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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444605

RESUMO

At the start of 2020, a new coronavirus (COVID-19) invaded the world leading to the death of 3.92 million people. Sadly, to date, no remedy has been discovered for this virus. Preventive vaccines have been under investigation, but were unavailable until December 2020. Clinical deficiencies of nutrients may increase susceptibility to infections. This knowledge may have provided an incentive for some dietary supplement (DS) manufacturers to advertise their products as COVID-19 preventatives or cures without any substantiation, targeting mainly social media fans. The objective of this research was to assess the usage, knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplementation before and during the COVID-19 pandemic among Lebanese people. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on a convenience sample (N = 2966) and information from participants aged 18 years and above was collected about periods before and during the pandemic. Our findings showed that attitudes towards DSs changed when the pandemic emerged and people believed that DSs can improve their health and strengthen their immunity. Despite the rise in DS prescription by healthcare professionals, the prevalence of DS use decreased from 73.3% before the pandemic to 69.9% during the pandemic (p < 0.001). Study results declared that the weekly or the daily estimated intake had increased during the pandemic as compared to before the pandemic, from 14% to 15.6% for antioxidants (p = 0.014), from 35.3% to 42.1% for vitamin C (p < 0.001), from 35.5% to 41% for vitamin D (p < 0.001), from 15.2% to 17.5% for vitamin E (p = 0.002), and from 18.8% to 29.3% for zinc (p < 0.001) and other vitamins and minerals (from 9% to 10.9%, p < 0.001). Binary logistic regression indicated that the use of DSs during the pandemic was 4 times higher among those infected with COVID-19, 30 times higher among those who used to take DSs before pandemic, and 1.5 times higher among those who worked in the medical sector. To conclude, there is a crucial need to increase awareness among Lebanese people regarding the use of DSs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371969

RESUMO

The prevalence of diet-related non-communicable diseases is on the rise in the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean, including Lebanon. This study aimed to provide data on fatty acid profiles and ratios of Lebanese composite dishes, Arabic sweets, and market foods. Methods: Thirty types of traditional dishes, collected from five different Lebanese governorates, thirty-seven types of Arabic sweets and forty-six market food products were considered for analysis. Food samples were chemically analyzed for total, unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. The range of total fatty acids in composite dishes, Arabic sweets, and market food products was between 1.2-11.7 g/100 g, 5.3-25.8 g/100 g, and 0.5-100 g/100 g, respectively. Additionally, the range of saturated fatty acids in composite dishes, Arabic sweets, and market food products was between 0.5-4.9 g/100 g, 2.5-23.6 g/100 g and 0.1-56.4 g/100 g, respectively. Furthermore, about 75% of these foods were poor in unsaturated fatty acids. Regarding saturated fatty acid, the polyunsaturated to monounsaturated (P.M.S) ratio was lower than the recommended ratio of 1:1:1 in 96% of samples. To conclude, there is a need to prioritize fat content in foods and consider processing modifications in the food production system with the aim of achieving a higher P:M:S ratio intake among the population.


Assuntos
Dieta/tendências , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Cultura , Dieta Saudável , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Jordânia , Kuweit , Líbano , Oriente Médio , Arábia Saudita , Urbanização
3.
F1000Res ; 10: 12, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33708377

RESUMO

Background: The important role of Mediterranean diet was elucidated in various clinical and epidemiological studies underlying its impact on reducing the burden of non-communicable diseases in Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean populations. Objective: The aim of this study was to convert the recipes of the Lebanese traditional dishes into meal planning exchange lists whose items are expressed in grams and adjusted to Lebanese household measures (cups and spoons) that could be used by healthcare professionals. Methodology: Thirty traditional Lebanese dishes were collected in which the carbohydrate, fat and protein were analyzed using Association of Official Analytical Chemists procedures then followed by a calculation of exchange lists of foods per serving using Wheeler method. Results:  The variations in macronutrients and fiber content were found among the Lebanese dishes. Carbohydrate was lowest (1.1g/100g) and protein was highest (29.7g/100g) in Shawarma Dajaj whereas fat content ranged between 0.5 and 22.4 g/100 g in the dishes. For each dish and according to each serving size, carbohydrate, milk (whole milk, reduced fat or skim), fat and protein (lean meat, medium fat meat and high fat meat) exchanges were calculated. Conclusion: This study provides healthcare professionals, dietitians and consumers the chance to proficiently plan traditional-type dishes, ensuring prominent dietetic and medical nutritional therapy practices and patient's self-control.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Nutrientes , Doces , Humanos
4.
F1000Res ; 9: 1254, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299557

RESUMO

Background: The expanding burden of diet-related non-communicable diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean Countries requires urgent public health vigilance and actions. This study aimed at establishing a database analysis of total sugar, salt and iron content in Lebanese foods, focusing on traditional dishes. Methods: The collection of food samples was done using stratified sampling techniques. These samples were classified into five strata, taking into account variation by geographical area (Mount Lebanon, Bekaa, Beirut, Tripoli, and Saida). The number of samples per governorate was estimated to be 30 according to the variability in the dishes' composition. Food samples were chemically analyzed for total sugar, salt, and iron. Results: Among all the governorates, all the tested traditional Lebanese dishes contained little total sugar. More than 60% of the samples tested were rich in sodium. The sodium content ranges were 120-720 mg/100 g in Mount Lebanon, 240-960 mg/100 g in Bekaa, 80-520 mg/100g in Beirut, 252-1952 mg/100g in Tripoli and 40-680 mg/100 g in Saida. The highest mean amount of sodium was observed in the dishes Fatayer Sabanikh and Malfouf Mehche (≥ 600 mg/100 g). Furthermore, more than 80% of the samples had poor amounts of iron in all governorates. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need for multi-cultural education and awareness on food sources of salt and iron, and the health effects regarding high intake of salt and low intake of iron. This study is a stepping stone for further research exploring total sugar, salt and iron content of traditional dishes, as well as potential intake by individuals in the Lebanese population.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ferro , Humanos , Líbano , Valor Nutritivo , Açúcares
5.
Metabolism ; 89: 1-7, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227144

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) is the preferred method to measure 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels, but laboratories are increasingly adopting automated platform assays. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the performance of commonly used automated immunoassays, with that of LC-MS/MS, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) reference values, to measure 25OHD levels. METHODS/SETTING: We compared serum 25OHD levels obtained from 219 elderly subjects, enrolled in a vitamin D trial, using the Diasorin Liaison platform assay, and the tandem LC-MS/MS method. We also assessed the performance of the Diasorin and Roche automated assays, expressed as mean % bias from the NIST standards, based on the vitamin D External Quality Assessment Scheme (DEQAS) reports, from 2013 to 2017. RESULTS: Serum 25OHD levels were significantly lower in the Diasorin compared to LC-MS/MS assay at baseline, 18.5 ±â€¯7.8 vs 20.5 ±â€¯7.6 ng/ml (p < 0.001), and all other time points. Diasorin (25OHD) = 0.76 × LC-MS/MS (25OHD) + 4.3, R2 = 0.596. The absolute bias was independent of 25OHD values, and the pattern unfit for any cross-calibration. The proportion of subjects considered for vitamin D treatment based on pre-set cut-offs differed significantly between the 2 assays. There also was wide variability in the performance of both automated assays, compared to NIST reference values. CONCLUSION: The performance of most widely used automated assays is sub-optimal. Our findings underscore the pressing need to re-consider current practices with regard to 25OHD measurements, interpretation of results from research studies, meta-analyses, the development of vitamin D guidelines, and their relevance to optimizing health.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Automação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Luminescência , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/sangue , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Vitamina D/sangue
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(35): 34863-34872, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29192403

RESUMO

Sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) is an antimicrobial of the sulfonamide class, frequently detected at low levels in drinking and surface water as organic micropollutant. The main goal of the present study is the evaluation of SQX reactivity during chlorination and UV irradiations which are two processes mainly used in water treatment plants. The SQX transformation by chlorination and UV lights (254 nm) was investigated in purified water at common conditions used for water disinfection (pH = 7.2, temperature = 25 °C, [chlorine] = 3 mg L-1). The result shows a slow degradation of SQX during photolysis compared with chlorination process. Kinetic studies that fitted a fluence-based first-order kinetic model were used to determine the kinetic constants of SQX degradation; they were equal to 0.7 × 10-4 and 0.7 × 10-2 s-1corresponding to the half time lives of 162 and 1.64 min during photolysis and chlorination, respectively. In the second step, seven by-products were generated during a chlorination and photo-transformation of SQX and identified using liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS). SO2 extrusion and direct decomposition were the common degradation pathway during photolysis and chlorination. Hydroxylation and isomerization were observed during photodegradation only while electrophilic substitution was observed during chlorination process.


Assuntos
Cloro/química , Modelos Químicos , Sulfaquinoxalina/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Desinfecção/métodos , Halogenação , Hidroxilação , Cinética , Processos Fotoquímicos , Fotólise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Raios Ultravioleta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos
7.
Chemosphere ; 189: 46-54, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28926788

RESUMO

This study was conducted to gain a better understanding of the fate of fluoroquinolone antibacterial ofloxacin (OFX) which is the free available chlorine (FAC) in order to determine its effect during water chlorination process. The Direct reactions of FAC with OFX were quite rapid. A half-life of 7.7 s was measured under pseudo-first order conditions in the presence of an excess of total chlorine ([FAC]0 = 13 µM and [OFX]0 = 0.55 µM at pH 7.2 and 20 °C in buffered reagent water. Free chlorine reactions rates were of first-order type in both substrate and oxidant with specific second-order rate constants of 6.8 × 103 M-1 s-1. No induced back reactions or other interference by using thiosulfate to stop the chlorination reaction was shown. The seven products of the reaction were determined by using the LC/MS/MS analysis. Structures were investigated due to the explication of transitions obtained at different CID energies by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Pathways of the formations of these by-products were presented in this study and pathways of the fragmentations of pseudo molecular ions of the structures proposed were presented in supplementary files.


Assuntos
Cloro/química , Ofloxacino/química , Antibacterianos/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Desinfecção , Meia-Vida , Halogenação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos
8.
J Bone Miner Res ; 32(7): 1486-1495, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28276596

RESUMO

The optimal dose of vitamin D to optimize bone metabolism in the elderly is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D, at a dose higher than recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), has a beneficial effect on bone remodeling and mass. In this double-blind trial we randomized 257 overweight elderly subjects to receive 1000 mg of elemental calcium citrate/day, and the daily equivalent of 3750 IU/day or 600 IU/day of vitamin D3 for 1 year. The subjects' mean age was 71 ± 4 years, body mass index 30 ± 4 kg/m2 , 55% were women, and 222 completed the 12-month follow-up. Mean serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was 20 ng/mL, and rose to 26 ng/mL in the low-dose arm, and 36 ng/mL in the high-dose arm, at 1 year (p < 0.05). Plasma parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin, and C-terminal telopeptide (Cross Laps) levels decreased significantly by 20% to 22% in both arms, but there were no differences between the two groups for any variable, at 6 or 12 months, with the exception of serum calcitriol, which was higher in the high-dose group at 12 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) increased significantly at the total hip and lumbar spine, but not the femoral neck, in both study arms, whereas subtotal body BMD increased in the high-dose group only, at 1 year. However, there were no significant differences in percent change BMD between the two study arms at any skeletal site. Subjects with serum 25OHD <20 ng/mL and PTH level >76 pg/mL showed a trend for higher BMD increments at all skeletal sites, in the high-dose group, that reached significance at the hip. Adverse events were comparable in the two study arms. This controlled trial shows little additional benefit in vitamin D supplementation at a dose exceeding the IOM recommendation of 600 IU/day on BMD and bone markers, in overweight elderly individuals. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Colecalciferol , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Ossos Pélvicos/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Cálcio/farmacocinética , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/farmacocinética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 104(2): 315-23, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27413130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether and at what dose vitamin D supplementation affects insulin resistance (IR). OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether vitamin D at doses higher than currently recommended decreases indexes of IR in an ambulatory population of overweight elderly subjects. DESIGN: This double-blind, randomized, controlled multicenter trial enrolled 257 elderly overweight individuals aged ≥65 y with baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations between 10 and 30 ng/mL. All subjects received 1000 mg calcium citrate/d, with vitamin D administered weekly at an equivalent dose of 600 or 3750 IU/d. The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of IR index at 1 y was the primary outcome. We also assessed the McAuley index. RESULTS: In total, 222 subjects (55% women) with a mean ± SD age and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) of 71 ± 4 y and 30 ± 4, respectively, completed the study. Subjects' baseline characteristics, including IR indexes, were similar across groups: 69% had prediabetes, 54% had hypertension (47% were taking antihypertensive medications), and 60% had hyperlipidemia, nearly half of whom were receiving lipid-lowering drugs. At 1 y, mean ± SD serum 25(OH)D increased from 20 ± 7 to 26 ± 7 ng/mL in the low-dose arm (P < 0.0001) and from 21 ± 8 to 36 ± 10 ng/mL in the high-dose arm (P < 0.001). Median HOMA-IR indexes did not change compared with baseline concentrations and were similar in the high- [2.2 (IQR: 1.5, 2.9)] and low-dose [2.3 (IQR: 1.6, 3.3] treatment groups. Adjusted analyses showed that HOMA-IR was predicted by the baseline HOMA index and BMI but not by vitamin D dose, baseline serum 25(OH)D, or change in 25(OH)D. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D3 at 3750 IU/d did not improve HOMA-IR compared with the Institute of Medicine Recommended Dietary Allowance of 600 IU/d in elderly overweight individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01315366.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitaminas , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colecalciferol/sangue , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/sangue , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
10.
Metabolism ; 63(7): 968-78, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24874590

RESUMO

The aim of the current study is to investigate the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in Lebanese subjects, its robust predictors, evaluate the relationship between 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] and parathyroid hormone levels, and derive desirable vitamin D levels, based on a large hospital laboratory database spanning all age groups. Data from a large representative digitized database of 9147 subjects, mostly outpatients, evaluated between 2000-2004 and 2007-2008, in whom information on age, gender, service, and time of the year, was analyzed. The PTH-25(OH)D relationship was studied in a subset of 657 adult subjects, in whom such data were available. At a 25(OH)D cut-off of<20 ng/ml, the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D ranged between 58% and 62% in pediatric subjects, 44% and 60% in adults, and 41% and 62% in elderly, in the 2 study periods. At a cut-off <30 ng/ml, the prevalence was above 78%, in most sub-groups. Regardless of cut-off used, the only significant predictors of high mean 25(OH)D levels were the male gender in the pediatric group, and female gender in adults and elderly, summer/fall seasons, out-patient status, as well as study period. Curve fitting of the PTH-25(OH)D relationship, in adults and elderly, revealed a plateau at 25(OH)D levels of 17-21 ng/ml, depending on sub-study group. Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent in our sunny country, even using a conservative population-derived cut-off of 20 ng/ml, and thus the need for a public health strategy for supplementation.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , 25-Hidroxivitamina D 2/sangue , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adulto , Idoso , Calcifediol/sangue , Criança , Clima , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Masculino , Política Nutricional , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle
11.
Metabolism ; 63(1): 50-60, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24140101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Variants of estrogen receptor α (ERα) have been associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes and blood pressure. The Middle East registers some of the highest rate of metabolic syndrome worldwide. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome, a clustered combination of these metabolic factors, and polymorphisms PvuII and XbaI of ERα in Lebanese Caucasian elderly overweight subjects. MATERIAL/METHODS: 250 Caucasian Lebanese unrelated elderly men and women, median age 71 years, were studied. ERα intronic polymorphisms variants, PvuII and XbaI diplotypes and genotypes, were examined. Associations with metabolic syndrome, defined by the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI), and its components, namely high density lipoprotein (HDL), fasting glucose levels, blood pressure, and waist circumference were evaluated in regression models. RESULTS: ER α diplotypes and genotypes distributions were similar between participants with and without metabolic syndrome, in the overall group of subjects, and by gender. No consistent associations between the diplotypes and genotypes tested and metabolic syndrome, or its components, could be detected. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants in ERα were not associated with metabolic syndrome or its components, in a group of 250 Lebanese Caucasian elderly participants, a group with a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Sobrepeso/complicações , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Líbano , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
12.
Dermatoendocrinol ; 5(2): 274-98, 2013 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24194968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region registers some of the highest rates of hypovitaminosis D worldwide.   AIM: We systematically reviewed the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, rickets and osteomalacia, their predictors and impact on major outcomes, in the region. METHODS: Medline, Pubmed and Embase search engines, entering keywords and concepts, combined with individual countries of interest, were used. Search was limited years 2000-2012; and review articles were used for the period preceding year 2000. RESULTS: Rickets and osteomalacia still occur in this sunny region. Hypovitaminosis D prevails, with rates varying 30-90%, considering a desirable serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] of 20 ng/ml. Advancing age, female gender, multi-parity, clothing style, season, socio-economic status and urban living are recognized predictors of hypovitaminosis D in adults. Prolonged breastfeeding without vitamin D supplementation and low dietary calcium intake are the recognized risk factors for rickets and hypovitaminosis D in children.. Associations with pain score and disease activity in rheumatologic disorders, viral load and interleukins in hepatitis C, BMI, lipids and insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, heart failure and mortality are described. Sun exposure in adults decreased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in one study. Few randomized vitamin D trials revealed that the majority of mothers or children failed to achieve a desirable 25(OH)D level, even with doses by far exceeding current recommendations. A trial in adolescent girls reveals substantial bone and lean mass increments. CONCLUSION: Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent in MENA. The lack of populations based studies, gaps in studies in infants, pre-pubertal children and pregnant women, hinder the development of region specific guidelines and constitute a major obstacle to impact this chronic and most often subclinical disease.

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