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1.
Nature ; 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762728

RESUMO

Systemic insulin sensitivity shows a diurnal rhythm with a peak upon waking1,2. The molecular mechanism that underlies this temporal pattern is unclear. Here we show that the nuclear receptors REV-ERB-α and REV-ERB-ß (referred to here as 'REV-ERB') in the GABAergic (γ-aminobutyric acid-producing) neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) (SCNGABA neurons) control the diurnal rhythm of insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production in mice, without affecting diurnal eating or locomotor behaviours during regular light-dark cycles. REV-ERB regulates the rhythmic expression of genes that are involved in neurotransmission in the SCN, and modulates the oscillatory firing activity of SCNGABA neurons. Chemogenetic stimulation of SCNGABA neurons at waking leads to glucose intolerance, whereas restoration of the temporal pattern of either SCNGABA neuron firing or REV-ERB expression rescues the time-dependent glucose metabolic phenotype caused by REV-ERB depletion. In individuals with diabetes, an increased level of blood glucose after waking is a defining feature of the 'extended dawn phenomenon'3,4. Patients with type 2 diabetes with the extended dawn phenomenon exhibit a differential temporal pattern of expression of REV-ERB genes compared to patients with type 2 diabetes who do not have the extended dawn phenomenon. These findings provide mechanistic insights into how the central circadian clock regulates the diurnal rhythm of hepatic insulin sensitivity, with implications for our understanding of the extended dawn phenomenon in type 2 diabetes.

2.
J Diabetes Res ; 2021: 7136869, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604390

RESUMO

Background: Mutations in human KLF11 may lead to the development of maturity-onset diabetes of the young 7 (MODY7). This occurs due to impaired insulin synthesis in the pancreas. To date, the clinical and functional characteristics of the novel KLF11 mutation c.1061G > T have not yet been reported. Methods: Whole-exon sequencing was used to screen the proband and family members with clinical suspicion of the KLF11 variant. Luciferase reporter assays were used to investigate whether the KLF11 variant binds to the insulin promoter. Real-time PCR, western blotting, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) analysis were used to analyze the KLF11 variant that regulates insulin expression and insulin secretion activity in beta cell lines. The Freestyle Libre H (Abbott Diabetes Care Ltd) was used to dynamically monitor the proband daily blood glucose levels. Results: Mutation screening for the whole exon genes identified a heterozygous KLF11 (c.1061G > T) variant in the proband, her mother, and her maternal grandfather. Cell-based luciferase reporter assays using wild-type and mutant transgenes revealed that the KLF11 (c.1061G > T) variant had impaired insulin promoter regulation activity. Moreover, this variant was found to impair insulin expression and insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. The proband had better blood glucose control without staple food intake (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Herein, for the first time, we report a novel KLF11 (c.1061G > T) monogenic mutation associated with MODY7. This variant has impaired insulin promoter regulation activity and impairs insulin expression and secretion in pancreatic beta cells. Therefore, administering oral antidiabetic drugs along with dietary intervention may benefit the proband.

3.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 1038585, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33376750

RESUMO

Objective: To examine whether comorbidity with type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects the clinical and hematological parameters of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Methods: We retrospectively investigated the clinical, imaging, and laboratory characteristics of patients with confirmed COVID-19 who were hospitalized from January 30, 2020 to March 17, 2020, at the Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University. A detailed clinical record was kept for each subject, including the medical history of COVID-19 and physical and laboratory examinations. A total of 164 subjects were eligible for the study, among which 40 patients were comorbid with T2D. Further analysis was conducted in two subcohorts of sex- and age-matched patients with and without T2D to identify hematological and biochemical differences. The laboratory tests, including routine blood tests, serum biochemistry, and coagulation function, were performed upon admission. Results: The two groups showed no significant differences in baseline parameters, including age, sex, chest X-ray, or computed tomography (CT) findings, upon admission. However, patients with T2D showed an increased incidence of diarrhea. T2D patients required more recovery time from pneumonia, as shown by follow-up CT findings, which might contribute to the prolonged hospitalization. Comorbidity with T2D also increased risk of secondary bacterial infection during COVID-19. The T2D group had significantly higher white blood cell and neutrophil counts compared with the nondiabetic group, but T2D patients suffered from more severe lymphocytopenia and inflammation (P < 0.05). Most biochemical parameters showed no significant differences between the two groups (P > 0.05). However, patients with T2D seemed to have a significantly higher risk of developing hyperlactatemia, hyponatremia, and hypocalcemia. Conclusions: COVID-19 patients comorbid with T2D demonstrated distinguishing clinical features and hematological parameters during the infection. It is necessary to develop a different clinical severity scoring system for COVID-19 patients with T2D. This study may provide helpful clues for the assessment and management of COVID-19 in T2D patients.


Assuntos
/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Coagulação Sanguínea , /terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 8883736, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33344652

RESUMO

Purpose: Damage to corneal nerve fibers has been demonstrated in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that further progresses with increasing severity of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. However, the role of C-peptide in corneal nerve damage has not been reported in T2DM. The present study investigated the relationship of fasting C-peptide levels with corneal neuropathy evaluated by corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) in patients with T2DM. Methods: 160 T2DM patients (72 females) aged 34-78 with duration ranging from 0 to 40 years underwent CCM to measure corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL), corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD), and corneal nerve branch density (CNBD). Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used to explore the association of fasting C-peptide levels with corneal nerve parameters. Partial correlation analysis (adjusted for age and gender) was also conducted to analyze the correlation of metabolic indexes with these three corneal nerve parameters. The relationship between fasting C-peptide levels and duration of diabetes was also explored by Pearson correlation analysis. Results: With an increase in fasting C-peptide levels, the values of CNFL, CNFD, and CNBD also showed a corresponding trend for an increase. Partial correlation analysis revealed that fasting C-peptide levels were positively associated with CNFL (r = 0.245, P = 0.002), CNFD (r = 0.180, P = 0.024), and CNBD (r = 0.214, P = 0.008) after adjusting for age and gender. Using multiple linear regression analysis, fasting C-peptide levels were also closely associated with CNFL (P = 0.047) and CNBD (P = 0.038) after multiple adjustments. However, this association disappeared after further adjusting for duration of diabetes. Further analysis indicated that fasting C-peptide levels declined with duration of diabetes (r = -0.267, P = 0.001). Conclusions: C-peptide was closely associated with corneal neuropathy and disease duration in T2DM. C-peptide levels might be both an indicator of beta-cell function and a marker of disease severity (such as diabetic corneal neuropathy) and duration.

5.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2020: 6914878, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061829

RESUMO

Background: COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has threatened every civilian as a global pandemic. The immune system poses the critical interactive chain between the human body and the virus. Here, we make efforts to examine whether comorbidity with type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects the immunological response in COVID-19 patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective pilot study investigating immunological characteristics of confirmed cases of COVID-19 with or without comorbid T2D. Two subcohorts of sex- and age-matched participants were eligible for data analysis, of which 33 participants were with T2D and the remaining 37 were nondiabetic (NDM). Cellular immunity was assessed by flow cytometric determination of surface markers including CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD16, and CD56 in peripheral blood. Levels of C reactive protein, immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE), and complements (C3, C4) were detected by rate nephelometry immunoassay. And Th1/Th2 cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) were detected by Cytometric Bead Array. Results: Neutrophil counts were found to be significantly higher in the T2D group than in the NDM group and had a significant relevance with clinical severity. Lymphocyte frequencies showed no significant differences in the two groups. However, the proportions and absolute counts of T, Tc, Th, and NK cells decreased in both groups to different degrees. An abnormal increase in neutrophil count and a decrease in lymphocyte subpopulations may represent risk factors of COVID-19 severity. The level of IgG, IgM, IgA, C3, and C4 showed no significant difference between the two groups, while the IgE levels were higher in the T2D group than in the NDM group (p < 0.05). Th1 cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6, as well as CRP, appeared significantly higher in the T2D group. Conclusions: The COVID-19 patients comorbid with T2D demonstrated distinguishable immunological parameters, which represented clinical relevancies with the predisposed disease severity in T2D.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Citocinas/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia
6.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 3613041, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062710

RESUMO

Objective: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Even after strict control of obesity, hyperglycemia, and hypertension, some patients still progress rapidly. Previous studies suggested diabetic dyslipidemia might be one of the factors responsible for this high residual risk. This study aims to explore the impact of long-term lipid control on renal outcome in new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: We conducted a 3-year follow-up study, involving 283 subjects with new-onset T2DM, and observed the effect of baseline and follow-up metabolic abnormalities, especially dyslipidemia, on the early damage of kidney function using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: After 3 years follow-up, patients achieved a better control of body weight, hypertension, and blood glucose. The most reduced eGFR group shared the least reduced BMI and LDL-C, as well as the greatest increase in TG levels. Only TG in the follow-up, not any of the baseline data, nor obesity, blood glucose, BP, or LDL-C in the follow-up, was found to be significantly correlated with the most reduced eGFR. Compared with patients with constantly abnormal TG levels, the risks were even higher in the subjects who experienced a transition from normal TG to hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 2.576 versus OR = 2.184, after multiple adjustment), and by tight controlling of TG, patients started with abnormal baseline TG levels could reduce the risk of DKD progression to the same low levels as the TG-constantly-normal group. Conclusion: This study emphasized the importance of long-term TG control in East Asian patients with new-onset T2DM: TG control can delay the decline of kidney function in the early stage of DKD, and reversal of hypertriglyceridemia may undo the risks of the past. It is time to pay more attention to the control of TG in new-onset T2DM.

7.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745370

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: The early pathological changes of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) are mainly small nerve fiber injuries. Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) is an easy, rapid, non-invasive and repeatable technique to detect the damage of small nerve fibers. The purpose of this study was to explore the application of CCM in DPN and other chronic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 220 individuals (48 normal healthy control participants and 172 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus) were included in the study. All participants were assessed and scored for neurological symptoms and neurological deficits, quantitative sensory test, neuroelectrophysiological test, and CCM. RESULTS: Corneal nerve fiber density, corneal nerve fiber length and corneal nerve branch density were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with normal healthy control subjects (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). In the DPN group, corneal nerve fiber density, corneal nerve branch density and corneal nerve fiber length were significantly lower than for patients without DPN (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the optimal cut-off values were 24.68, 39 and 15.315, respectively, in which corneal nerve fiber density and corneal nerve fiber length had moderate sensitivity and specificity. CONCLUSION: This study provides more support for the clinical use of CCM to diagnose type 2 diabetes mellitus-related complications, especially DPN.

8.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1644, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849564

RESUMO

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor whose transcription activity is regulated by small compounds provided by diet, xenobiotics, and metabolism. It has been proven to be involved in energy homeostasis and inflammation in most recent years. Epidemiologically, exposure to xenobiotic AHR ligands contributes to obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). AHR is also the critical transcription factor determining the lineage commitment of pro-inflammatory Th17 and Th22 cells from naïve CD4+ T lymphocytes. It has been well-illustrated in animal models that IL-22, the major effector cytokine of Th17 and Th22 cells, played a major role in the interaction of metabolism and gut microbiota. But there were still missing links between gut microbiota, IL-22, and metabolism in humans. Our previous findings indicated that elevated circulating levels of IL-22 and frequencies of Th22 cells were associated with insulin resistance in both patients with obesity and T2D. Additionally, the hyperactive Th17 and Th22 cells phenotype also correlate with islets ß-cell dysfunction in T2D. In this study, we made efforts to determine AHR expressions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with T2D and metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). Correlation analyses were conducted to assess the possible link between AHR and the metabolic and inflammatory context. We revealed that mRNA expression of AHR was up-regulated and correlated with the percentage of Th17, Th22 as well as Th1 cells. Elevated plasma levels of IL-22 and IL-17 also correlated with increased AHR transcripts in PBMCs from both MHO and T2D patients. The transcription factor AHR may thus have a plausible role in the interaction between metabolism and pro-inflammatory status of patients in the development of obesity and T2D.

9.
Metabolism ; 109: 154290, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Males absent on the first (Mof) is implicated in gene control of diverse biological processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and autophagy. However, the relationship between glucose regulation and Mof-mediated transcription events remains unexplored. We aimed to unravel the role of Mof in glucose regulation by using global and pancreatic α-cell-specific Mof-deficient mice in vivo and α-TC1-6 cell line in vitro. METHODS: We used tamoxifen-induced temporal Mof-deficient mice first to show Mof regulate glucose homeostasis, islet cell proportions and hormone secretion. Then we used α-cell-specific Mof-deficient mice to clarify how α-cell subsets and ß-cell mass were regulated and corresponding hormone level alterations. Ultimately, we used small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knockdown Mof in α-TC1-6 and unravel the mechanism regulating α-cell mass and glucagon secretion. RESULTS: Mof was mainly expressed in α-cells. Global Mof deficiency led to lower glucose levels, attributed by decreased α/ß-cell ratio and glucagon secretion. α-cell-specific Mof-deficient mice exhibited similar alterations, with more reduced prohormone convertase 2 (PC2)-positive α-cell mass, responsible for less glucagon, and enhanced prohormone convertase 1 (PC1/3)-positive α-cell mass, leading to more glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion, thus increased ß-cell mass and insulin secretion. In vitro, increased DNA damage, dysregulated autophagy, enhanced apoptosis and altered cell fate factors expressions upon Mof knockdown were observed. Genes and pathways linked to impaired glucagon secretion were uncovered through transcriptome sequencing. CONCLUSION: Mof is a potential interventional target for glucose regulation, from the aspects of both α-cell subset mass and glucagon, intra-islet GLP-1 secretion. Upon Mof deficiency, Up-regulated PC1/3 but down-regulated PC2-positive α-cell mass, leads to more GLP-1 and insulin but less glucagon secretion, and contributed to lower glucose level.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Glucagon/citologia , Glucagon/metabolismo , Histona Acetiltransferases/fisiologia , Homeostase , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Histona Acetiltransferases/deficiência , Insulina/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Pró-Proteína Convertase 1/metabolismo , Pró-Proteína Convertase 2/metabolismo
10.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 223, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is currently considered to be an effective treatment strategy for diabetes and hepatic disorders, such as liver cirrhosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Exosomes are important mediators of cellular connections, and increasing evidence has suggested that exosomes derived from MSCs may be used as direct therapeutic agents; their mechanisms of action, however, remain largely unclear. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and molecular mechanisms of human umbilical cord MSC-derived exosomes (HucMDEs) on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: HucMDEs were used to treat T2DM rats, as well as palmitic acid (PA)-treated L-O2 cells, in order to determine the effects of HucMDEs on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. To evaluate the changes in autophagy and potential signaling pathways, autophagy-related proteins (BECN1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta [MAP 1LC3B]), autophagy-related genes (ATGs, ATG5, and ATG7), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK) were assessed by Western blotting. RESULTS: HucMDEs promoted hepatic glycolysis, glycogen storage, and lipolysis, and reduced gluconeogenesis. Additionally, autophagy potentially contributed to the effects of HucMDE treatment. Transmission electron microscopy revealed an increased formation of autophagosomes in HucMDE-treated groups, and the autophagy marker proteins, BECN1 and MAP 1LC3B, were also increased. Moreover, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine significantly reduced the effects of HucMDEs on glucose and lipid metabolism in T2DM rats. Based on its phosphorylation status, we found that the AMPK signaling pathway was activated and induced autophagy in T2DM rats and PA-treated L-O2 cells. Meanwhile, the transfection of AMPK siRNA or application of the AMPK inhibitor, Comp C, weakened the therapeutic effects of HucMDEs on glucose and lipid metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that HucMDEs improved hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in T2DM rats by activating autophagy via the AMPK pathway, which provides novel evidence suggesting the potential for HucMDEs in clinically treating T2DM patients.

11.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 6047145, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064276

RESUMO

Background: More and more studies focus on the relationship between the gastrointestinal microbiome and type 2 diabetes, but few of them have actually explored the relationship between enterotypes and type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods. We enrolled 134 patients with type 2 diabetes and 37 nondiabetic controls. The anthropometric and clinical indices of each subject were measured. Fecal samples of each subject were also collected and were processed for 16S rDNA sequencing. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associations of enterotypes with type 2 diabetes. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between lipopolysaccharide levels and insulin sensitivity after adjusting for age, BMI, TG, HDL-C, DAO, and TNF-α. The correlation analysis between factors and microbiota was identified using Spearman correlation analysis. The correlation analysis between factors was identified using partial correlation analysis. Results: Gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes group exhibited lower bacterial diversity compared with nondiabetic controls. The fecal communities from all subjects clustered into two enterotypes distinguished by the levels of Bacteroides and Prevotella. Logistic regression analysis showed that the Bacteroides and Bacteroides and Prevotella enterotype. Partial correlation analysis showed that lipopolysaccharide was closely associated with diamine oxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and Gutt insulin sensitivity index after adjusting for multiple covariates. Furthermore, the level of lipopolysaccharide was found to be an independent risk factor for insulin sensitivity. Conclusions: We identified two enterotypes, Bacteroides and Prevotella, among all subjects. Our results showed that the Bacteroides enterotype was an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes, which was due to increased levels of lipopolysaccharide causing decreased insulin sensitivity.Bacteroides and Prevotella enterotype. Partial correlation analysis showed that lipopolysaccharide was closely associated with diamine oxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and Gutt insulin sensitivity index after adjusting for multiple covariates. Furthermore, the level of lipopolysaccharide was found to be an independent risk factor for insulin sensitivity. Bacteroides and.

12.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 8968-8974, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Metrnl is a novel identified adipomyokine which might have therapeutic potential for metabolic and inflammatory diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to explore the associations of circulating Metrnl level with ß-cell function and insulin resistance (IR) and further explore the possible correlation between Metrnl and another adipomyokine named irisin in patients diagnosed type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study recruited 59 participants with type 2 diabetes and 30 normal glucose tolerance (NGT) participants. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure serum levels of Metrnl and irisin. The associations of Metrnl level with indexes of ß-cell function and IR and irisin level were analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis or spearman correlation analysis. RESULTS Compared with NGT participants, serum Metrnl level was elevated in participants with type 2 diabetes: 210.30 pg/mL (range 105.94-323.91 pg/mL) versus 132.02 pg/mL (range 104.93-195.92 pg/mL). Metrnl level did not show significant correlation with ß-cell function-related indicators, but positively correlated with HOMA2-IR and negatively correlated with HOMA2-%S after controlling multiple covariates in participants with type 2 diabetes. Metrnl level was also not associated with obesity-related indicators (body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percentage, and visceral adipose tissue area) in the type 2 diabetes group. In addition, the correlation between Metrnl and irisin level was also not present (r=-0.159, P=0.229) in type 2 diabetes group. CONCLUSIONS Serum Metrnl level was associated with IR, but not with ß-cell function in participants with diagnosed type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Adipocinas/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Fibronectinas/análise , Fibronectinas/sangue , Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Circunferência da Cintura
13.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(9): 1533, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222187

RESUMO

In the version of this article initially published, the Acknowledgements erroneously included a grant number that did not directly support the work in the article. The last sentence of the Acknowledgments should have read, "The authors' laboratories were supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China grants 31671222 and 31571556 (G.D.), a Taishan Scholarship (X.H.), the American Diabetes Association (ADA1-17-PDF-138) (Y.H.), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Cris6250-51000-059-04S (Y.X.), National Institutes of Health grants R01DK101379, R01DK117281, P01DK113954, R01DK115761 (Y.X.), the American Heart Association grant AHA30970064 (Z.S.), and grants R21CA215591 and R01ES027544 (Z.S.)." The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.

14.
J Proteomics ; 204: 103414, 2019 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195151

RESUMO

Thyroid papillary microcarcinoma is now a common clinical problem. Cervical lymph node metastasis is the main metastasis mode of PTMC. However, before operation, it is still difficult to determine exactly whether PTMC patient is suffering with cervical lymph node metastasis. To resolve this dilemma, for better selection of optimum treatment plans, it is necessary to investigate the overall changes in proteomes of PTMC, and evaluate the potential of biomarkers to predict lymph node metastasis. Tandem mass tags combined with multidimensional liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses were used aiming to screen the proteomic profiles of fine-needle aspiration biopsy samples. Quantitative proteomic analysis, significant pathway and functional categories were investigated. In total, 3391 proteins of the 3793 protein groups identified were quantified. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that differentially expressed proteins were involved in multiple biological functions, metastasis-related pathways. Moreover, IFN-stimulated gene 15 proteins were found to be well distinguished between patients with lymph node metastatic and patients with nonmetastatic PTMC. Knocking down ISG15 with shRNA inhibited the xenografted tumor growth. This study provided a reference proteome map for lymph node metastatic PTMC. ISG15 probably is a prognosis marker of thyroid papillary microcarcinoma patients with lymph node metastasis. SIGNIFICANCE: Nowadays, thyroid cancer has become a widespread epidemic. The rate of thyroid cancer incidence has been faster than any other cancers, reported by the American Cancer Society. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) is a subset of PTC defined as PTC measuring≤1 cm in size, which comprises nearly one-half of all the cases of PTCs. Actually, the rapidly increasing global incidence of PTC is mainly attributed to the corresponding increase in the diagnosis of PTMC. Scholars have figuratively compared the increase of PTMC to the "tsunami". The treatment scheme for PTMC is still not uniform, and the controversy is mainly focused on the necessity of surgery treatment. PTMCs often have an indolent course in the absence of evidence of metastatic cervical lymph nodes, distant metastases and extrathyroidal extension. Therefore, it is important for us to reliably differentiate the small number of PTMC patients developing significant metastases progression from the larger population of patients that harbor indolent PTMCs. The present study aimed to investigate the overall changes in proteomes of PTMC, and evaluate the potential of biomarkers to predict lymph node metastasis. Tandem mass tags (TMT) combined with multidimensional liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses were used aiming to screen the proteomic profiles of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) samples. Quantitative proteomic analysis, significant pathway and functional categories were investigated. Our results showed that some differential expression proteins were likely to be important resources for finding new diagnostic biomarkers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Papilar/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteômica , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Animais , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Carcinoma Papilar/patologia , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
15.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 58, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases have become leading causes of death in China as the economy develop and lifestyles change. This study aimed to estimate the relationship of the age, gender, and glucose metabolism with the serum lipid and lipoprotein levels of middle-aged and elderly Chinese men and women in Shandong Province. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in Shandong Province that included 10,028 adults aged ≥40 years. Fasting serum total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides were measured by standard methods. RESULTS: The estimates of total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were as follows: 5.35, 3.18, 1.51, and 1.34 mmol/L in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese adult population; 5.14, 3.08, 1.42, and 1.33 mmol/L in male subjects; 5.46, 3.24, 1.56, and 1.34 mmol/L in females; 5.27, 3.11, 1.54, and 1.24 mmol/L in the normal glucose tolerance population, 5.49, 3.27, 1.50, and 1.41 mmol/L in the population with pre-diabetes, and 5.39, 3.23, 1.43, and 1.58 mmol/L in the population with diabetes, respectively. Moreover, 36.92 and 19.10% of the adults had borderline-high and high total cholesterol. The population estimates for borderline-high, high LDL and low HDL cholesterol levels were 25.24, 13.39, and 5.64%, respectively. Meanwhile, borderline high and high triglyceride levels accounted for 16.7 and 17.47% of the population, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Serum total and LDL cholesterol levels were high in the ≥40 years old population of Shandong Province. Age, gender, glucose metabolism status, body mass index (BMI) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) can affect serum lipid and lipoprotein levels.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Jejum , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/diagnóstico , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiologia , Hiperlipidemias/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/etnologia , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 512(4): 750-757, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926169

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated that excess aldosterone impairs glucose metabolism. However, the underlying mechanism is still misty. Aldosterone has been proved a risk factor of fibrosis and inflammation. And the histology of islets from patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) also displays inflammation and fibrosis. But it is unclear whether aldosterone has direct impact on islet inflammation and fibrosis in T2D. Islet endothelium plays a significant role in the maintenance of islet beta cell function and has a close relationship with islet fibrosis and inflammation. Therefore, we focused on the effect of aldosterone on the islet endothelium. In this study, we utilized a diabetic db/db mouse model and examined serum aldosterone levels, islet macrophages infiltration, and islet fibrosis. After we confirmed that there was an increased expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in islet of diabetic mice compared with wild type mice. We next determined that aldosterone increased expression of ICAM-1 and ET-1 in both mRNA and protein levels in islet endothelium in vitro. And then we tested the expression of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in islet endothelium in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that aldosterone can up-regulate the expression levels of ICAM-1 and ET-1 through MR. These findings suggest excess aldosterone might participate in islet inflammation and fibrosis in T2D.


Assuntos
Aldosterona/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Endotelina-1/imunologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/imunologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/patologia , Aldosterona/análise , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Endotelina-1/análise , Endotelina-1/genética , Endotélio/imunologia , Endotélio/patologia , Fibrose , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/análise , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/genética , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/imunologia , Camundongos , Regulação para Cima
17.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(2): 205-217, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664766

RESUMO

Nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCOR1) and NCOR2 (also known as SMRT) regulate gene expression by activating histone deacetylase 3 through their deacetylase activation domain (DAD). We show that mice with DAD knock-in mutations have memory deficits, reduced anxiety levels, and reduced social interactions. Mice with NCOR1 and NORC2 depletion specifically in GABAergic neurons (NS-V mice) recapitulated the memory deficits and had reduced GABAA receptor subunit α2 (GABRA2) expression in lateral hypothalamus GABAergic (LHGABA) neurons. This was associated with LHGABA neuron hyperexcitability and impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation, through a monosynaptic LHGABA to CA3GABA projection. Optogenetic activation of this projection caused memory deficits, whereas targeted manipulation of LHGABA or CA3GABA neuron activity reversed memory deficits in NS-V mice. We describe de novo variants in NCOR1, NCOR2 or HDAC3 in patients with intellectual disability or neurodevelopmental disorders. These findings identify a hypothalamus-hippocampus projection that may link endocrine signals with synaptic plasticity through NCOR-mediated regulation of GABA signaling.


Assuntos
Região CA3 Hipocampal/metabolismo , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/genética , Memória/fisiologia , Correpressor 1 de Receptor Nuclear/genética , Correpressor 2 de Receptor Nuclear/genética , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Vias Neurais/metabolismo , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Correpressor 1 de Receptor Nuclear/metabolismo , Correpressor 2 de Receptor Nuclear/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo
18.
J Diabetes Investig ; 10(1): 124-130, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694704

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To investigate the correlation between snoring and chronic kidney disease (CKD), and explore whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) plays an important role in this relationship among middle-aged and elderly Chinese. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The participants included in the present study were categorized into three subgroups based on self-reported snoring frequency (regularly [≥3 times per week], occasionally [between 'regularly' and 'never'] or never [<1 time per month]). An estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was considered as CKD. We diagnosed MetS based on the 2004 Chinese Diabetes Society criteria. We explored the relationship between snoring and CKD by using multiple logistic regressions. RESULTS: The frequency of MetS, MetS components and CKD was dramatically higher in regular snorers than in non-snorers and occasional snorers. The odds ratios for MetS and all the MetS elements, except for hyperglycemia, increased progressively with the snoring frequency (P < 0.001). Upon additional adjustment for other MetS components, snoring was not significantly related with hypertension; however, the associations between snoring frequency and overweight/obesity and dyslipidemia became attenuated, but still remained statistically significant (P < 0.01). Interestingly, odds ratios for CKD also increasingly augmented with snoring frequency (P < 0.001). Upon further adjustment for individual MetS components or MetS, regular snoring also resulted in a significantly increased odds ratio for CKD (odds ratio 1.72; P = 0.034) relative to non-snoring. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported snoring is closely associated with CKD independent of MetS among middle-aged and elderly Chinese.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Ronco/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Autorrelato , Ronco/complicações
19.
Endocr J ; 66(2): 175-180, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568069

RESUMO

Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by hypercortisolemia. Cyclic Cushing's syndrome (CCS), which exhibits a periodic or irregular increasing pattern in cortisol, is a rare type of Cushing's syndrome. A 37-year-old man came to our hospital because of repeated dizzy spells, weakness and hypercortisolemia lasting two weeks. Endocrinological examinations indicated CCS with periodic and intermittent increases in cortisol. Enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed space occupying lesions on the upper lobe of left lung, and biopsy eventually proved that these were pulmonary carcinoid tumors with ectopic ACTH secretion, which was subsequently manifested a Cushing's syndrome. PET-CT, ultrasound and biopsy of the thyroid gland indicated bilateral thyroid papillary carcinoma. CT scan showed bilateral nodular hyperplasia of the adrenal gland. Enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed that the high signal disappeared on the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and that the pituitary stalk shifted left, which was suspected to be non-functional pituitary microadenoma. The patient underwent surgery involving resection of the left upper pulmonary lobe and the mediastinal lymph node around the hilus pulmonis, which resulted in complete remission of CCS. The patient then chose elective surgery for the thyroid papillary carcinoma. An analysis of the patient's genomic DNA identified a novel mutation in PDE11A: c.2032 (exon 12) G > A, which is associated with primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). This is a novel mutation which has been no previous public clinical report on this mutation as it relates to this disease.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Cushing/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/complicações , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/complicações , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Adulto , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 50(12): 2239-2244, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been found to be associated with an increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the relationship between insulin resistance (IR), which is believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of MetS, and CKD is still unclear in Chinese adults and needs further investigation. METHODS: This 3-year follow-up study included 3237 middle-aged and elderly Chinese without CKD at baseline. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 60-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 was defined as the mildly reduced eGFR; CKD was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. MetS was defined based on the China guideline for type 2 diabetes. IR was measured by the homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR). Incidences of mildly reduced eGFR and CKD from normal eGFR were calculated. The roles of MetS and IR in predicting the progression of CKD were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: The incidences of CKD and mildly reduced eGFR for the entire cohort were 20.08 and 33.28 per 1000 person-years, respectively. A large proportion [13.1% (182/1394)] of patients with mildly reduced eGFR progressed to CKD in 3 years. After accounting for age, gender, five components of MetS and HOMA-IR in multiple logistic regression model, only IR presented increased OR (1.119, 95% CI 1.052-1.189, p < 0.001) for CKD. When we included MetS instead of its five components in model, both MetS (OR 1.420, 95% CI 1.020-1.977, p = 0.038) and HOMA-IR (OR 1.118, 95% CI 1.055-1.186, p < 0.001) showed increased risk for CKD progression. CONCLUSIONS: Both IR and MetS accelerate the progression of CKD among Chinese adults. Single metabolic abnormality did not have enough potency to induce the occurrence of CKD in 3 years.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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