GCE/P-Arg@MIP was characterized by voltammetric and microscopic techniques. Differential pulse voltammetry method was used to detect target analyte under the optimum condition. The DPV response to dimetridazole was linear at 0.1 × 10-9 to 10 × 10-6 mol L-1 (R2 = 0.996), with a method detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.1 × 10-9 mol L-1. Moreover, the proposed sensor shows satisfactory recovery ranges for the determination dimetridazole in commercially available egg, milk and honey samples.

10.
J Infect Dis ; 221(Supplement_4): S363-S369, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392322

RESUMO

It is of uttermost importance that the global health community develops the surveillance capability to effectively monitor emerging zoonotic pathogens that constitute a major and evolving threat for human health. In this study, we propose a comprehensive framework to measure changes in (1) spillover risk, (2) interhuman transmission, and (3) morbidity/mortality associated with infections based on 6 epidemiological key indicators derived from routine surveillance. We demonstrate the indicators' value for the retrospective or real-time assessment of changes in transmission and epidemiological characteristics using data collected through a long-standing, systematic, hospital-based surveillance system for Nipah virus in Bangladesh. We show that although interhuman transmission and morbidity/mortality indicators were stable, the number and geographic extent of spillovers varied significantly over time. This combination of systematic surveillance and active tracking of transmission and epidemiological indicators should be applied to other high-risk emerging pathogens to prevent public health emergencies.

11.
J Infect Dis ; 222(3): 438-442, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115627

RESUMO

Contact patterns play a key role in disease transmission, and variation in contacts during the course of illness can influence transmission, particularly when accompanied by changes in host infectiousness. We used surveys among 1642 contacts of 94 Nipah virus case patients in Bangladesh to determine how contact patterns (physical and with bodily fluids) changed as disease progressed in severity. The number of contacts increased with severity and, for case patients who died, peaked on the day of death. Given transmission has only been observed among fatal cases of Nipah virus infection, our findings suggest that changes in contact patterns during illness contribute to risk of infection.

13.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 73-77, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915339

RESUMO

Anterior resection (AR), especially low anterior resection (LAR), for low rectal cancer and colorectal anastomosis is a technical challenge to surgeons. But by using circular stapling devices now it is possible make more LARs technically feasible. A stapled end-to-end colorectal anastomosis is increasingly adopted following a low anterior resection for low rectal cancer. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the department of Surgery, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh from December 2015 to December 2016. The ensuing doughnuts created from the stapling device are routinely sent for histological analysis. However, its efficacy remains debatable. This study aims to determine the role of sending distal doughnut for histological examination following a stapled end-to-end colorectal anastomosis done in low anterior resection for low rectal cancers.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Técnicas Histológicas , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Reto/patologia , Grampeamento Cirúrgico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Anastomose Cirúrgica/métodos , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto/cirurgia , Grampeamento Cirúrgico/efeitos adversos
14.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 86-91, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915341

RESUMO

Among nurses due to inadequate pain management knowledge and practice skills, children's pain is often under treated. This study aimed to examine the level of knowledge and practice on pediatric pain management among nurses in Bangladesh. This was a descriptive survey study involving total 150 clinical pediatric nurses from two Medical College Hospital and a University hospital in Bangladesh. The data collection tool consisted of demographic data form, 32-items nurses' knowledge. There were 32 true and false questions related to nurses' knowledge on pediatric pain management in Bangladesh. The response formats to each item for correct answer was 1 and incorrect answer 0. The total scores were categorized into three levels including low (0-20), moderate (21-23) and high (24 and above). The data collection tool consisted of demographic data form, 19-item practice related questionnaire on pediatric pain management. Nurses' practice on pediatric pain management contained 19 items with 5-points Likert's scale ranging from 1=Never practice to 5=constantly practice. For each item, a score of 5 was accorded for constantly and 1 for never. The score ranged from 19-95. The total scores were categorized into three levels including low (19-38), moderate (39-76) and high (77-95). The results demonstrated that most of the nurses' knowledge score on pediatric pain management was at moderate level (mean=21.50, SD=2.35). Nurses' practice on pediatric pain management was also at moderate level (mean=75.45, SD=8.24). The relationship between nurses' knowledge and practice was not significant. In addition, nurses' knowledge and practice with demographic variables; there was significant relationship between nurse's knowledge and existence of pain management protocol, nurses' practice and their current position in unit and with reading nursing journal. This study showed moderate level of knowledge and practice indicating that they need to be enhanced the knowledge and practice skills in pediatric pain management.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Manejo da Dor/enfermagem , Enfermagem Pediátrica , Adulto , Bangladesh , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Dor , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Parasitol Res ; 119(1): 339-344, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734864

RESUMO

We present the first recognized case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) caused by Naegleria fowleri in a 15-year-old male from Bangladesh. He performed daily nasal rinsing with untreated ground water and bathed in untreated ground water or river water, which likely exposed him to N. fowleri.


Assuntos
Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/parasitologia , Naegleria fowleri/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Animais , Bangladesh , Evolução Fatal , Água Doce/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(Suppl 4): S262-S273, 2019 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598664

RESUMO

Despite reductions over the past 2 decades, childhood mortality remains high in low- and middle-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. In these settings, children often die at home, without contact with the health system, and are neither accounted for, nor attributed with a cause of death. In addition, when cause of death determinations occur, they often use nonspecific methods. Consequently, findings from models currently utilized to build national and global estimates of causes of death are associated with substantial uncertainty. Higher-quality data would enable stakeholders to effectively target interventions for the leading causes of childhood mortality, a critical component to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals by eliminating preventable perinatal and childhood deaths. The Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance (CHAMPS) Network tracks the causes of under-5 mortality and stillbirths at sites in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia through comprehensive mortality surveillance, utilizing minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS), postmortem laboratory and pathology testing, verbal autopsy, and clinical and demographic data. CHAMPS sites have established facility- and community-based mortality notification systems, which aim to report potentially eligible deaths, defined as under-5 deaths and stillbirths within a defined catchment area, within 24-36 hours so that MITS can be conducted quickly after death. Where MITS has been conducted, a final cause of death is determined by an expert review panel. Data on cause of death will be provided to local, national, and global stakeholders to inform strategies to reduce perinatal and childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Saúde da Criança/tendências , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Autopsia/tendências , Criança , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Natimorto/epidemiologia
17.
Mymensingh Med J ; 28(3): 542-546, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391424

RESUMO

Bianchi squire first described scrotal incision orchiopexy as an alternative to the traditional approach in the1980s. In maximum premature and some mature infants, palpable testis is a common surgical problem. There are several surgical technique applied to overcome this surgical problems like combined inguinal and scrotal incision or single high transverse scrotal incision. The goal of this study assessed single high transverse scrotal incision for the management of PUT as regards to evaluate operative time, postoperative success and final cosmetic results. One hundred twenty patients were managed at the Paediatric Surgery Department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh with PUT during the period from 2015 to March 2018. We operated all cases between 6 to 12 months and excluded more than 12 months of age and recurrent cases. This technique involves manipulation of the testis down to the scrotum so that it is secured between the thumb and index finger as a fixation is performed. After fixation of testis high transverse scrotal incision was given, all layers were separated. Then enter into inguinal cannel by cutting of external ring. After dissecting the testis come down through the incision. After making dartos pouch through the same incision and orchidopexy done. All infants were followed-up at 1 month, 2 months and 6 months to detect operative times as well as position, testicular atrophy and the final cosmetic appearance. Patient age ranged from 6 months to 12 months. A total of 120 PUTs were operated upon in 100 patients. PUT was bilateral in 15 patients, right-sided in 55 cases and left-sided in 30 cases. Among 120 testes 40 testes were located distal to external inguinal ring (EIR), 70 testes were at internal inguinal ring (IIR) and 10 testes were in between EIR and IIR. A total of 100 patients were successfully placed within scrotum using a single incision. Operative time ranged from 20-36 minutes. There were no cases of testicular atrophy or ascent. The only complications were 3 wound infections (3%), which were successfully treated with antibiotics. Single high transverse scrotal incision was sufficient to deal with PUT especially, in young infants (age 6 months). The procedure results in shorter operative times, similar success and complication rates, and a more cosmetically appealing outcome compared to inguinal orchiopexy.


Assuntos
Criptorquidismo , Orquidopexia , Bangladesh , Criança , Criptorquidismo/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Duração da Cirurgia , Orquidopexia/métodos , Escroto
18.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 374(1782): 20190019, 2019 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401956

RESUMO

Early detection of zoonotic diseases allows for the implementation of early response measures, reducing loss of human life and economic disruption. We implemented a surveillance system in hospitals in Bangladesh to screen acutely ill hospitalized patients with severe respiratory infection and meningoencephalitis for zoonotic exposures. Patients were screened for the risk of zoonotic exposures with five questions covering vocational exposures, sick domestic animal and wild animal contact, and date palm sap consumption in the three weeks preceding illness onset. Patients giving at least one positive response were considered a potential zoonotic exposure. From September 2013 to March 2017, a total of 11 429 hospitalized patients across 14 participating hospitals were screened for exposures. Overall, 2% of patients reported a potential zoonotic exposure in the three-week period prior to becoming ill. Sixteen per cent of hospitalized patients with reported exposures died. After routine surveillance diagnostic testing, 88% of patients admitted to the hospital after a potential zoonotic exposure did not have a laboratory diagnosed aetiology for their illness. Hospital-based surveillance systems such as the Bangladeshi example presented here could play an important future role in the early detection of zoonotic spillover diseases. This article is part of the theme issue 'Dynamic and integrative approaches to understanding pathogen spillover'.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Meningoencefalite/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Meningoencefalite/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Mymensingh Med J ; 28(2): 278-285, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086138

RESUMO

Infections due to hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis E (HEV) viruses are the major causes of hepatitis and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries like Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution pattern of serological markers in patients of acute viral hepatitis. This was a hospital based observational cross sectional study among purposively selected 107 patients admitted with acute viral hepatitis in the Department of Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from April 2017 to September 2017. Data were collected by face-to-face interview of the patients, clinical assessment and investigations of biochemical and serological parameters using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive analysis was done using the analytic software SPSS version 21.0. The mean age of the patients was 33.35±12.97 years. Majority was male (68.2%), Muslim (87.9%), married (72.9%) and came from urban area (63.6%) with different level of educational qualifications. The prevalence of viral hepatitis is higher in male (68.22%) than female (31.78%). The common clinical presentations were dark coloured urine (100.0%), yellow colouration of the sclera (100.0%), anorexia (90.6%), nausea/vomiting (79.4%) and abdominal pain (68.2%). Of the 107 patients, 51.40% (n=55) had acute viral E hepatitis, 36.40% (n=39) had acute viral B hepatitis, 12.15% (n=13) had acute viral A hepatitis. Mixed infection with both hepatitis E and A viruses was 1.87% (n=2). HEV and HBV are common in relatively older age while HAV is common in relatively younger age to cause acute viral hepatitis. The study revealed a high prevalence of HEV followed by HBV and HAV in the Bangladeshi population suspected of having suffered from acute viral hepatitis.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Vírus da Hepatite A , Vírus da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite E , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite Viral Humana/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
20.
N Engl J Med ; 380(19): 1804-1814, 2019 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nipah virus is a highly virulent zoonotic pathogen that can be transmitted between humans. Understanding the dynamics of person-to-person transmission is key to designing effective interventions. METHODS: We used data from all Nipah virus cases identified during outbreak investigations in Bangladesh from April 2001 through April 2014 to investigate case-patient characteristics associated with onward transmission and factors associated with the risk of infection among patient contacts. RESULTS: Of 248 Nipah virus cases identified, 82 were caused by person-to-person transmission, corresponding to a reproduction number (i.e., the average number of secondary cases per case patient) of 0.33 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19 to 0.59). The predicted reproduction number increased with the case patient's age and was highest among patients 45 years of age or older who had difficulty breathing (1.1; 95% CI, 0.4 to 3.2). Case patients who did not have difficulty breathing infected 0.05 times as many contacts (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.3) as other case patients did. Serologic testing of 1863 asymptomatic contacts revealed no infections. Spouses of case patients were more often infected (8 of 56 [14%]) than other close family members (7 of 547 [1.3%]) or other contacts (18 of 1996 [0.9%]). The risk of infection increased with increased duration of exposure of the contacts (adjusted odds ratio for exposure of >48 hours vs. ≤1 hour, 13; 95% CI, 2.6 to 62) and with exposure to body fluids (adjusted odds ratio, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.6 to 11). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing age and respiratory symptoms were indicators of infectivity of Nipah virus. Interventions to control person-to-person transmission should aim to reduce exposure to body fluids. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).


Assuntos
Infecções por Henipavirus/transmissão , Vírus Nipah , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Líquidos Corporais/virologia , Criança , Busca de Comunicante , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/transmissão
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