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1.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 34(8): 1890-1902, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264070

RESUMO

Citrus medica L. is rich in numerous vital bioactive constituents, though it is an underutilized among the citrus genus. Therefore, the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the protective role of the C. medica fruit (CMF) methanol extract against carbofuran (CF)-induced toxicity in experimental rats. In addition, this work aims at detecting and measuring polyphenolic compounds by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of this extract. For this, studies dealing with serum hematological and biochemical parameters, liver endogenous antioxidants, as well as hepatic histo-architectural features have been carried out to assess the protective ability of CMF against CF-induced toxicity. Additionally, total phenol, flavonoid, and antioxidant capability were measured and the antioxidant action was investigated using DPPH and nitric oxide radical scavenging assays as well as reducing power assessments. HPLC results revealed the presence of benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, and salicylic acid in CMF extract. Furthermore, results showed that CMF has considerable total phenol, flavonoid, and antioxidant capability and exhibits significant free radical scavenging and reducing potentialities. On the other hand, CF intoxication of rats significantly altered the hematological and serum biochemical parameters with hepatocytes disruption. Carbofuran also caused an upsurge in malondialdehyde (MDA) level and a decline in hepatic cellular antioxidant enzymes levels in rats compared to the control group. Co-administration of CMF amended the anomalies and improved the histo-architectural arrangement of hepatocytes in treated groups. CMF also inhibited the alteration of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and MDA levels as compared to the carbofuran treated group and returned them to their normal state. Taken all together, results from this investigation highlight the protective role of CMF against CF-induced toxicity which might be attributed to the polyphenolic constituents of the extract.

2.
Curr Drug Metab ; 21(8): 579-598, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease typically prevalent among women and is the second-largest cause of death worldwide. Early diagnosis is the key to minimize the cancer-induced complication, however, the conventional diagnostic strategies have been sluggish, complex, and, to some extent, non-specific. Therapeutic tools are not so convenient and side effects of current therapies offer the development of novel theranostic tool to combat this deadly disease. OBJECTIVE: This article aims to summarize the advances in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer with gold nanoparticles (GNP or AuNP). METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in the three popular electronic online databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science, regarding GNP as breast cancer theranostics. RESULTS: Published literature demonstrated that GNPs tuned with photosensitive moieties, nanomaterials, drugs, peptides, nucleotide, peptides, antibodies, aptamer, and other biomolecules improve the conventional diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of breast cancer management with minimum cytotoxic effect. GNP derived diagnosis system assures reproducibility, reliability, and accuracy cost-effectively. Additionally, surface-modified GNP displayed theranostic potential even in the metastatic stage of breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Divergent strategies have shown the theranostic potential of surface tuned GNPs against breast cancer even in the metastatic stage with minimum cytotoxic effects both in vitro and in vivo.

3.
J Food Biochem ; 43(8): e12958, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368558

RESUMO

The study reports the phenolic composition of propolis from Bangladesh and its ameliorative effects against tetracycline-induced hepatonephrotoxicity in rats. Male Wistar Albino rats (n = 18) were randomly divided into three following groups: (1) normal control, (2) tetracycline-treatment (200 mg kg-1  rat-1 ), and (3) tetracycline (200 mg kg-1  rat-1 ) + propolis (100 mg kg-1  rat-1 ) treatments. The ethanolic extract of propolis contained major phenolic acids as well as a flavonoid, rutin. Oral exposure to tetracycline caused severe hepatic and renal damage as indicated by significant alterations in liver marker enzymes in rat serum: bilirubin and protein concentrations, lipid profile, and markers of kidney function when compared with controls. The observed biochemical perturbations were accompanied by histopathological changes. Co-administration with propolis extract, however, prevented the changes in biochemical parameters, as revealed by maintenance of cell membrane integrity and regulation of lipid profile and the conservation of the histoarchitecture. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Propolis is a resinous honeybee product which is becoming increasingly popular due to its potential contributions to human health. The phenolic compounds identified in propolis from Bangladesh were effective against tetracycline-induced hepatic and renal toxicity. Propolis may be a promising natural product in reducing the effects of chronic liver and kidney damage.


Assuntos
Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Própole/química , Tetraciclina/efeitos adversos , Animais , Bangladesh , Abelhas , Bilirrubina/sangue , Humanos , Nefropatias/sangue , Nefropatias/etiologia , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/lesões , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/sangue , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Própole/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
4.
J Toxicol ; 2019: 2529569, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281355

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant potentials, subacute toxicity, and beneficiary effects of methanolic extract of pomelo (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) in rats. Long Evans rats were divided into four groups of eight animals each. The rats were orally treated with three doses of pomelo (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) once daily for 21 days. Pomelo extract contained high concentrations of polyphenols, flavonoids, and ascorbic acid while exhibiting high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. There was no significant change in the body weight, percentage water content, and relative organ weight at any administered doses. In addition, no significant alterations in the hematological parameters were also observed. However, rats which received 1000 mg/kg dose had a significant reduction in some serum parameters, including alanine transaminase (15.29%), alkaline phosphatase (2.5%), lactate dehydrogenase (15.5%), γ-glutamyltransferase (20%), creatinine (14.47%), urea (18.50%), uric acid (27.14%), total cholesterol (5.78%), triglyceride (21.44%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (40.74%), glucose (2.48%), and all atherogenic indices including cardiac risk ratio (24.30%), Castelli's risk index-2 (45.71%), atherogenic coefficient (42%), and atherogenic index of plasma (25%) compared to control. In addition, the highest dose (1000 mg/kg) caused a significant increase in iron (12.07%) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (8.87%) levels. Histopathological findings of the vital organs did not indicate any pathological changes indicating that pomelo is nontoxic, safe, and serves as an important source of natural antioxidants. In addition, the fruit extract has the potential to ameliorate hepato- and nephrotoxicities and cardiovascular diseases as well as iron deficiency anemia.

5.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 32(8): 1619-1629, 2019 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334637

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of Syzygium cymosum leaf methanol extract (SCL) against carbofuran (CF)-induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats, along with the identification and quantification of polyphenolic composition by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, and flavonoids in SCL. Similarly, HPLC analysis suggests that SCL contains some known important antioxidants, such as rutin, benzoic acid, and salicylic acid that could be responsible for the hepatoprotective activity of the extract. In CF-exposed rats, significant hematological alterations along with histological changes were marked by the presence of necrosis, congestion, and inflammation. CF-intoxication also showed an increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in cellular antioxidant enzymes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) levels in rats compared with the control group. Furthermore, coadministration of SCL significantly ameliorated the abnormalities and improved the cellular arrangement in experimental animals. SCL also reversed the alteration of hematological and biochemical parameters and brought them back to normal levels as compared to the control group. In conclusion, S. cymosum may be one of the best sources of natural antioxidant compounds that can be used in the treatment of oxidative stress and stress-related diseases and disorders.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carbofurano/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Syzygium/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861774

RESUMO

The current study aimed to investigate the ameliorative effects of two types of mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum (GL) and Auricularia polytricha (AP), against carbofuran- (CF) induced toxicity in rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 42) were divided into six equal groups. The rats in the negative control group received oral administration of CF at 1 mg/kg with the normal diet for 28 days. The treatment groups received oral administration of ethanolic extract of GL or AP at 100 mg/kg followed by coadministration of CF at 1 mg/kg with the normal diet for the same experimental period, respectively. In the CF alone treated group, there were significant decreases in the erythrocytic and thrombocytic indices but increases in the concentrations of the total leukocytes, including the agranulocytes. A significant increase in all of the liver function biomarkers except albumin, in lipid profiles except high-density lipoprotein, and in the kidney function markers occurred in the negative control group compared to the rats of the normal control and positive control groups. The coadministration of mushroom extracts significantly ameliorated the toxic effects of the CF. The GL mushroom extract was more efficacious than that of the AP mushroom, possibly due to the presence of high levels of phenolic compounds and other antioxidants in the GL mushroom.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29234381

RESUMO

The antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic, and antioxidant potentials of the methanolic extract of Garcinia pedunculata (GP) fruit in rats were investigated. The acute antihyperglycemic effect of different doses of GP was studied in normal male Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection in another cohort of male Wistar rats and they showed significantly higher blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, altered lipid profiles, and lower insulin levels compared to nondiabetic control animals. There were increased lipid peroxidation and reduced levels of cellular antioxidant enzymes in different tissues of diabetic rats. However, oral administration of GP extracts, especially the highest dose (1000 mg/kg), significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia (42%); elevated insulin levels (165%); decreased HbA1c (29.4%); restored lipid levels (reduction in TG by 25%, TC by 15%, and LDL-C by 75% and increase in HDL-C by 4%), liver and renal function markers, and lipid peroxidation (reduction by 52% in the liver, 39% in the kidney, 44% in the heart, and 46% in the pancreas); and stimulated tissue antioxidant enzymes to near normalcy. Overall, the findings suggest that GP fruit is effective against hyperglycemia and could be used in the treatment of diabetes and its complications and other oxidative stress-mediated pathological conditions.

8.
Pharmacol Rep ; 69(6): 1194-1205, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29128800

RESUMO

Honey contains many active constituents and antioxidants such as polyphenols. Polyphenols are phytochemicals, a generic term for the several thousand plant-based molecules with antioxidant properties. Many in vitro studies in human cell cultures as well as many animal studies confirm the protective effect of polyphenols on a number of diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, pulmonary diseases, liver diseases and so on. Nevertheless, it is challenging to identify the specific biological mechanism underlying individual polyphenols and to determine how polyphenols impact human health. To date, several studies have attempted to elucidate the molecular pathway for specific polyphenols acting against particular diseases. In this review, we report on the various polyphenols present in different types of honey according to their classification, source, and specific functions and discuss several of the honey polyphenols with the most therapeutic potential to exert an effect on the various pathologies of some major diseases including CVD, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Mel , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/prevenção & controle , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação
9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 94: 256-264, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28763749

RESUMO

Increases in the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have aroused strong interest in identifying antioxidants from natural sources for use in preventive medicine. Citrus macroptera (C. macroptera), commonly known as "Satkara", is an important herbal and medicinal plant reputed for its antioxidant, nutritious and therapeutic uses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cardio-protective effects of ethanol extracts of C. macroptera peel and pulp against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Male albino Wistar rats (n=36) were pre-treated with peel and pulp extracts (500mg/kg) for 45days. They received a challenge with ISO (85mg/kg) on the 44th and 45th days. Our findings indicated that subcutaneous injection of ISO induced severe myocardial injuries associated with oxidative stress, as confirmed by elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) and anti-peroxidative enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase, compared with levels observed in control animals. Pre-treatment with C. macroptera peel and pulp extracts prior to ISO administration however, significantly improved many of the investigated biochemical parameters, i.e., cardiac troponin I, cardiac marker enzymes, lipid profile and oxidative stress markers. The fruit peel extract showed stronger cardio-protective effects than the pulp extract. The biochemical findings were further confirmed by histopathological examinations. Overall, the increased endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity against heightened oxidative stress in the myocardium is strongly suggestive of the cardio-protective potential of C. macroptera.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Citrus/química , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cardiotônicos/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutas/química , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/enzimologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos Wistar
10.
Pharm Biol ; 55(1): 1937-1945, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28675957

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. [Zingiberaceae]) is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including pesticide-induced toxicity. OBJECTIVE: The study reports the antioxidant properties and the protective effects of turmeric against carbofuran (CF)-induced toxicity in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antioxidant potential was determined by using free radicals scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, designated as control, turmeric (100 mg/kg/day), CF (1 mg/kg/day) and turmeric (100 mg/kg/day) + CF (1 mg/kg/day) treatments. All of the doses were administered orally for 28 consecutive days. The biological activity of the turmeric and CF was determined by using several standard biochemical methods. RESULTS: Turmeric contains high concentrations of polyphenols (8.97 ± 0.15 g GAEs), flavonoids (5.46 ± 0.29 g CEs), ascorbic acid (0.06 ± 0.00 mg AEs) and FRAP value (1972.66 ± 104.78 µM Fe2+) per 100 g of sample. Oral administration of CF caused significant changes in some of the blood indices, such as, mean corpuscular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin, white blood cell, platelet distribution width and induced severe hepatic injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by the significantly higher lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels when compared to control, while the activities of cellular antioxidant enzymes (including superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) were significantly suppressed in the liver tissue. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Turmeric supplementation could protect against CF-induced hematological perturbations and hepatic injuries in rats, plausibly by the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of LPO to confer the protective effect.


Assuntos
Células Sanguíneas/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbofurano/toxicidade , Curcuma , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Células Sanguíneas/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/patologia , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Leucócitos/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28243309

RESUMO

This study was undertaken to investigate the toxicological profile of a methanolic extract of Garcinia pedunculata fruit in rats by conducting hematological, biochemical, and histopathological examinations. Long Evans rats were divided into four groups, each with 6 animals, and were treated with three oral doses (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) once daily for 21 days. The extract did not cause significant changes in body and relative organ weight, percent water content, or hematological parameters at any administered doses. However, a significant dose-dependent positive effect in serum lipid profile and all atherogenic indices including the cardiac risk ratio, Castelli's risk index-2, and the atherogenic coefficient were observed. Significant increases in the levels of iron and decreases in serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities and the levels of serum glucose were noted when the extract was administered at the highest dose (1000 mg/kg). Histopathological examination of the target tissues further confirmed that the extract was safe and had no observed toxicological features. Our study indicates that G. pedunculata fruit is nontoxic, has the potential to be effective against atherosclerosis, and may be used as a hepatoprotectant. The fruit extract is also beneficial to those with iron deficiency and hyperglycemia.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28261310

RESUMO

Propolis contains high concentrations of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, ascorbic acid, and reducing sugars and proteins. Malaysian Propolis (MP) has been reported to exhibit high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values. Herein, we report the antioxidant properties and cardioprotective properties of MP in isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction in rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 32) were pretreated orally with an ethanol extract of MP (100 mg/kg/day) for 30 consecutive days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline) for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes and cardiac troponin I levels and altered serum lipid profiles. In addition significantly increased lipid peroxides and decreased activities of cellular antioxidant defense enzymes were observed in the myocardium. However, pretreatment of ischemic rats with MP ameliorated the biochemical parameters, indicating the protective effect of MP against ISO-induced ischemia in rats. Histopathological findings obtained for the myocardium further confirmed the biochemical findings. It is concluded that MP exhibits cardioprotective activity against ISO-induced oxidative stress through its direct cytotoxic radical-scavenging activities. It is also plausible that MP contributed to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

13.
Molecules ; 22(1)2016 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28035985

RESUMO

Bee venom (BV) is used to treat many diseases and exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, antimutagenic, radioprotective, anti-nociceptive immunity promoting, hepatocyte protective and anti-cancer activity. According to the literature, BV contains several enzymes, including phospholipase A2 (PLA2), phospholipase B, hyaluronidase, acid phosphatase and α-glucosidase. Recent studies have also reported the detection of different classes of enzymes in BV, including esterases, proteases and peptidases, protease inhibitors and other important enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Nevertheless, the physiochemical properties and functions of each enzyme class and their mechanisms remain unclear. Various pharmacotherapeutic effects of some of the BV enzymes have been reported in several studies. At present, ongoing research aims to characterize each enzyme and elucidate their specific biological roles. This review gathers all the current knowledge on BV enzymes and their specific mechanisms in regulating various immune responses and physiological changes to provide a basis for future therapies for various diseases.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Ácida/metabolismo , Venenos de Abelha/metabolismo , Venenos de Abelha/farmacologia , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/metabolismo , Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27034701

RESUMO

Although Citrus macroptera (Rutaceae), an indigenous fruit in Bangladesh, has long been used in folk medicine, however, there is a lack of information concerning its protective effects against oxidative damage. The protective effects of an ethanol extract of Citrus macroptera (EECM) against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were investigated in rats. Rats (treatment groups) were pretreated with EECM at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively, orally for 30 days followed by acetaminophen administration. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was administered as a standard drug over a similar treatment period. Our findings indicated that oral administration of acetaminophen induced severe hepatic and renal injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by 2-fold higher lipid peroxidation (TBARS) compared to control. Pretreatment with EECM prior to acetaminophen administration significantly improved all investigated biochemical parameters, that is, transaminase activities, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase activities and total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride and creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium and chloride ions, and TBARS levels. These findings were confirmed by histopathological examinations. The improvement was prominent in the group that received 1000 mg/kg EECM. These findings suggested that C. macroptera fruit could protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatonephrotoxicity, which might be via the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

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