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1.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615640

RESUMO

The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis copy number variant (ENIGMA-CNV) and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Working Groups (22q-ENIGMA WGs) were created to gain insight into the involvement of genetic factors in human brain development and related cognitive, psychiatric and behavioral manifestations. To that end, the ENIGMA-CNV WG has collated CNV and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from ~49,000 individuals across 38 global research sites, yielding one of the largest studies to date on the effects of CNVs on brain structures in the general population. The 22q-ENIGMA WG includes 12 international research centers that assessed over 533 individuals with a confirmed 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, 40 with 22q11.2 duplications, and 333 typically developing controls, creating the largest-ever 22q11.2 CNV neuroimaging data set. In this review, we outline the ENIGMA infrastructure and procedures for multi-site analysis of CNVs and MRI data. So far, ENIGMA has identified effects of the 22q11.2, 16p11.2 distal, 15q11.2, and 1q21.1 distal CNVs on subcortical and cortical brain structures. Each CNV is associated with differences in cognitive, neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric traits, with characteristic patterns of brain structural abnormalities. Evidence of gene-dosage effects on distinct brain regions also emerged, providing further insight into genotype-phenotype relationships. Taken together, these results offer a more comprehensive picture of molecular mechanisms involved in typical and atypical brain development. This "genotype-first" approach also contributes to our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of brain disorders. Finally, we outline future directions to better understand effects of CNVs on brain structure and behavior.

2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5562, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144568

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. Genetic variation contributes to initiation, regular smoking, nicotine dependence, and cessation. We present a Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)-based genome-wide association study in 58,000 European or African ancestry smokers. We observe five genome-wide significant loci, including previously unreported loci MAGI2/GNAI1 (rs2714700) and TENM2 (rs1862416), and extend loci reported for other smoking traits to nicotine dependence. Using the heaviness of smoking index from UK Biobank (N = 33,791), rs2714700 is consistently associated; rs1862416 is not associated, likely reflecting nicotine dependence features not captured by the heaviness of smoking index. Both variants influence nearby gene expression (rs2714700/MAGI2-AS3 in hippocampus; rs1862416/TENM2 in lung), and expression of genes spanning nicotine dependence-associated variants is enriched in cerebellum. Nicotine dependence (SNP-based heritability = 8.6%) is genetically correlated with 18 other smoking traits (rg = 0.40-1.09) and co-morbidities. Our results highlight nicotine dependence-specific loci, emphasizing the FTND as a composite phenotype that expands genetic knowledge of smoking.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Tabagismo/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Padrões de Herança/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Metanálise como Assunto , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
3.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989287

RESUMO

Handedness has been extensively studied because of its relationship with language and the over-representation of left-handers in some neurodevelopmental disorders. Using data from the UK Biobank, 23andMe and the International Handedness Consortium, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of handedness (N = 1,766,671). We found 41 loci associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with left-handedness and 7 associated with ambidexterity. Tissue-enrichment analysis implicated the CNS in the aetiology of handedness. Pathways including regulation of microtubules and brain morphology were also highlighted. We found suggestive positive genetic correlations between left-handedness and neuropsychiatric traits, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Furthermore, the genetic correlation between left-handedness and ambidexterity is low (rG = 0.26), which implies that these traits are largely influenced by different genetic mechanisms. Our findings suggest that handedness is highly polygenic and that the genetic variants that predispose to left-handedness may underlie part of the association with some psychiatric disorders.

4.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(6): 309-330, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681593

RESUMO

It is imperative to understand the specific and shared etiologies of major depression and cardio-metabolic disease, as both traits are frequently comorbid and each represents a major burden to society. This study examined whether there is a genetic association between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits and if this association is stratified by age at onset for major depression. Polygenic risk scores analysis and linkage disequilibrium score regression was performed to examine whether differences in shared genetic etiology exist between depression case control status (N cases = 40,940, N controls = 67,532), earlier (N = 15,844), and later onset depression (N = 15,800) with body mass index, coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in 11 data sets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Generation Scotland, and UK Biobank. All cardio-metabolic polygenic risk scores were associated with depression status. Significant genetic correlations were found between depression and body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes. Higher polygenic risk for body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes was associated with both early and later onset depression, while higher polygenic risk for stroke was associated with later onset depression only. Significant genetic correlations were found between body mass index and later onset depression, and between coronary artery disease and both early and late onset depression. The phenotypic associations between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits may partly reflect their overlapping genetic etiology irrespective of the age depression first presents.

5.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 213: 108102, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of illicit substances is correlated, meaning that individuals who use one illicit substance are more likely to also use another illicit substance. This association could (partly) be explained by overlapping genetic factors. Genetic overlap may indicate a common underlying genetic predisposition, or can be the result of a causal association. METHODS: Polygenic scores for lifetime cannabis use were generated in a sample of Dutch participants (N = 8348). We tested the association of a PGS for cannabis use with ecstasy, stimulants and a broad category of illicit drug use. To explore the nature of the relationship: (1) these analyses were repeated separately in cannabis users and non-users and (2) monozogytic twin pairs discordant for cannabis use were compared on their drug use. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence was 24.8 % for cannabis, 6.2 % for ecstasy, 6.5 % for stimulants and 7.1 % for any illicit drug use. Significant, positive associations were found between PGS for cannabis use with ecstasy use, stimulants and any illicit drug use. These associations seemed to be stronger in cannabis users compared to non-users for both ecstasy and stimulant use, but only in people born after 1968 and not significant after correction for multiple testing. The discordant twin pair analyses suggested that cannabis use could play a causal role in drug use. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic liability underlying cannabis use significantly explained variability in ecstasy, stimulant and any illicit drug use. Further research should further explore the underlying mechanism to understand the nature of the association.

6.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 165, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296350

RESUMO

Biomarkers are of interest as potential diagnostic and predictive instruments in personalized medicine. We present the first urinary metabolomics biomarker study of childhood aggression. We aim to examine the association of urinary metabolites and neurotransmitter ratios involved in key metabolic and neurotransmitter pathways in a large cohort of twins (N = 1,347) and clinic-referred children (N = 183) with an average age of 9.7 years. This study is part of ACTION (Aggression in Children: Unraveling gene-environment interplay to inform Treatment and InterventiON strategies), in which we developed a standardized protocol for large-scale collection of urine samples in children. Our analytical design consisted of three phases: a discovery phase in twins scoring low or high on aggression (N = 783); a replication phase in twin pairs discordant for aggression (N = 378); and a validation phase in clinical cases and matched twin controls (N = 367). In the discovery phase, 6 biomarkers were significantly associated with childhood aggression, of which the association of O-phosphoserine (ß = 0.36; SE = 0.09; p = 0.004), and gamma-L-glutamyl-L-alanine (ß = 0.32; SE = 0.09; p = 0.01) remained significant after multiple testing. Although non-significant, the directions of effect were congruent between the discovery and replication analyses for six biomarkers and two neurotransmitter ratios and the concentrations of 6 amines differed between low and high aggressive twins. In the validation analyses, the top biomarkers and neurotransmitter ratios, with congruent directions of effect, showed no significant associations with childhood aggression. We find suggestive evidence for associations of childhood aggression with metabolic dysregulation of neurotransmission, oxidative stress, and energy metabolism. Although replication is required, our findings provide starting points to investigate causal and pleiotropic effects of these dysregulations on childhood aggression.

7.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 77(7): 715-728, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293669

RESUMO

Importance: Adult mood disorders are often preceded by behavioral and emotional problems in childhood. It is yet unclear what explains the associations between childhood psychopathology and adult traits. Objective: To investigate whether genetic risk for adult mood disorders and associated traits is associated with childhood disorders. Design, Setting, and Participants: This meta-analysis examined data from 7 ongoing longitudinal birth and childhood cohorts from the UK, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, and Finland. Starting points of data collection ranged from July 1985 to April 2002. Participants were repeatedly assessed for childhood psychopathology from ages 6 to 17 years. Data analysis occurred from September 2017 to May 2019. Exposures: Individual polygenic scores (PGS) were constructed in children based on genome-wide association studies of adult major depression, bipolar disorder, subjective well-being, neuroticism, insomnia, educational attainment, and body mass index (BMI). Main Outcomes and Measures: Regression meta-analyses were used to test associations between PGS and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and internalizing and social problems measured repeatedly across childhood and adolescence and whether these associations depended on childhood phenotype, age, and rater. Results: The sample included 42 998 participants aged 6 to 17 years. Male participants varied from 43.0% (1040 of 2417 participants) to 53.1% (2434 of 4583 participants) by age and across all cohorts. The PGS of adult major depression, neuroticism, BMI, and insomnia were positively associated with childhood psychopathology (ß estimate range, 0.023-0.042 [95% CI, 0.017-0.049]), while associations with PGS of subjective well-being and educational attainment were negative (ß, -0.026 to -0.046 [95% CI, -0.020 to -0.057]). There was no moderation of age, type of childhood phenotype, or rater with the associations. The exceptions were stronger associations between educational attainment PGS and ADHD compared with internalizing problems (Δß, 0.0561 [Δ95% CI, 0.0318-0.0804]; ΔSE, 0.0124) and social problems (Δß, 0.0528 [Δ95% CI, 0.0282-0.0775]; ΔSE, 0.0126), and between BMI PGS and ADHD and social problems (Δß, -0.0001 [Δ95% CI, -0.0102 to 0.0100]; ΔSE, 0.0052), compared with internalizing problems (Δß, -0.0310 [Δ95% CI, -0.0456 to -0.0164]; ΔSE, 0.0074). Furthermore, the association between educational attainment PGS and ADHD increased with age (Δß, -0.0032 [Δ 95% CI, -0.0048 to -0.0017]; ΔSE, 0.0008). Conclusions and Relevance: Results from this study suggest the existence of a set of genetic factors influencing a range of traits across the life span with stable associations present throughout childhood. Knowledge of underlying mechanisms may affect treatment and long-term outcomes of individuals with psychopathology.

8.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 209: 107948, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis use are prevalent behaviors that pose considerable health risks. Genetic vulnerability and characteristics of the neighborhood of residence form important risk factors for substance use. Possibly, these factors do not act in isolation. This study tested the interaction between neighborhood characteristics and genetic risk (gene-environment interaction, GxE) and the association between these classes of risk factors (gene-environment correlation, rGE) in substance use. METHODS: Two polygenic scores (PGS) each (based on different discovery datasets) were created for smoking initiation, cigarettes per day, and glasses of alcohol per week based on summary statistics of different genome-wide association studies (GWAS). For cannabis initiation one PGS was created. These PGS were used to predict their respective phenotype in a large population-based sample from the Netherlands Twin Register (N = 6,567). Neighborhood characteristics as retrieved from governmental registration systems were factor analyzed and resulting measures of socioeconomic status (SES) and metropolitanism were used as predictors. RESULTS: There were (small) main effects of neighborhood characteristics and PGS on substance use. One of the 14 tested GxE effects was significant, such that the PGS was more strongly associated with alcohol use in individuals with high SES. This was effect was only significant for one out of two PGS. There were weak indications of rGE, mainly with age and cohort covariates. CONCLUSION: We conclude that both genetic and neighborhood-level factors are predictors for substance use. More research is needed to establish the robustness of the findings on the interplay between these factors.

9.
Behav Genet ; 50(4): 221-232, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026073

RESUMO

It remains a challenge to determine whether children resemble their parents due to nature, nurture, or a mixture of both. Here we used a design that exploits the distinction between transmitted and non-transmitted alleles in genetic transmission from parent to offspring. Two separate polygenic scores (PGS) were calculated on the basis of the transmitted and non-transmitted alleles. The effect of the non-transmitted PGS is necessarily mediated by parental phenotypes, insofar as they contribute to the rearing environment of the offspring (genetic nurturing). We calculated transmitted and non-transmitted PGSs associated with adult educational attainment (EA) and PGSs associated with childhood ADHD in a general population sample of trios, i.e. child or adult offspring and their parents (N = 1120-2518). We tested if the EA and ADHD (non-)transmitted PGSs were associated with childhood academic achievement and ADHD in offspring. Based on the earlier findings for shared environment, we hypothesized to find genetic nurturing for academic achievement, but not for ADHD. In adults, both transmitted (R2 = 7.6%) and non-transmitted (R2 = 1.7%) EA PGSs were associated with offspring EA, evidencing genetic nurturing. In children around age 12, academic achievement was associated with the transmitted EA PGSs (R2 = 5.7%), but we found no support for genetic nurturing (R2 ~ 0.1%). The ADHD PGSs were not significantly associated with academic achievement (R2 ~ 0.6%). ADHD symptoms in children were only associated with transmitted EA PGSs and ADHD PGSs (R2 = 1-2%). Based on these results, we conclude that the associations between parent characteristics and offspring outcomes in childhood are mainly to be attributable to the effects of genes that are shared by parents and children.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(3): 389-404, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109421

RESUMO

Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a heritable biomarker of genomic aging. In this study, we perform a genome-wide meta-analysis of LTL by pooling densely genotyped and imputed association results across large-scale European-descent studies including up to 78,592 individuals. We identify 49 genomic regions at a false dicovery rate (FDR) < 0.05 threshold and prioritize genes at 31, with five highlighting nucleotide metabolism as an important regulator of LTL. We report six genome-wide significant loci in or near SENP7, MOB1B, CARMIL1, PRRC2A, TERF2, and RFWD3, and our results support recently identified PARP1, POT1, ATM, and MPHOSPH6 loci. Phenome-wide analyses in >350,000 UK Biobank participants suggest that genetically shorter telomere length increases the risk of hypothyroidism and decreases the risk of thyroid cancer, lymphoma, and a range of proliferative conditions. Our results replicate previously reported associations with increased risk of coronary artery disease and lower risk for multiple cancer types. Our findings substantially expand current knowledge on genes that regulate LTL and their impact on human health and disease.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Leucócitos/ultraestrutura , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Telômero , Humanos
11.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mood disorder, with a heritability of around 34%. Molecular genetic studies made significant progress and identified genetic markers associated with the risk of MDD; however, progress is slowed down by substantial heterogeneity as MDD is assessed differently across international cohorts. Here, we used a standardized online approach to measure MDD in multiple cohorts in the Netherlands and evaluated whether this approach can be used in epidemiological and genetic association studies of depression. METHODS: Within the Biobank Netherlands Internet Collaboration (BIONIC) project, we collected MDD data in eight cohorts involving 31 936 participants, using the online Lifetime Depression Assessment Self-report (LIDAS), and estimated the prevalence of current and lifetime MDD in 22 623 unrelated individuals. In a large Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) twin-family dataset (n ≈ 18 000), we estimated the heritability of MDD, and the prediction of MDD in a subset (n = 4782) through Polygenic Risk Score (PRS). RESULTS: Estimates of current and lifetime MDD prevalence were 6.7% and 18.1%, respectively, in line with population estimates based on validated psychiatric interviews. In the NTR heritability estimates were 0.34/0.30 (s.e. = 0.02/0.02) for current/lifetime MDD, respectively, showing that the LIDAS gives similar heritability rates for MDD as reported in the literature. The PRS predicted risk of MDD (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.15-1.32, R2 = 1.47%). CONCLUSIONS: By assessing MDD status in the Netherlands using the LIDAS instrument, we were able to confirm previously reported MDD prevalence and heritability estimates, which suggests that this instrument can be used in epidemiological and genetic association studies of depression.

12.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(4): 208-216, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891238

RESUMO

We investigated whether obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms from a population-based sample could be analyzed to detect genetic variants influencing obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We performed a genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on the obsession (rumination and impulsions) and compulsion (checking, washing, and ordering/precision) subscales of an abbreviated version of the Padua Inventory (N = 8,267 with genome-wide genotyping and phenotyping). The compulsion subscale showed a substantial and significant positive genetic correlation with an OCD case-control GWAS (r G = 0.61, p = .017) previously published by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC-OCD). The obsession subscale and the total Padua score showed no significant genetic correlations (r G = -0.02 and r G = 0.42, respectively). A meta-analysis of the compulsive symptoms GWAS with the PGC-OCD revealed no genome-wide significant Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs combined N = 17,992, indicating that the power is still low for individual SNP effects). A gene-based association analysis, however, yielded two novel genes (WDR7 and ADCK1). The top 250 genes in the gene-based test also showed a significant increase in enrichment for psychiatric and brain-expressed genes. S-Predixcan testing showed that for genes expressed in hippocampus, amygdala, and caudate nucleus significance increased in the meta-analysis with compulsive symptoms compared to the original PGC-OCD GWAS. Thus, the inclusion of dimensional symptom data in genome-wide association on clinical case-control GWAS of OCD may be useful to find genes for OCD if the data are based on quantitative indices of compulsive behavior. SNP-level power increases were limited, but aggregate, gene-level analyses showed increased enrichment for brain-expressed genes related to psychiatric disorders, and increased association with gene expression in brain tissues with known emotional, reward processing, memory, and fear-formation functions.

13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(2): 253-263, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558840

RESUMO

Insights into individual differences in gene expression and its heritability (h2) can help in understanding pathways from DNA to phenotype. We estimated the heritability of gene expression of 52,844 genes measured in whole blood in the largest twin RNA-Seq sample to date (1497 individuals including 459 monozygotic twin pairs and 150 dizygotic twin pairs) from classical twin modeling and identity-by-state-based approaches. We estimated for each gene h2total, composed of cis-heritability (h2cis, the variance explained by single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cis-window of the gene), and trans-heritability (h2res, the residual variance explained by all other genome-wide variants). Mean h2total was 0.26, which was significantly higher than heritability estimates earlier found in a microarray-based study using largely overlapping (>60%) RNA samples (mean h2 = 0.14, p = 6.15 × 10-258). Mean h2cis was 0.06 and strongly correlated with beta of the top cis expression quantitative loci (eQTL, ρ = 0.76, p < 10-308) and with estimates from earlier RNA-Seq-based studies. Mean h2res was 0.20 and correlated with the beta of the corresponding trans-eQTL (ρ = 0.04, p < 1.89 × 10-3) and was significantly higher for genes involved in cytokine-cytokine interactions (p = 4.22 × 10-15), many other immune system pathways, and genes identified in genome-wide association studies for various traits including behavioral disorders and cancer. This study provides a thorough characterization of cis- and trans-h2 estimates of gene expression, which is of value for interpretation of GWAS and gene expression studies.

14.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(6): 637-640, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796140

RESUMO

Here we provide an update of the 2013 report on the Nigerian Twin and Sibling Registry (NTSR). The major aim of the NTSR is to understand genetic and environmental influences and their interplay in psychological and mental health development in Nigerian children and adolescents. Africans have the highest twin birth rates among all human populations, and Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. Due to its combination of large population and high twin birth rates, Nigeria has one of the largest twin populations in the world. In this article, we provide current updates on the NTSR samples recruited, recruitment procedures, zygosity assessment and findings emerging from the NTSR.


Assuntos
Doenças em Gêmeos/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Irmãos , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Doenças em Gêmeos/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(6): 623-636, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666148

RESUMO

The Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) is a national register in which twins, multiples and their parents, siblings, spouses and other family members participate. Here we describe the NTR resources that were created from more than 30 years of data collections; the development and maintenance of the newly developed database systems, and the possibilities these resources create for future research. Since the early 1980s, the NTR has enrolled around 120,000 twins and a roughly equal number of their relatives. The majority of twin families have participated in survey studies, and subsamples took part in biomaterial collection (e.g., DNA) and dedicated projects, for example, for neuropsychological, biomarker and behavioral traits. The recruitment into the NTR is all inclusive without any restrictions on enrollment. These resources - the longitudinal phenotyping, the extended pedigree structures and the multigeneration genotyping - allow for future twin-family research that will contribute to gene discovery, causality modeling, and studies of genetic and cultural inheritance.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Biomarcadores/análise , Doenças em Gêmeos/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos de Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Doenças em Gêmeos/psicologia , Família , Feminino , Seguimentos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
NPJ Sci Learn ; 4: 13, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508241

RESUMO

Parental socioeconomic status (SES) is a strong predictor of children's educational achievement (EA), with an increasing effect throughout development. Inequality in educational outcomes between children from different SES backgrounds exists in all Western countries. It has been proposed that a cause of this inequality lies in the interplay between genetic effects and SES on EA, which might depend on society and the equality of the education system. This study adopted two approaches, a classical twin design and polygenic score (PGS) approach, to address the effect of parental SES on EA in a large sample of 12-year-old Dutch twin pairs (2479 MZ and 4450 DZ twin pairs with PGSs for educational attainment available in 2335 children) from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). The findings of this study indicated that average EA increased with increasing parental SES. The difference in EA between boys and girls became smaller in the higher SES groups. The classical twin design analyses based on genetic covariance structure modeling pointed to lower genetic, environmental, and thus phenotypic variation in EA at higher SES. Independent from a child's PGS, parental SES predicted EA. However, the strength of the association between PGS and EA did not depend on parental SES. In a within-family design, the twin with a higher PGS scored higher on EA than the co-twin, demonstrating that the effect of the PGS on EA was at least partly independent from parental SES. To conclude, EA depended on SES both directly and indirectly, and SES moderated the additive genetic and environmental components of EA. Adding information from PGS, in addition to parental SES, improved the prediction of children's EA.

17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(22): 3853-3865, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518406

RESUMO

Humans are social animals that experience intense suffering when they perceive a lack of social connection. Modern societies are experiencing an epidemic of loneliness. Although the experience of loneliness is universally human, some people report experiencing greater loneliness than others. Loneliness is more strongly associated with mortality than obesity, emphasizing the need to understand the nature of the relationship between loneliness and health. Although it is intuitive that circumstantial factors such as marital status and age influence loneliness, there is also compelling evidence of a genetic predisposition toward loneliness. To better understand the genetic architecture of loneliness and its relationship with associated outcomes, we extended the genome-wide association study meta-analysis of loneliness to 511 280 subjects, and detect 19 significant genetic variants from 16 loci, including four novel loci, as well as 58 significantly associated genes. We investigated the genetic overlap with a wide range of physical and mental health traits by computing genetic correlations and by building loneliness polygenic scores in an independent sample of 18 498 individuals with EHR data to conduct a PheWAS with. A genetic predisposition toward loneliness was associated with cardiovascular, psychiatric, and metabolic disorders and triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins. Mendelian randomization analyses showed evidence of a causal, increasing, the effect of both BMI and body fat on loneliness. Our results provide a framework for future studies of the genetic basis of loneliness and its relationship to mental and physical health.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Solidão/psicologia , Fenômica/métodos , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Saúde Mental , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
18.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(4): 210-219, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379313

RESUMO

Twin registries often take part in large collaborative projects and are major contributors to genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis studies. In this article, we describe genotyping of twin-family populations from Australia, the Midwestern USA (Avera Twin Register), the Netherlands (Netherlands Twin Register), as well as a sample of mothers of twins from Nigeria to assess the extent, if any, of genetic differences between them. Genotyping in all cohorts was done using a custom-designed Illumina Global Screening Array (GSA), optimized to improve imputation quality for population-specific GWA studies. We investigated the degree of genetic similarity between the populations using several measures of population variation with genotype data generated from the GSA. Visualization of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the Australian, Dutch and Midwestern American populations exhibit negligible interpopulation stratification when compared to each other, to a reference European population and to globally distant populations. Estimations of fixation indices (FST values) between the Australian, Midwestern American and Netherlands populations suggest minimal genetic differentiation compared to the estimates between each population and a genetically distinct cohort (i.e., samples from Nigeria genotyped on GSA). Thus, results from this study demonstrate that genotype data from the Australian, Dutch and Midwestern American twin-family populations can be reasonably combined for joint-genetic analysis.


Assuntos
Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Gêmeos/genética , Austrália , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Humanos , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Mães , Países Baixos , Nigéria , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sistema de Registros
19.
Nat Genet ; 51(5): 804-814, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043758

RESUMO

Birth weight variation is influenced by fetal and maternal genetic and non-genetic factors, and has been reproducibly associated with future cardio-metabolic health outcomes. In expanded genome-wide association analyses of own birth weight (n = 321,223) and offspring birth weight (n = 230,069 mothers), we identified 190 independent association signals (129 of which are novel). We used structural equation modeling to decompose the contributions of direct fetal and indirect maternal genetic effects, then applied Mendelian randomization to illuminate causal pathways. For example, both indirect maternal and direct fetal genetic effects drive the observational relationship between lower birth weight and higher later blood pressure: maternal blood pressure-raising alleles reduce offspring birth weight, but only direct fetal effects of these alleles, once inherited, increase later offspring blood pressure. Using maternal birth weight-lowering genotypes to proxy for an adverse intrauterine environment provided no evidence that it causally raises offspring blood pressure, indicating that the inverse birth weight-blood pressure association is attributable to genetic effects, and not to intrauterine programming.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Estatura/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Herança Materna/genética , Troca Materno-Fetal/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
20.
Biol Psychiatry ; 85(12): 1065-1073, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is moderately heritable, with a high prevalence and a presumed high heterogeneity. Copy number variants (CNVs) could contribute to the heritable component of risk, but the two previous genome-wide association studies of rare CNVs did not report significant findings. METHODS: In this meta-analysis of four cohorts (5780 patients and 6626 control subjects), we analyzed the association of MDD to 1) genome-wide burden of rare deletions and duplications, partitioned by length (<100 kb or >100 kb) and other characteristics, and 2) individual rare exonic CNVs and CNV regions. RESULTS: Patients with MDD carried significantly more short deletions than control subjects (p = .0059) but not long deletions or short or long duplications. The confidence interval for long deletions overlapped with that for short deletions, but long deletions were 70% less frequent genome-wide, reducing the power to detect increased burden. The increased burden of short deletions was primarily in intergenic regions. Short deletions in cases were also modestly enriched for high-confidence enhancer regions. No individual CNV achieved thresholds for suggestive or significant association after genome-wide correction. p values < .01 were observed for 15q11.2 duplications (TUBGCP5, CYFIP1, NIPA1, and NIPA2), deletions in or near PRKN or MSR1, and exonic duplications of ATG5. CONCLUSIONS: The increased burden of short deletions in patients with MDD suggests that rare CNVs increase the risk of MDD by disrupting regulatory regions. Results for longer deletions were less clear, but no large effects were observed for long multigenic CNVs (as seen in schizophrenia and autism). Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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