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1.
Leukemia ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635784

RESUMO

FZR1 has been implicated as a master regulator of the cell cycle and quiescence, but its roles and molecular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of severe aplastic anemia (SAA) are unclear. Here, we report that FZR1 is downregulated in SAA HSCs compared with healthy control and is associated with decreased quiescence of HSC. Haploinsufficiency of Fzr1 shows impaired quiescence and self-renewal ability of HSC in two Fzr1 heterozygous knockout mouse models. Mechanistically, FZR1 insufficiency inhibits the ubiquitination of RUNX1 protein at lysine 125, leading to the accumulation of RUNX1 protein, which disturbs the quiescence of HSCs in SAA patients. Moreover, downregulation of Runx1 reversed the loss of quiescence and impaired long-term self-renew ability in Fzr1+/- HSCs in vivo and impaired repopulation capacity in BM from SAA patients in vitro. Our findings, therefore, raise the possibility of a decisive role of the FZR1-RUNX1 pathway in the pathogenesis of SAA via deregulation of HSC quiescence.

2.
J Int Med Res ; 49(10): 3000605211049653, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605301

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical significance of serum S100 calcium-binding protein A10 (S100A10) levels in lung cancer. METHODS: This prospective study enrolled patients with lung cancer, patients with benign lung nodules and healthy control subjects. Serum S100A10 levels and three biomarkers were measured and compared between the groups. Associations between serum S100A10 and clinical characteristics in patients with lung cancer were investigated. The diagnostic efficacy of serum S100A10 and carcinoembryonic antigen for lung cancer was calculated. RESULTS: The study enrolled 82 patients with lung cancer, 21 with benign lung nodules and 50 healthy controls. Serum S100A10 levels were significantly higher in patients with lung cancer compared with patients with benign lung nodules and healthy control subjects. Serum S100A10 levels of patients with advanced lung cancer were significantly higher than those with early stage disease. Patients with lymph node metastases had significantly higher serum S100A10 levels than patients without lymph node metastases. The cut-off serum S100A10 value for lung cancer detection was 1.34 ng/ml, which had a sensitivity of 48.2%, a specificity of 76.2% and an area under the curve of 0.63. CONCLUSION: Serum S100A10 was significantly correlated with disease stage and lymph node metastasis. It has the potential to be a tumour biomarker for lung cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Metástase Linfática , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(5): 1623-1630, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of lysosomal-associated protein transmembrane-4 Beta(Laptm4b) deletion on hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) homeostasis in mice. METHODS: The hematopoietic system specific Laptm4b-deficient mice were constructed. The number and proportion of HSPCs (LSK, LT, ST, MPP, etc) in Laptm4b-deficient mice were analyzed by flow cytometry. Single SLAM-HSC cell was sorted by flow sorter and cultured in vitro to measure the effect of Laptm4b deletion on the colony forming ability of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The effect of Laptm4b-deficient on the reconstitution ability of HSCs in mice was detected by competitive transplantation experiment of SLAM-HSC cells. RESULTS: Laptm4b deficiency could moderately upregulate the proportion of T cells in the peripheral blood of the mice, but showed no significant effect on the proportion and number of HSPCs. Laptm4b deletion showed no effect on the reconstruction ability of HSCs after competitive transplantation, but it could inhibit the colony formation of HSCs in vitro. CONCLUSION: LAPTM4B may play a role in HSCs under the proliferation stress. Laptm4b-deficient in mice hematopoietic system showed no significant effect on the HSPCs homeostasis maintenance and reconstruction ability.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Fatores de Transcrição , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Citometria de Fluxo , Homeostase , Camundongos
4.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(10): 1175-9, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628754

RESUMO

To summarize the application value of acupuncture in perioperative stress response. Perioperative acupuncture can not only effectively relieve pain and stress response during operation, but also relieve psychological stress response represented by preoperative anxiety before operation, and regulate adaptive immune response after operation. Acupuncture, as a safe non-drug therapy, shows its core advantage of participating in the multidisciplinary intervention of enhance recovery after surgery (ERAS). The future studies need to explore and evaluate the role of acupuncture during perioperative period from multiple dimensions, and gradually reveal the mechanism of acupuncture while establishing the evidence-based basis for acupuncture during perioperative period.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Ansiedade , Humanos , Dor , Período Perioperatório
5.
Hematol Oncol ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664286

RESUMO

To provide a foundational guideline for policy-makers to efficiently allocate medical resources in the context of population aging and growth, the latest spatial distribution and temporal trend of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) along with attributable risk factors by sex and age were mapped. Based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) was calculated according to the relativity between age-standardized rate and calendar year, to quantify temporal trends in morbidity and mortality of ALL. We used applied Spearman rank correlation to estimate the relationship between the EAPC and potential influence factors. The population attributable fraction of potential risk factors for ALL-related disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were estimated by the comparative risk assessment framework. As a result, we found that new ALL cases increased significantly by 129% worldwide, and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) increased by 1.61% annually. The proportion of elder patients sharply increased, especially within the higher socio-demographic index (SDI) region. Smoking and high body mass index remained the predominant risk factors for ALL-related mortality. Notably, the contribution of high body mass index presented an increasing trend. In conclusion, the global burden of ALL has steadily increased, especially in Middle SDI region. Health measures and new drugs should be taken into consideration to improve the management and treatment of elders with ALL due to an increasing proportion in the higher SDI region. For Low SDI areas, attention should be paid to the environmental problems caused by industrial development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
Retina ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510128

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the presence and clinical relevance of hyperreflective foci (HRFs) in retinitis pigmentosa (RP). METHODS: Seventy-seven RP cases were retrospectively reviewed. The 10-mm wide cross-line macular scans in optical coherent tomography (OCT) were acquired. HRFs were classified according to the location in OCT: outer layers within the macula (HRF-outer-central), macular border beyond the central 3 mm (HRF-outer-perifoveal), and choroid (HRF-choroidal). Visual acuity at baseline, at 12 months, and other fundus characteristics were collected. Results: Mean LogMAR best-corrected visual acuity decreased from 0.59±0.66 (20/78 in Snellen) to 0.74±0.81 (20/106 in Snellen) in 1 year. Sixty-six (42.9%), 105 (68.2%), and 98 (63.6%) eyes were classified to HRF-outer-central, HRF-outer-perifoveal, and HRF-choroidal group, respectively. HRFs were positively correlated with poorer vision, central macular thinning, and ellipsoid zone disruption (all p<0.001). Worse vision was associated with older age, macular involvement, and the coexistence of two or three HRF groups (p=0.014, 0.047, 0.019, <0.001, respectively). HRFs developed more frequently in patients with thick choroid than in those with thin choroid. The coexistence of three HRF groups was correlated with quicker visual deterioration (p=0.034). CONCLUSION: HRFs are common in RP and can be a negative prognostic indicator of macular thickness and visual preservation. Thick choroid was associated with all groups of HRFs, especially HRF-choroidal.

8.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507351

RESUMO

Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoantibody-mediated hemorrhagic disorder where B cells play an essential role. Previous studies have focused on peripheral blood (PB), but B cells in bone marrow (BM) have not been well characterized. We aimed to explore the profile of B cell subsets and their cytokine environments in BM of ITP patients to further clarify the pathogenesis of the disease. B cell subpopulations and their cytokine/chemokine receptors were detected by flow cytometry. Plasma concentrations of cytokines/chemokines were measured by ELISA. mRNA levels of B cell-related transcription factors were determined by qPCR. Regulatory B cell (Breg) function was assessed by quantifying their inhibitory effects on monocytes and T cells in vitro. Decreased proportions of total B cells, naïve B cells and defective Bregs were observed in ITP patients compared with healthy controls (HCs), whereas elevated frequency of long-lived plasma cells was found in BM of autoantibody-positive patients. No statistical difference was observed in plasmablasts or in short-lived plasma cells between ITP patients and HCs. The immunosuppressive capacity of BM Bregs from ITP patients was considerably weaker than that from HCs. In vivo study using an active ITP murine model revealed that Breg transfusion could significantly alleviate thrombocytopenia. Moreover, over-activation of CXCL13-CXCR5 and BAFF/APRIL systems were found in ITP patient BM. Taken together, B cell subsets in BM were skewed toward a proinflammatory profile in ITP patients, suggesting the involvement of dysregulated BM B cells in the development of the disease.

9.
NPJ Parkinsons Dis ; 7(1): 83, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535682

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder with diverse clinical manifestations. To better understand this disease, research has been done to categorize, or subtype, patients, using an array of criteria derived from clinical assessments and biospecimen analyses. In this study, using data from the BioFIND cohort, we aimed at identifying subtypes of moderate-to-advanced PD via comprehensively considering motor and non-motor manifestations. A total of 103 patients were included for analysis. Through the use of a patient-wise similarity matrix fusion technique and hierarchical agglomerative clustering analysis, three unique subtypes emerged from the clustering results. Subtype I, comprised of 60 patients (~58.3%), was characterized by mild symptoms, both motor and non-motor. Subtype II, comprised of 20 (~19.4%) patients, was characterized by an intermediate severity, with a high tremor score and mild non-motor symptoms. Subtype III, comprised of 23 (~22.3%) patients, was characterized by more severe motor and non-motor symptoms. These subtypes show statistically significant differences when looking at motor (on and off medication) clinical features and non-motor clinical features, while there was no clear difference in demographics, biomarker levels, and genetic risk scores.

10.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 216, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is a hydrophilic bile acid derivative, which has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective effects in different neurological disease models. However, the effect and underlying mechanism of TUDCA on spinal cord injury (SCI) have not been fully elucidated. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of TUDCA in the SCI mouse model and the related mechanism involved. METHODS: The primary cortical neurons were isolated from E16.5 C57BL/6 mouse embryos. To evaluate the effect of TUDCA on axon degeneration induced by oxidative stress in vitro, the cortical neurons were treated with H2O2 with or without TUDCA added and immunostained with Tuj1. Mice were randomly divided into sham, SCI, and SCI+TUDCA groups. SCI model was induced using a pneumatic impact device at T9-T10 level of the vertebra. TUDCA (200 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline was intragastrically administrated daily post-injury for 14 days. RESULTS: We found that TUDCA attenuated axon degeneration induced by H2O2 treatment and protected primary cortical neurons from oxidative stress in vitro. In vivo, TUDCA treatment significantly reduced tissue injury, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and apoptosis and promoted axon regeneration and remyelination in the lesion site of the spinal cord of SCI mice. The functional recovery test revealed that TUDCA treatment significantly ameliorated the recovery of limb function. CONCLUSIONS: TUDCA treatment can alleviate secondary injury and promote functional recovery by reducing oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and apoptosis induced by primary injury, and promote axon regeneration and remyelination, which could be used as a potential therapy for human SCI recovery.

11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e26777, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477117

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Aim of the study was to determine the characteristics and prognosis, and to identify the risk factors for mortality in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) with interstitial lung disease (pSS-ILD).A total of 1422 patients with SS were screened and 178 patients with pSS-ILD were recruited. The medical records and outcomes were retrospectively reviewed. Overall survival and case control study were performed to explore the predictors of death.Among 178 pSS-ILD patients, 87.1% were women. Mean age was 61.59 ±â€Š11.69-year-old. Median disease duration was 72.0 (24.0, 156.0) months. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia was the predominant high-resolution computed tomography pattern (44.9%). Impairment in diffusion capacity was the most common abnormality of pulmonary function test (75.8%) and the most severe consequence. Type 1 respiratory failure and hypoxia were observed in 15.0% and 30.0% patients, respectively. Mean survival time after confirmation of pSS-ILD diagnosis was 9.0 (6.8, 13.0) years. The 10-year survival rate for all patients with pSS-ILD was 81.7%. Forty-four (24.7%) of 178 patients died during the follow-up period. The most predominant cause of death was respiratory failure (n = 27). Twenty-seven patients died of ILD and formed study group. The 78 patients who survived formed control group. Age and smoking were risk factors for mortality in patients with pSS-ILD. In addition, severity of ILD, as reflected by high-resolution computed tomography, pulmonary function test, and arterial blood gas, was an independent risk factor. However, inflammation status (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein) and anti-Sjögren syndrome-related antigen A and anti-Sjögren syndrome-related antigen B were not.ILD is a severe complication of pSS. Age, smoking, and severity of lung involvement are more critical for prognosis rather than inflammation status and autoantibodies.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/classificação , Síndrome de Sjogren/mortalidade , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome de Sjogren/classificação , Síndrome de Sjogren/epidemiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
12.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579096

RESUMO

Cranberry is a dietary supplement popularly used for the prophylaxis of urinary tract infection. Interestingly, cranberry-warfarin interactions in clinical reports have shown bidirectional outcomes. (±) Warfarin, a widely prescribed anticoagulant, but with a narrow therapeutic index, contains equal amounts of S- and R-warfarin, of which S-warfarin is more active. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different ingestion times of cranberry on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin. Rats were orally administered (±) warfarin (0.2 mg/kg) with and without cranberry (5.0 g/kg) at 0.5 h prior to the warfarin, and at 10 h after the warfarin. The plasma concentrations of S- and R-warfarin were determined by LC/MS. The results indicate that cranberry ingested at 0.5 h before (±) warfarin significantly decreased the systemic exposures of S-warfarin and R-warfarin. Conversely, when cranberry was ingested at 10 h after (±) warfarin, the elimination of S-warfarin was significantly inhibited, and the anticoagulation effect of (±) warfarin was significantly enhanced. The results of the mechanism studies indicate that cranberry activated the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), which mediated the efflux transports of S-warfarin and R-warfarin. Moreover, the metabolites of cranberry inhibited cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9, the main metabolizing enzyme for S-warfarin. In conclusion, cranberry affected the pharmacokinetics of (±) warfarin in a bidirectional manner by activating the BCRP by CJ during absorption and inhibiting the BCRP and CYP2C9 by CMs during elimination, depending on the ingestion time of CJ. The combined use of cranberry with warfarin should be avoided.

13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 191: 584-590, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582905

RESUMO

The specification of the local structure and clarification of interfacial interactions of biomass composites is of tremendous significance in synthesizing novel materials and advancing their performance in various demanding applications. However, it remains challenging due to the limitations of experimental techniques, particularly for the manner that biomass composites commonly have hydrogen bonds involved in the vicinity of active sites and interfaces. Herein, the cellulose/Mg(OH)2 nanocomposite has been synthesized via a simple hydrothermal approach and examined by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The composite exhibits a layered morphology; Mg(OH)2 flakes are around 50 nm in size and well-dispersed. They either anchor onto the cellulose surface or intercalate between layers. The specific composite structure was confirmed theoretically, in line with XRD, SEM and TEM observations. The interfacial interactions were found to be hydrogen bonding. The average adsorption energy per hydroxyl group was computed to be within -0.47 and -0.26 eV for a composite model comprising three cellulose chains and a two-layered Mg(OH)2 cluster. The combined computational/experimental results allow to postulate the antibacterial mechanism of the nanocomposite.

14.
Int J Pharm ; 608: 121083, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536524

RESUMO

Calcium supplementation is effective in alleviating the process of osteoporosis and the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures for people with long-term calcium deficiency. Herein, five water-stable calcium carboxylate compounds, that is, mononuclear coordination compound [Ca(Cbdcp)(H2O)6]·0.5H2O (1, H3CbdcpBr = N-(4-carboxybenzyl)-(3,5-dicarboxyl)pyridinium bromide), and metal organic frameworks (MOFs) {[Ca3(Dcbdcp)2(H2O)12]·2H2O}n (2, H4DcbdcpBr = N-(3,5-dicarboxybenzyl)-(3,5-dicarboxyl)pyridinium bromide), {[Ca(Cmdcp)(H2O)4]·3H2O}n (3, H3CmdcpBr = N-carboxymethyl-(3,5-dicarboxyl)pyridinium bromide), {[Ca(Cdcbp)]·2H2O}n (4, H3CdcbpBr = 3-carboxyl-(3,5-dicarboxybenzyl)-pyridinium bromide) and {[Ca0.5(Cmcp)]·2H2O}n (5, H2CmcpBr = N-carboxymethyl-(3-carboxyl)pyridinium bromide), were synthesized from the reaction of CaCl2 with five different kinds of zwitterionic carboxylate ligands in the presence of NaOH, respectively. Compounds 1-5 were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, elemental analyses, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Compound 1 features a mononuclear structure and MOF 2 with a one-dimensional (1D) structure while MOFs 3 and 5 with 2D layer structures and MOF 4 showing a 3D structure. Compounds 1-5 exhibited good water stability and possessed considerable biocompatibility with primary mice osteoblasts. The in vitro ability of compounds 1-5 in regulating osteoblastic differentiation was studied via alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, alizarin red S (ARS) staining, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Among these 5 compounds, MOF 4 showed the overall best in vitro osteogenic effects. Then, we administrated MOF 4 intragastrically to bilaterally ovariectomized mice for 8 weeks and found that bone loss caused by ovariectomy (OVX) was significantly alleviated. Besides, MOF 4 administration showed no toxic effects in the main organs of the mice. Altogether, zwitterionic carboxylate ligands-based calcium compounds provide a new strategy for calcium agents development.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Osteoporose , Animais , Cálcio , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Camundongos
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112597, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365213

RESUMO

Quercetin is reported to be beneficial to or pose hazards to the health of animals, the inconsistence remains to be recognized and debated. This work was conducted to understand the neuroprotective or neurotoxic properties of quercetin, and investigate the different action mechanisms between low- and high-level quercetin. Therefore, we evaluated brain oxidative stress and monoamine neurotransmitters in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) after exposure to 1 and 1000 µg/L quercetin. In addition, the brain transcriptional profiles were analyzed to identify genes and pathways that were differentially regulated in the brains. The results of oxidative stress and neurotransmitters suggest that low-level quercetin might be beneficial to nervous system, while high-level quercetin might exert detrimental effects. Furthermore, transcriptional profiles also suggested different toxic mechanisms occurred between low- and high-level quercetin. At 1 µg/L quercetin, enrichment analysis of differently expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that the fanconi anemia pathway might be an important mechanism in neuroprotective effects. At 1000 µg/L quercetin, the up-regulated DEGs were enriched in many Gene Ontology (GO) terms related to neuronal synapses, indicating potential neuroprotective effects; however, enrichment of up-regulated DEGs in GO terms of response to stimulus and the MAPK signaling pathway was also found, which indicated increases of stress. Notably, at 1000 µg/L quercetin, the down-regulated DEGs were enriched in several GO terms related to the proteostasis and the proteasome pathway, indicating impairment of proteasome functions which was involved in neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, several hub genes involved in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases were identified by Protein-protein interaction analysis at 1000 µg/L quercetin. Thus, high-level quercetin might pose potential risk inducing neurodegenerative diseases, which should receive more attention in the future. Additionally, our findings may provide awareness to society and researchers about toxicity possibilities of phytochemicals on wildlife and human.


Assuntos
Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Encéfalo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Quercetina/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética
16.
Br J Haematol ; 194(6): 1045-1052, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337736

RESUMO

Exosomes are released into extracellular fluids and have emerged as vital biological mediators in autoimmune diseases. Plasma-derived exosomes have been reported to take part in the pathogenesis of primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), but the protein and miRNA cargoes have not been entirely elucidated. Via proteomic analysis and RNA sequencing on plasma-derived exosomes from ITP patients and healthy controls, we found one upregulated exosomal protein (apolipoprotein E, ApoE), six downregulated exosomal miRNAs (miR-584-5p, miR-4433a-5p, miR-4433b-3p, miR-6842-3p, miR-130b-5p and miR-222-3p), and 10 upregulated exosomal miRNAs (miR-29a-3p, miR-142-5p, miR-16-2-3p, miR-29b-3p, miR-501-3p, miR-144-5p, miR-192-5p, miR-182-5p, miR-363-3p and miR-96-5p) in ITP patients. The elevated exosomal protein candidate ApoE in the ITP cohort was further validated using western blot. Via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays, three differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-584-5p, miR-142-5p and miR-29b-3p) were identified. This study provides direct evidence for a restricted signature of exosomal protein and miRNAs which distinguishes ITP from healthy controls. The results require further validation in larger independent ITP cohorts, which will provide insights into the potential pathophysiological significance of circulating exosomes in ITP.

17.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440435

RESUMO

Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA), one of the most severe inherited retinal dystrophies, is typically associated with extremely early onset of visual loss, nystagmus, and amaurotic pupils, and is responsible for 20% of childhood blindness. With advances in molecular diagnostic technology, the knowledge about the genetic background of LCA has expanded widely, while disease-causing variants have been identified in 38 genes. Different pathogenetic mechanisms have been found among these varieties of genetic mutations, all of which result in the dysfunction or absence of their encoded proteins participating in the visual cycle. Hence, the clinical phenotypes also exhibit extensive heterogenicity, including the course of visual impairment, involvement of the macular area, alteration in retinal structure, and residual function of the diseased photoreceptor. By reviewing the clinical course, fundoscopic images, optical coherent tomography examination, and electroretinogram, genotype-phenotype correlations could be established for common genetic mutations in LCA, which would benefit the timing of the diagnosis and thus promote early intervention. Gene therapy is promising in the management of LCA, while several clinical trials are ongoing and preliminary success has been announced, focusing on RPE65 and other common disease-causing genes. This review provides an update on the genetics, clinical examination findings, and genotype-phenotype correlations in the most well-established causative genetic mutations of LCA.

18.
Nanomicro Lett ; 13(1): 177, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403020

RESUMO

Passivation, as a classical surface treatment technique, has been widely accepted in start-of-the-art perovskite solar cells (PSCs) that can effectively modulate the electronic and chemical property of defective perovskite surface. The discovery of inorganic passivation compounds, such as oxysalts, has largely advanced the efficiency and lifetime of PSCs on account of its favorable electrical property and remarkable inherent stability, but a lack of deep understanding of how its local configuration affects the passivation effectiveness is a huge impediment for future interfacial molecular engineering. Here, we demonstrate the central-atom-dependent-passivation of oxysalt on perovskite surface, in which the central atoms of oxyacid anions dominate the interfacial oxygen-bridge strength. We revealed that the balance of local interactions between the central atoms of oxyacid anions (e.g., N, C, S, P, Si) and the metal cations on perovskite surface (e.g., Pb) generally determines the bond formation at oxysalt/perovskite interface, which can be understood by the bond order conservation principle. Silicate with less electronegative Si central atoms provides strong O-Pb motif and improved passivation effect, delivering a champion efficiency of 17.26% for CsPbI2Br solar cells. Our strategy is also universally effective in improving the device performance of several commonly used perovskite compositions.

19.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(7): 620-4, 2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369685

RESUMO

As an unpleasant subjective feeling and emotional experience, pain has a negative impact on the physical and mental health of patients. In the early years, the research concerning pain mostly focused on the sensory-discriminative component. With the development of modern medicine, people found that the generation of affective-emotional component of pain has its unique physiological mechanism, and thus carried out a lot of in-depth research. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the main brain area activated by affective pain, and the regulation of acupuncture on pain aversion is mainly related to it. The mechanism includes various signal pathways, such as extracellular regulated protein kinases-mitogen activated protein kinase-cAMP-response element binding protein pathway, adenylate cyclase 1 protein kinase Mζ- glutamate receptor 1 pathway, contains many biomolecules, such as opioid receptors, neuropeptide S and its receptor, and refers to microglia at the cellular level. This article reviewed the neural mechanism of ACC involved in affective pain and the role of acupuncture played in this process.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Giro do Cíngulo , Afeto , Humanos , Dor/genética , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Exp Hematol ; 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464661

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are immature blood cells that exhibit multilineage differentiation capacity. Homeostasis is critical for HSC potential and lifelong hematopoiesis, and HSC homeostasis is tightly governed by both intrinsic molecular networks and microenvironmental signals. The evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB, also referred to as Akt)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is universal to nearly all multicellular organisms and plays an integral role in most cellular processes. Emerging evidence has revealed a central role of the Akt-mTOR network in HSC homeostasis, because it responds to multiple intracellular and extracellular signals and regulates various downstream targets, eventually affecting several cellular processes, including the cell cycle, mitochondrial metabolism, and protein synthesis. Dysregulated Akt-mTOR signaling greatly affects HSC self-renewal, maintenance, differentiation, survival, autophagy, and aging, as well as transformation of HSCs to leukemia stem cells. Here, we review recent works and provide an advanced understanding of how the Akt-mTOR network regulates HSC homeostasis, thus offering insights into future clinical applications.

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