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J Virol ; 93(16)2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167905


Super-enhancers (SEs) are clusters of enhancers marked by extraordinarily high and broad chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) signals for H3K27ac or other transcription factors (TFs). SEs play pivotal roles in development and oncogenesis. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) super-enhancers (ESEs) are co-occupied by all essential EBV oncogenes and EBV-activated NF-κB subunits. Perturbation of ESEs stops lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) growth. To further characterize ESEs and identify proteins critical for ESE function, MYC ESEs were cloned upstream of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. Reporters driven by MYC ESEs 525 kb and 428 kb upstream of MYC (525ESE and 428ESE) had very high activities in LCLs but not in EBV-negative BJAB cells. EBNA2 activated MYC ESE-driven luciferase reporters. CRISPRi targeting 525ESE significantly decreased MYC expression. Genome-wide CRISPR screens identified factors essential for ESE activity. TBP-associated factor (TAF) family proteins, including TAF8, TAF11, and TAF3, were essential for the activity of the integrated 525ESE-driven reporter in LCLs. TAF8 and TAF11 knockout significantly decreased 525ESE activity and MYC transcription. MEF2C was also identified to be essential for 525ESE activity. Depletion of MEF2C decreased 525ESE reporter activity, MYC expression, and LCL growth. MEF2C cDNA resistant to CRIPSR cutting rescued MEF2C knockout and restored 525ESE reporter activity and MYC expression. MEF2C depletion decreased IRF4, EBNA2, and SPI1 binding to 525ESE in LCLs. MEF2C depletion also affected the expression of other ESE target genes, including the ETS1 and BCL2 genes. These data indicated that in addition to EBNA2, TAF family members and MEF2C are essential for ESE activity, MYC expression, and LCL growth.IMPORTANCE SEs play critical roles in cancer development. Since SEs assemble much bigger protein complexes on enhancers than typical enhancers (TEs), they are more sensitive than TEs to perturbations. Understanding the protein composition of SEs that are linked to key oncogenes may identify novel therapeutic targets. A genome-wide CRISPR screen specifically identified proteins essential for MYC ESE activity but not simian virus 40 (SV40) enhancer. These proteins not only were essential for the reporter activity but also were also important for MYC expression and LCL growth. Targeting these proteins may lead to new therapies for EBV-associated cancers.

J Biol Chem ; 294(25): 9734-9745, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073033


Early diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is difficult because of a lack of specific symptoms. Many patients have advanced disease at diagnosis, and these patients respond poorly to treatment. New treatments are therefore needed to improve the outcome of NPC. To better understand the molecular pathogenesis of NPC, here we used an NPC cell line in a genome-wide CRISPR-based knockout screen to identify the cellular factors and pathways essential for NPC (i.e. dependence factors). This screen identified the Moz, Ybf2/Sas3, Sas2, Tip60 histone acetyl transferase complex, NF-κB signaling, purine synthesis, and linear ubiquitination pathways; and MDM2 proto-oncogene as NPC dependence factors/pathways. Using gene knock out, complementary DNA rescue, and inhibitor assays, we found that perturbation of these pathways greatly reduces the growth of NPC cell lines but does not affect growth of SV40-immortalized normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. These results suggest that targeting these pathways/proteins may hold promise for achieving better treatment of patients with NPC.

J Virol ; 93(13)2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019051


Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of human primary resting B lymphocytes (RBLs) leads to the establishment of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) that can grow indefinitely in vitro EBV transforms RBLs through the expression of viral latency genes, and these genes alter host transcription programs. To globally measure the transcriptome changes during EBV transformation, primary human resting B lymphocytes (RBLs) were infected with B95.8 EBV for 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days, and poly(A) plus RNAs were analyzed by transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) found 3,669 protein-coding genes that were differentially expressed (false-discovery rate [FDR] < 0.01). Ninety-four percent of LCL genes that are essential for LCL growth and survival were differentially expressed. Pathway analyses identified a significant enrichment of pathways involved in cell proliferation, DNA repair, metabolism, and antiviral responses. RNA-seq also identified long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) differentially expressed during EBV infection. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) interference (CRISPRi) and CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) found that CYTOR and NORAD lncRNAs were important for LCL growth. During EBV infection, type III EBV latency genes were expressed rapidly after infection. Immediately after LCL establishment, EBV lytic genes were also expressed in LCLs, and ∼4% of the LCLs express gp350. Chromatin immune precipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) and POLR2A chromatin interaction analysis followed by paired-end tag sequencing (ChIA-PET) data linked EBV enhancers to 90% of EBV-regulated genes. Many genes were linked to enhancers occupied by multiple EBNAs or NF-κB subunits. Incorporating these assays, we generated a comprehensive EBV regulome in LCLs.IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immortalization of resting B lymphocytes (RBLs) is a useful model system to study EBV oncogenesis. By incorporating transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), chromatin immune precipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq), chromatin interaction analysis followed by paired-end tag sequencing (ChIA-PET), and genome-wide clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) screen, we identified key pathways that EBV usurps to enable B cell growth and transformation. Multiple layers of regulation could be achieved by cooperations between multiple EBV transcription factors binding to the same enhancers. EBV manipulated the expression of most cell genes essential for lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) growth and survival. In addition to proteins, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulated by EBV also contributed to LCL growth and survival. The data presented in this paper not only allowed us to further define the molecular pathogenesis of EBV but also serve as a useful resource to the EBV research community.

Appl Opt ; 55(36): 10313-10317, 2016 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28059251


Cultural heritage works, such as ancient murals and historical paintings, are examined routinely for the purpose of conservation. Previous works have applied optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is a three-dimensional (3D) microscopic imaging modality in the field of heritage works conservation. The data acquired by OCT provides both 3D surface information of the object and structure information underneath the surface. Therefore, cross-sectional information on the object can be utilized to study layer structure of the painting and brush stroke techniques used by the artist. However, as demonstrated in previous studies, OCT has limited capability in high-definition (HD) examination of paintings or murals that are in macroscopic scale. HD examination of heritage works needs to scan large areas and process huge amounts of data, while OCT imaging has a limited field of view and processing power. To further advance the application of OCT in the conservation of heritage works, we demonstrate what we believe is a novel high-speed, large field-of-view (FOV) OCT imaging platform. Our results suggest that this OCT platform has the potential to become a nondestructive alternative for the analysis and conservation of paintings and murals.