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J Infect Dev Ctries ; 12(2): 109-114, 2018 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825912


INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic disease which is endemic in Guilan province, Iran. Besides economic losses in the dairy industry, leptospirosis is also considered an important public health problem. This study aimed to evaluate two serological techniques, MAT and IgM-ELISA for detection of leptospiral antibodies. METHODOLOGY: A total of 185 samples were collected from individuals in Guilan province suspected of having leptospirosis from April 2016 to December 2016. Sera from participants were analyzed for Leptospira IgM antibodies using an available ELISA test and the MAT method. The specificity and sensitivity of the tests were calculated and compared. RESULTS: Of the 185 serum samples examined 114 (61.6%) and 94 (50.8%) samples were determined to be positive by MAT and IgM-ELISA, respectively. The results also showed that 17.5% of the sera that reacted positive in MAT were negative by IgM-ELISA, and 20.2% of IgM-ELISA positive sera were negative by MAT. We also showed that the MAT had specificity and sensitivity of 100%, when compared to leptospirosis-positive and negative serum samples. The specificity and sensitivity of IgM-ELISA was calculated as 78.8% and 82.4% respectively when compared with MAT. Bivariate analysis showed high correlation between the season, community of residence, possible reasons of pollution and leptospirosis (P < 0.1). CONCLUSION: Rural areas of Guilan, especially rice farming areas, are endemic for leptospirosis. Rice farmers have a high risk of infection with leptospirosis; infection is associated with direct exposure to rodent urine, gender (male) and season (spring).

Arch Iran Med ; 20(1): 43-48, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28112531


BACKGROUNDS: To assess the role of socio-economic inequality in visual impairment (VI) in Varamin district, Iran. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using multistage cluster sampling method, 60 clusters (each with 50 subjects) were recruited and underwent clinical eye examinations. Socio-economic status (SES) was identified based on education, occupation, family assets and housing conditions that were measured at the participants' households using a semi-structured questionnaire and a two-step cluster analysis model. In addition, principal component analysis and the concentration index were used to identify the gap between high and low SES groups. RESULTS: Participants were categorized in high (522, 24.4%), moderate (974, 43.1%) and low (763, 33.7%) socio-economic levels. In these levels, the prevalence of VI was 5.9% (95% CI: 3.3 to 8.6), 10.4% (95% CI: 8.4 to 12.4), and 12.6% (95% CI: 10.1 to 15.1), respectively. The prevalence of VI in people with low SES was significantly greater than those in high SES level. The proportions of avoidable causes were relatively high in all SES levels (more than 80%) with no significant difference between different levels. CONCLUSIONS: There is significant inequality in VI prevalence in Varamin district. Avoidable causes are high in all SES groups. Therefore, community-based modalities and preventive programs with a specific notice to poorer SES groups are recommended to improve eye health in this district.

Classe Social , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
J Ophthalmic Vis Res ; 10(4): 408-16, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27051485


PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of amblyopia and refractive errors among 7 to 12-year-old primary school children in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: This population-based cross-sectional study included 2,410 randomly selected students. Visual acuity was tested using an E-chart on Yang vision tester. Refractive errors were measured by photorefractometry and cycloautorefraction. Strabismus was checked using cover test. Direct ophthalmoscopy was used to assess the anterior segment, lens opacities, red reflex and fundus. Functional amblyopia was defined as best corrected visual acuity ≤20/40 in one or both eyes with no anatomical problems. RESULTS: Amblyopia was present in 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8% to 2.9%) of participants with no difference between the genders. Amblyopic subjects were significantly younger than non-amblyopic children (P=0.004). Overall, 15.9% of hyperopic and 5.9% of myopic cases had amblyopia. The prevalence of hyperopia ≥+2.00D, myopia ≤-0.50D, astigmatism ≥0.75D, and anisometropia (≥1.00D) was 3.5%, 4.9%, 22.6%, and 3.9%, respectively. With increasing age, the prevalence of myopia increased (P<0.001), that of hyperopia decreased (P=0.007), but astigmatism showed no change. Strabismus was found in 2.3% of cases. Strabismus (OR=17.9) and refractive errors, especially anisometropia (OR=12.87) and hyperopia (OR=11.87), were important amblyogenic risk factors. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of amblyopia in our subjects in comparison to developed countries reveals the necessity of timely and sensitive screening methods. Due to the high prevalence of amblyopia among children with refractive errors, particularly high hyperopia and anisometropia, provision of glasses should be specifically attended by parents and supported by the Ministry of Health and insurance organizations.

Dalton Trans ; 40(2): 506-13, 2011 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21088793


A series of platinum(II) complexes of the type [Pt(trpy)L](NO(3))(n) (L = 3- or 4-pyridineboronic acid (3- or 4-pyB, respectively), n = 2; HL = 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (HmpB), n = 1; trpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine) and [{Pt(trpy)}(2)(µ-pzB)](NO(3))(3) (HpzB = 4-pyrazoleboronic acid) were synthesized and fully characterized by means of multinuclear ((1)H, (13)C, (11)B, and (195)Pt) 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The triflate derivatives [Pt(trpy)(4-pyB)](OTf)(2) and [{Pt(trpy)}(2)(µ-pzB)](OTf)(3) were also prepared, and their molecular structures were confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Variable pH (1)H NMR spectroscopy showed that hydroxylation of the boronic acid group occurs in aqueous solution at pH > 5 and the pK(a) values for the complexes were determined. In buffered aqueous solution (pH 7.4), the complexes bind strongly to simple diols such as catechol and monosaccharides including D-fructose, D-ribose, D-sorbitol and D-mannitol, as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The equilibrium binding constants for these reactions were determined and were found to exceed those of organic boronic acids such as phenylboronic acid by an order of magnitude or greater, an effect that can be directly attributed to the cationic charge of the complexes. 2D-NMR methods (HSQC and HMBC) were used to elucidate the structures of the carbohydrate adducts [Pt(trpy)(3-pyB)]·D-fructose·NO(3) and [Pt(trpy)(4-pyB)]·D-fructose·NO(3) in aqueous solution. DNA-binding experiments with calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) indicate an avid DNA-binding interaction by the mononuclear complexes, as determined using thermal melting methods and ITC, but the behaviour of the dinuclear species [{Pt(trpy)}(2)(µ-pzB)](NO(3))(3) is complicated and could not be modeled adequately; higher ionic strength solutions and lower temperatures resulted in a similar DNA binding interaction to the mononuclear complexes. The presence of excess d-fructose did not significantly affect the binding of the platinum(II)-trpy complexes to CT-DNA.

Ácidos Borônicos/química , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , DNA/química , Monossacarídeos/química , Platina/química , Calorimetria , Catecóis/química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligantes , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Conformação Molecular , Temperatura de Transição
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online ; 65(Pt 6): m690, 2009 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21583047


The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [SnCl(4)(C(12)H(8)N(2))]·0.5C(2)H(4)Cl(2), contains a tin complex and one disordered half-mol-ecule of the solvent dichloro-ethane [occupancies 0.71 (2):0.29 (2)]. The six coordinate Sn(IV) atom adopts a distorted octa-hedral geometry. π-π inter-actions between adjacent aromatic rings [interplanar distance 3.483 (5) Å] seem to be effective in the stabilization of the crystal packing.