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1.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 133: 105399, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482256

RESUMO

Greater family caregiver exposure to uncontrolled patient symptoms is predictive of greater caregiver psychological and physiological stress in dementia and other chronic illnesses, but these phenomena have not been well-studied in heart failure (HF) - a disease with high symptom burden. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that worse patient functional status (as reflected by increasing HF symptoms) would be associated with elevated psychological and physiological stress for the caregiver. This was a secondary analysis of data from 125 HF caregivers in the Caregiver Opportunities for Optimizing Lifestyle (COOL) study. Psychological stress was measured on four dimensions: care-related strain/burden (Oberst Caregiving Burden Scale), depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Index), and general stress (Perceived Stress Scale). Physiological stress was measured by markers of HPA axis function (elevated cortisol awakening response [CAR]), endothelial dysfunction (increased PAI-1), and inflammation (increased IL-6, hsCRP). HF patient functional status was quantified by caregiver assessment of New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class. Generalized linear models were used to test associations between patient NYHA Class and stress (one model per indicator). NYHA Class (ordinal) was backwards difference coded in each model to examine caregiver stress in relation to increasing levels of HF severity. Caregivers were mostly female and in their mid-fifties, with a slight majority of the sample being African American and the patient's spouse. Overall, patient functional status was associated with greater caregiver psychological and physiological stress. In terms of psychological stress, higher NYHA Class was significantly associated with greater caregiver anxiety and general stress, but not with caregiver burden or depression. In terms of physiological stress, higher NYHA Class was associated with elevated markers in all models (elevated CAR and higher IL-6, hsCRP, and PAI-1). Across models, most associations between NYHA Class and stress were present at relatively early stages of functional limitation (i.e. Class II), while others emerged when functional limitations became more severe. To inform timing and mechanisms for much-needed caregiver interventions, research is needed to determine which aspects of HF symptomatology are most stressful for caregivers across the HF trajectory.

2.
J Cogn Neurosci ; 33(5): 872-886, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449842

RESUMO

Negative emotional experiences can be more difficult to forget than neutral ones, a phenomenon termed the "emotional memory effect." Individual differences in the strength of the emotional memory effect are associated with emotional health. Thus, understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of the emotional memory effect has important implications, especially for individuals at risk for emotional health problems. Although the neural basis of emotional memory effects has been relatively well defined, less is known about how hormonal factors that can modulate emotional memory, such as glucocorticoids, relate to that neural basis. Importantly, probing the role of glucocorticoids in the stress- and emotion-sensitive period of late childhood to adolescence could provide actionable points of intervention. We addressed this gap by testing whether hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity during a parent-child conflict task at 11 years of age predicted emotional memory and its primary neural circuitry (i.e., amygdala-hippocampus functional connectivity) at 16 years of age in a longitudinal study of 147 girls (104 with complete data). Results showed that lower HPA axis activity predicted stronger emotional memory effects, r(124) = -.236, p < .01, and higher emotional memory-related functional connectivity between the right hippocampus and the right amygdala, ß = -.385, p < .001. These findings suggest that late childhood HPA axis activity may modulate the neural circuitry of emotional memory effects in adolescence, which may confer a potential risk trajectory for emotional health among girls.


Assuntos
Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Adolescente , Criança , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estresse Psicológico
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268499

RESUMO

Theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence suggest that the parasympathetic nervous system engages in active monitoring and moderating of inflammatory processes. A clearer understanding of the bidirectional communication between the parasympathetic nervous system and the immune system could lead to novel clinical interventions for inflammatory illnesses. The current study used a large (N = 836) nationally representative sample of adults in the United States to investigate the relations between resting parasympathetic modulation of the heart, indexed through both high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) and low frequency heart rate variability (LF-HRV), and six markers of circulating inflammation. Statistical analyses revealed robust inverse relations between HF-HRV and interleukin-6 (IL6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen, with or without covariate adjustment. Similar inverse relations were observed between LF-HRV and IL6 and CRP. No significant relations were observed between HRV and either inflammatory adhesion molecules (E-selectin, intracellular adhesion molecule-1) or soluble IL6 receptor. Results are consistent with the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway and suggest that parasympathetic modulation of inflammation through the vagus nerve may act on specific inflammatory molecules more than others.

4.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 129: 105237, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004490

RESUMO

Previous evidence on cortisol output and socioeconomic status (SES) has been mixed, with studies finding that lower SES can be associated with higher or lower cortisol output, and null associations have also been reported. We hypothesized that these inconsistencies may be due to an underlying curvilinear, inverted-U pattern of association, such that low income is related to increased likelihood of both low and high cortisol output. We tested these curvilinear links among family income and cortisol indices in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (N = 803). Maternal reports of family income when the study children were 33 and 47 months of age were averaged to estimate early-childhood family income. Three cortisol indices were derived from samples collected in adolescence (15.5 years of age): the cortisol awakening response (CAR), area under the curve (AUC) cortisol, and the diurnal cortisol slope. As hypothesized, the CAR exhibited a curvilinear, inverted-U relation with childhood income, with low childhood income being associated with both the lowest and the highest CARs. These findings suggest that discrepancies in prior findings on low SES and the CAR may be due to curvilinear patterns of association. However, childhood income was not significantly associated with adolescent cortisol diurnal slope or AUC. Future work should clarify the factors that might predispose to high versus low CAR given equivalent low SES in childhood.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899030

RESUMO

Overweight and obesity constitute the fifth leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide. One pathway through which excess weight contributes to poor health outcomes is via inflammatory activity and changes in cognitive processes. Prior theory has proposed a vicious cycle whereby obesity potentiates inflammatory activity, which alters cognitive processes such as working memory, which in turn leads to a reduced ability to self-regulate and therefore manage weight. However, to date no longitudinal studies have examined this potential dynamic. In the current study, we addressed this gap by assessing the relations among fat mass, C-reactive protein (CRP), and working memory across time in a large sample of 8,536 children followed through adolescence in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the United Kingdom. Adiposity was quantified via dual emission x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at ages 9 and 15.5 years old, and inflammatory activity was indexed via circulating serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels assessed with a high-sensitivity assay at those same ages. Working memory was assessed between these two time points, at age 10, permitting examination of the temporal relations between working memory, adiposity, and inflammatory activity. As hypothesized, we found that fat mass predicted later poor working memory, and this association was statistically mediated by CRP. Further, we found that poor working memory predicted greater subsequent fat mass and CRP, and the link between working memory and subsequent CRP was partially mediated by fat mass. These results thus could be taken to suggest the existence of a vicious cycle of mutually amplifying adiposity, inflammatory activity, and poor working memory over time.

6.
Brain Behav Immun ; 95: 96-105, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631285

RESUMO

Relatively little is known about associations between peripheral inflammation and neural function in humans. Neuroimaging studies in adults have suggested that elevated peripheral inflammatory markers are associated with altered resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) in several brain networks associated with mood and cognition. Few studies have examined these associations in adolescents, yet scarce data from adolescents point to different networks than adult studies. The current study examined the associations between peripheral inflammation and rsFC in a community sample of adolescents (n = 70; age, 12-15 years; 32 female, 36 male, 2 nonbinary). After blood sampling, an fMRI scan was performed to assess rsFC. Assay for serum inflammatory markers, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP), was performed. Results indicated that higher TNF-α was associated with altered rsFC between the right amygdala and left striatum and between the right inferior frontal gyrus and left parietal cortex (p < 0.05 whole-brain corrected). Associations with IL-6 and CRP were not significant. In contrast with findings in adults, inflammation may have unique links with the connectivity of the developing adolescent brain. Results have implications for understanding how peripheral inflammation may influence connectivity during adolescence, when neural networks are undergoing major developmental changes.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Adolescente , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Lobo Parietal
7.
Dev Sci ; 24(5): e13099, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550679

RESUMO

Altruistic behavior after stress exposure may have important health and psychological benefits, in addition to broader societal consequences. However, so far experimental research on altruism following acute stress has been limited to adult populations. The current study utilized an experimental design to investigate how altruistic donation behavior among children may be influenced by (a) exposure to an acute social stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test modified for use with children (TSST-M), (b) individual differences in stress physiology, and (c) social support from a parent. The sample consisted of 180 children (54.9% male, 45.1% female; mean age = 9.92 years, SD = 0.56 years) randomly assigned to one of three conditions involving the TSST-M: (a) prepare for the TSST-M alone, (b) prepare for the TSST-M with a parent, and (c) no-stress control group. Results revealed that children made larger donations post-stressor if they were alone before the acute stressor, if they had moderate cardiac autonomic balance, reflecting both parasympathetic and sympathetic influence, and if they were older. Children who prepared for the TSST-M with social support from a parent made comparable donations as children in the no-stress control group, in accord with stress buffering models. Increased altruism following acute stress among children suggests that a comprehensive understanding of the human stress response needs to incorporate "tend-and-befriend" behavior-the tendency for humans to show increased altruistic behavior during times of distress.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Estresse Psicológico , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Masculino , Pais , Saliva , Apoio Social
8.
Pers Relatsh ; 27(3): 506-525, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244293

RESUMO

The current study investigated high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) as a potential mediator between childhood parental warmth and later health and mortality outcomes. Participants were 1,255 adults (56.9% female). Childhood parental warmth was reported retrospectively at mean age 46; resting HF-HRV was measured at mean age 57; cardiovascular health and self-evaluated health were assessed at mean age 57 and 63, and mortality records extracted at mean age 63. Results revealed a positive association between childhood parental warmth and resting HF-HRV, as well as associations between higher HF-HRV and reduced risk of having a later cardiovascular health problem and of mortality by age 63. Mediation analyses revealed a small significant indirect effect of parental warmth, through HF-HRV, on cardiovascular health.

9.
Child Dev ; 91(5): e1046-e1063, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712955

RESUMO

This study utilized data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (N = 14,860) to examine whether early-life family income (age 0-5) predicted long-term academic achievement (age 16-18) and to investigate the role of executive function (EF) assessed multiple times across age 7-11 in explaining this association. Task-based EF was a significant mediator between early-life family income and later academic achievement in every model. This mediating pathway persisted when adjusting for a comprehensive panel of covariates including verbal IQ, sex, family income at ages 8 and 18, and early-life temperament. Additionally, teacher-rated and parent-rated EF mediated in some models. Overall, these findings suggest that childhood EF may play an important role in perpetuating income-based educational disparities.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Renda , Adolescente , Atenção , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 119: 104745, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535403

RESUMO

Systemic inflammation is associated with increased risk for prevalent and costly diseases, and animal models implicate the autonomic nervous system in the control of inflammatory processes. In humans, research on autonomic-immune connections has been much more limited, and has focused on single branch autonomic measures (i.e., either parasympathetic or sympathetic). The current study utilized cardiac autonomic balance (CAB), derived from dual-branch cardiac autonomic recordings, to test the relation between resting autonomic function and inflammatory reactivity to challenge in children. METHODS: Participants included 96 children (51 boys, 45 girls) ages 9-11 years (mean age = 9.93 years, SD = 0.57 years). CAB values were calculated from standardized measures of parasympathetic and sympathetic activity, namely resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia and pre-ejection period data, respectively. Children provided two blood samples, one before and one following exposure to an acute social stressor or control condition. Serum was assayed for four cytokines that orchestrate inflammation: interleukin-6 (IL6), interleukin-8 (IL8), interleukin-10 (IL10), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFa). RESULTS: We discovered large individual differences in inflammatory marker production across children, and no average main effect of stress condition. CAB significantly predicted these individual differences, such that children lower on CAB showed increasing serum cytokines from time 1 to time 2. In contrast, children with greater CAB tended to show declining inflammatory markers across the session. DISCUSSION: Low cardiac autonomic balance (i.e., the combination of low parasympathetic and high sympathetic activity) may be a useful marker of proinflammatory tendencies in children, suggesting novel paths for early risk detection and intervention.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Citocinas/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Doença Aguda , Criança , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Prognóstico , Psicologia da Criança , Arritmia Sinusal Respiratória/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico
11.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 117: 104707, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal stress during pregnancy can influence the trajectory of fetal development, shaping offspring physiology and health in enduring ways. Some research implicates fetal programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis as a mediator of these effects. The present study is the first to examine child hair cortisol concentration (HCC) and maternal stress during pregnancy in a diverse, low-income sample. METHODS: The sample consisted of 77 healthy, low-income (M annual income: $13,321), mother-children pairs (M child age = 3.81 years, SD = 0.43). The children were 57 % girls, 43 % boys. Mothers were 65 % Latina/Hispanic, 28 % Non-Hispanic White, 7% Black/African American. Maternal prenatal stress was measured with the Perceived Stress Scale administered by interview in the second and third trimesters, and again approximately four years later when child hair samples for assaying HCC were collected. RESULTS: On average maternal perceived stress increased significantly across pregnancy, then returned to lower levels 4 years after birth. Regression analysis revealed that child HCC was not significantly predicted by maternal perceived stress at either single prenatal time point. Exploratory analysis revealed evidence of a relation between increases in maternal prenatal stress from second to third trimester and child HCC four years later (r = .37, p =  .04). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that measures of prenatal maternal stress at any one time point may not be predictive of offspring long-term HPA output in low-income child samples, but that increases in stress levels across pregnancy may provide important information undetected by individual time point measures.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Pobreza , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia
12.
Eur J Neurosci ; 52(1): 2516-2529, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782841

RESUMO

Social vigilance is a behavioral strategy commonly used in adverse or changing social environments. In animals, a combination of avoidance and vigilance allows an individual to evade potentially dangerous confrontations while monitoring the social environment to identify favorable changes. However, prolonged use of this behavioral strategy in humans is associated with increased risk of anxiety disorders, a major burden for human health. Elucidating the mechanisms of social vigilance in animals could provide important clues for new treatment strategies for social anxiety. Importantly, during adolescence the prevalence of social anxiety increases significantly. We hypothesize that many of the actions typically characterized as anxiety behaviors begin to emerge during this time as strategies for navigating more complex social structures. Here, we consider how the social environment and the pubertal transition shape neural circuits that modulate social vigilance, focusing on the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and prefrontal cortex. The emergence of gonadal hormone secretion during adolescence has important effects on the function and structure of these circuits, and may play a role in the emergence of a notable sex difference in anxiety rates across adolescence. However, the significance of these changes in the context of anxiety is still uncertain, as not enough studies are sufficiently powered to evaluate sex as a biological variable. We conclude that greater integration between human and animal models will aid the development of more effective strategies for treating social anxiety.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Núcleos Septais , Adolescente , Animais , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Caracteres Sexuais
13.
Dev Psychopathol ; 32(5): 1799-1809, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427180

RESUMO

Parents serve important functions in regulating children's responses to stress and challenge. However, the parental characteristics that modulate the effectiveness of parents as stress buffers remain to be fully characterized. To address this gap, this study examined parental characteristics and behaviors that may explain variation in parents' ability to buffer cortisol responses to acute stress of 180 children (ages 9-11 years old, M = 9.9 years, SD = .58). Children were randomly assigned to either participate in a public speaking task, the Trier Social Stress Test - modified for children (TSST-M) or a control condition. Children in the TSST-M condition were randomly assigned to prepare for the public speaking task either with their parent (N = 59) or alone (N = 60), whereas 61 children were assigned to the control condition (no TSST-M). We found that parental education moderated the effect of condition on children's responses to acute stress. Children whose parents had lower levels of education exhibited reduced cortisol responses in the parent condition compared to the alone condition, showing a buffered pattern of reactivity. In contrast, children of parents with high levels of education displayed higher cortisol reactivity in the parent condition compared to the alone and control conditions. Parental education was also positively associated with higher levels of state anxiety within the parent condition. These results suggest that highly educated parents may emphasize performance over comfort, amplifying their children's state anxiety and cortisol responses to a public performance.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Poder Familiar , Estresse Psicológico , Ansiedade , Criança , Humanos , Pais , Fala
14.
Am Psychol ; 74(6): 641-652, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545638

RESUMO

Economic hardship during childhood is associated with worse mental and physical health across the life span. Over the past decade, interdisciplinary research has started to elucidate the behavioral and biological pathways that underlie these disparities and identify protective factors that mitigate against their occurrence. In this integrative review we describe these advances, highlight remaining gaps in knowledge, and outline a research agenda for psychologists. This article has 3 aims. First, we consider the evolving psychobiological literature on protective factors and conclude that supportive relationships can mitigate against the physical health problems often associated with economic hardship. Second, we discuss recent empirical developments in health psychology, public health, and the biological sciences, which reveal trade-offs associated with adaptation and challenge the conception of what it means to be resilient. Finally, we outline a research agenda that attempts to integrate existing knowledge on health disparities with these newer challenges to inform both policy and practice for youth experiencing economic hardship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Pobreza , Resiliência Psicológica , Classe Social , Criança , Humanos , Fatores de Proteção
15.
Dev Psychobiol ; 61(7): 999-1013, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883739

RESUMO

This study examined cognitive-affective strategies as predictors of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to a social-evaluative stressor in adolescence as compared to late childhood as a function of early life experiences. Participants included 159 children (9-10 years) and adolescents (15-16 years) divided into two groups based on early care experiences: non-adopted youth raised in their birth families (n = 81) and post-institutionalized youth internationally adopted from orphanage care (n = 78). Youth completed a version of the Trier Social Stress Test modified for use with children and reported on their trait emotion regulation and coping strategies. Children reported more use of suppression and disengagement than adolescents, while adolescents reported more engagement coping strategies. Non-adopted and post-institutionalized youth did not differ in reported strategies. Cognitive reappraisal predicted higher cortisol reactivity in non-adopted children and adolescents, and was not associated with reactivity in the post-institutionalized group. This study has implications for efforts aimed at promoting self-regulation and adaptive stress responses during the transition to adolescence for both typically developing children and children who experienced adverse early care.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Criança Adotada , Criança Institucionalizada , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Orfanatos , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
16.
J Res Adolesc ; 29(1): 155-176, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869846

RESUMO

We promote the perspective that puberty, a separate biological process embedded in adolescence, is a "window of opportunity" for understanding and impacting health and development. First, we include a brief overview of pubertal change. Second, we propose a critical role for puberty in shaping life span health due to its connections with early life precursors, health issues and risks emerging during puberty, and health in young adulthood and beyond. Next, we discuss the importance of puberty measures in developmental research and suggest ways to make the science of puberty an important standalone research entity, as well as an essential component of studies conducted during adolescence. Finally, we discuss measurement issues, novel theoretical models of puberty, and the necessity of adopting an interdisciplinary perspective in research on puberty and in adolescence more broadly.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Saúde do Adolescente , Promoção da Saúde , Puberdade/fisiologia , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Formação de Conceito , Humanos , Longevidade , Puberdade/psicologia
17.
Attach Hum Dev ; 21(1): 5-22, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30406720

RESUMO

In the current pilot study, we examined whether insecure or disorganized attachment was associated with elevated inflammation (i.e. C-reactive protein [CRP]) in children with histories of child protective services (CPS) involvement, and whether early childhood CRP predicted body mass index (BMI) in middle childhood. Participants included 45 CPS-referred children and 39 low-risk comparison children, for whom we assessed levels of CRP in early childhood (Mean age = 4.9 years). For the CPS-referred children, who were drawn from an ongoing longitudinal study, we had attachment classifications (assessed during infancy with the Strange Situation) and BMI data (assessed during early and middle childhood); these data were not available for the low-risk comparison group. CPS-referred children who had insecure or disorganized attachments during infancy had higher levels of CRP in early childhood than CPS-referred children who had secure attachments, who had similar levels of CRP to low-risk comparison children. Among CPS-referred children, early childhood CRP predicted age 8 BMI, controlling for BMI at age 4. Findings offer preliminary support for the association between attachment quality and inflammation in early childhood, which may have implications for later physical health.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Serviços de Proteção Infantil/estatística & dados numéricos , Apego ao Objeto , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Mãe-Filho , Projetos Piloto , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Dev Psychopathol ; 30(5): 1977-1993, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309395

RESUMO

Racial/ethnic minorities are more vulnerable to mental and physical health problems, but we know little about the psychobiological underpinnings of these disparities. In this study, we examined racial/ethnic differences in cortisol diurnal patterns and affect as initial steps toward elucidating long-term health disparities. A racially/ethnically diverse (39.5% White, 60.5% minority) sample of 370 adolescents (57.3% female) between the ages of 11.9 and 18 years (M = 14.65 years, SD = 1.39) participated in this study. These adolescents provided 16 cortisol samples (4 samples per day across 4 days), allowing the computation of diurnal cortisol slopes, the cortisol awakening response, and diurnal cortisol output (area under the curve), as well as daily diary ratings of high-arousal and low-arousal positive and negative affect. Consistent with prior research, we found that racial/ethnic minorities (particularly African American and Latino youth) exhibited flatter diurnal cortisol slopes compared to White youth, F (1, 344.7) = 5.26, p = .02, effect size g = 0.25. Furthermore, African American and Asian American youth reported lower levels of positive affect (both high arousal and low arousal) compared to White youth. Racial/ethnic differences in affect did not explain differences in cortisol patterns, suggesting a need to refine our models of relations between affect and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical activity. We conclude by proposing that a deeper understanding of cultural development may help elucidate the complex associations between affect and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical functioning and how they explain racial/ethnic differences in both affect and stress biology.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Afeto/fisiologia , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , /etnologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saliva , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia
19.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; 47(1): 142-156, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28107039

RESUMO

Early-life stress is associated with increased vulnerability to physical and emotional health problems across the lifespan. The recently developed neuroimmune network hypothesis proposes that one of the underlying mechanisms for these associations is that early-life stress amplifies bidirectional crosstalk between the brain and the immune system, contributing to several mental and physical health conditions that have inflammatory underpinnings, such as depression and coronary heart disease. Neuroimmune crosstalk is thought to perpetuate inflammation and neural alterations linked to early-life stress exposure, and also foster behaviors that can further compromise health, such as smoking, drug abuse and consumption of high-fat diets. The goal of the present review is to briefly summarize the neuroimmune network hypothesis and use it as a starting point for generating new questions about the role of early-life stress in establishing a dysregulated relationship between neural and immune signaling, with consequences for lifespan physical and emotional health. Specifically, we aim to discuss implications and future directions for theory and empirical research on early-life stress, as well as for interventions that may improve the health and well-being of children and adolescents living in adverse conditions.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Dev Psychopathol ; 29(5): 1721-1733, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162180

RESUMO

A quarter of the global population meets diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS prevalence stratifies by socioeconomic status (SES), such that low SES is associated with higher MetS risk starting in childhood. Despite this trend, some low-SES children maintain good metabolic health across the life span, but the factors responsible for their resilience are not well understood. This study examined the role of threat vigilance as either a moderator or a mediator of the effects of low early life SES on adult metabolic risk. Three hundred twenty-five Canadians aged 15-55 participated (M = 36.4 years, SD = 10.7; 55.4% female). We coded parental occupational status between the ages of 0 and 5 to index early life SES. We used the International Diabetes Federation case definition for MetS based on waist circumference, blood pressure, triglyceride levels, HDL cholesterol, and glycosylated hemoglobin measures. Threat vigilance was assessed using the Weapons Identification Procedure, a visual discrimination paradigm that captures implicit perceptions of threat. Analyses supported the moderator hypothesis: low early life SES was associated with MetS diagnosis exclusively among those with high levels of threat vigilance. This suggests that low early life SES environments that heighten vigilance to threat might be particularly detrimental for metabolic health. Conversely, low threat vigilance may buffer against the metabolic risks associated with socioeconomic disadvantage.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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